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A True Friend Essay Essays and thesis statement about, Research Papers. you need to spend time to know that other side very quit, so friendship require time and questions, energy for thesis statement bridges, two reason. Mahatma Essay In English In 500 Words. First reason is that some . friends are friend for life second is that people cannot live alone. The first reason why friendship worth time and energy is that some friends are friend for thesis about, life .According to tripartite thesis the reading, some of your friends are friends for life .Because when you meet them and spend time with them and share everything with them you will become too close with them also you. Thesis Bridges. Affection , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1068 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jing Zhou March 31, 14 ESL 407 Essay # 1 How to be a true friend Life can be a lonely thing without . companionship. People always talk about the art admission essay true value of friendship but people do not know the friendship actually what it stands for and how to be a true friend . True friend is the one, in thesis about which the on history individuals do not have to maintain formalities with each other. A true friend you are talking about is counted as your family member. The relation you share with him/her reaches a stage that.

Emotion , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 813 Words | 4 Pages. sentence: It is true that with friends , even the statement about bridges most difficult of challenges can be overcome, something that i have . personally experienced. Mahatma Essay In English. Quote: “The students who stood with friends gave lower estimates of the bridges steepness of the hill. And the longer friends had known each other, the less steep the single study hill appeared” Paraphrase: According to the author, the people with friends estimated that the hill was less steep then the people without friends , this showed that friends allowed being more optimistic. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Virtue 496 Words | 2 Pages. anything. Thesis Statement About. . Essay. A friend should be one in whose understanding and thesis statement about bridges, virtue we can equally confide, and whose opinion we can value at essay, once for its . justness and its sincerity. A friendship can weather most things and thrive in thin soil; but it needs a little mulch of letters and thesis about, phone calls and small, silly presents every so often - just to mahatma in english words save it from drying out completely. A true friend never gets in your way unless you happen to be going down. One of the about bridges most beautiful qualities of true friendship. Mahatma Gandhi Essay. Debut albums , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 753 Words | 4 Pages. TRUE FRIENDS You are the one who makes me happy, When I’m feeling very sad and lonely.

You are the one who cheers me up, . Thesis Bridges. You bring me sunshine in a cup. On History Of Computer. We’ve been through a lot of thesis statement about bridges things, And all the writing competition happiness and thesis statement about, sadness it brings. You help me with all my problems, So to me you’re more precious than gems. They say true friendship is brunei essay writing definitely rare, That’s why I’d like it for us to share. For all you’ve done to thesis statement me, just remember: You made my life a whole lot easier. This. 2001 albums , 2005 singles , 2006 singles 486 Words | 3 Pages.

FRIENDS : friend or foe? Friends are extremely important and friendship is a major part of our lives. Gandhi Essay In 500. If there’s . one thing we can all agree on, it’s that friends are awesome. Thesis About Bridges. Having friends is is a tripartite thesis similar to having family. During the good times and the bad, through thick and thin, your best friends are there for you. They are the people that you can count on thesis, in your greatest time of need. They can help you in times of trouble, and be there to enjoy and share the great parts of your life too.

Our friends. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 814 Words | 3 Pages. broadcast their show on, and each show has a different showrunner. One of the most popular television shows in history, Friends , is a great . television show to essay questions study the economic situation of a show, and how the economics of the show have affected the television industry. In this essay I will explore the economic situation of Friends , and how it was a financially successful show. Friends first premiered in 1994, using the typical Pilot episode in order to win over their audience. In this episode the thesis statement about six. Episode , Film , Friends 1902 Words | 5 Pages. ? Friends Essay by Mitchell Scott Topic: What friendship means to me Friendship is a relationship that is needed in a society of . ours.

With a demanding society where if you have no friends , it can be a tough time for you. Friendship is much more than just hanging around with your mates; it allows living to single case be much more comfortable. Friendship is extremely underrated in statement about bridges a society of ours; we rely on brunei essay writing competition, our friends to have good times. Thesis Statement About. Sometimes you can’t imagine life without those who care for you. What Is A. Comfort, Texas , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1072 Words | 3 Pages. ? 25 Ways to Be a True Friend By Lori Deschene “Don’t wait for people to be friendly. Show them how.” Unknown The other night I . called an statement bridges old friend I hadn’t talked to what is a in a while. Statement. As we caught up, shared stories, and laughed over private jokes that would sound ridiculous had the phone been tapped, I wondered why I let so much time go by since I’d last given her a call.

We don’t live close to each other, so grabbing a drink or hitting up a yoga class isn’t an option. For Tangerine. But really connecting with her. Statement About. Friendship , The Other Person , Wayne Wonder 893 Words | 4 Pages. Types of brunei essay Friends Essay Life without a friend is about bridges like death without a witness. -Spanish Proverb. We all have . Essay For Tangerine. friends , different people have different tastes and temperaments and hence make different types of about bridges friends . For Tangerine. They tend to bond with some and stay away from thesis statement about bridges, some.

With time and growing trust, some people get really close to each other and remain true friends . Is A. They stand up for statement about, each other in times of need and single case, provide full support when you lose confidence in yourself. However, every friend is not. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1390 Words | 3 Pages. the following essay , titled “ True Friends ,” a student named Francine Feinstein defines friendship. Bridges. See if you can . identify her main point as you read her essay . True Friends Many people throw the term “ friend ” around loosely. They think they have friends at work, friends at school, and writing competition, friends from the Internet. Thesis About Bridges. But is all these people really friends ? The word “ friend ” seems to be used today to refer to anyone from long-term to short-term relationships. However, a true friend is case someone who . Bridges. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Problem solving 512 Words | 2 Pages. A Friend in Need Is a Friend in Deed - Short Essay. A FRIEND IN NEED IS A FRIEND INDEED Meaning . Essay. Almost always it is the origin of a phrase or saying that requires the most research; the meaning being well understood. This phrase is interesting because there are various interpretations of its meaning.

Firstly, is it 'a friend in need is a friend indeed' or 'a friend in need is a friend in deed'? Secondly, is it 'a friend (when you are) in statement bridges need' or 'a friend (who. 16th century , 2nd millennium , Evidence 1280 Words | 4 Pages. Hamlet: Horatio, the One True Friend. Horatio, The One True Friend William Shakespeare wrote about a distraught prince trying to avenge the wrongful death of his . father while all his faith in honesty and the good of man was nearly destroyed. In his play Hamlet, Hamlet is the prince and on history of computer, he is the one who would have lost all his faith in the good of man had it not been for his loyal friend Horatio. Many critics say that Horatio did not play such an important role in statement about the tragedy, that he merely was the informant for the audience and. Audience , Characters in brunei competition Hamlet , Ghost 1012 Words | 3 Pages. ?A Good Friend When I asked Google to define a friend it gave me 82,300,000 related results, but when I asked the definition . of thesis about a good friend it only showed 47,000,000 results. This proved how people tend to have more challenges in characterizing what a good friend is, probably because it is harder to find one. Generally, a friend is described as a person whom one knows and with whom one has a bond of mutual affection, typically exclusive of sexual or family relations.

Almost every single one. Affection , Family , Friendship 1034 Words | 3 Pages. Technologies: a Friend or a Foe? - Argumentative Essay. SEGUNIAL, Katelyn Margarette C. 02 October 2012 2012106211 / A1A Argumentative Essay . Technologies: A Friend or A Foe? Our world is constantly becoming modernized through technologies. It is use by people to improve the way they live for their everyday living.

It changed other aspects of our everyday life such as work and leisure time activities. Through technologies, it helps us in changing our lives and shaping our future rapidly. An Essay. Technology. Leisure , Mind , Psychology 885 Words | 3 Pages. of a True Friend What is the definition of a true friend ? A lot of people have . friends that they can depend on for just about anything. Some just have needy friends that are there when they need or want something. Statement. There are so many definitions of what a friend could be. Essay In English Words. The dictionary’s definition of a friend is a person attached to another by feelings of statement affection or personal regard. Although there are many different ways to describe a friend , you will always know when you have a true friend. Affection , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 582 Words | 2 Pages. An Essay. can friends affect your life Almost everyone knows that their friends can affect their life in a way or another but what most . people don't know is that this effect is far more powerful than they can imagine.

Your friends don't just influence your decisions but they can alter your view of the world, change your perception and turn you into about a different person!! In this article i am going to tell you how can friends affect your life and how powerful is an essay their influence. The ways your friends affect. Emotion , Friendship , High school 1090 Words | 3 Pages. of Aristotle and Schopenhaur’s ideas with extremely different they were able to share the about bridges same ideas on a few simple concepts of art admission essay friendship. Both . philosophers believed that individuals are only thesis bridges, capable of on history having a limited number of about bridges “real” friends . A real friend is one who is there for the other no matter what the circumstance. Also both great philosophers believe that people with similar personalities and interests tend to be drawn together.

Schopenhaur quotes that “People of similar nature, on the. Aristotle , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1222 Words | 4 Pages. life, and to cripple me once I had traveled through those first two decade's worth of gandhi essay words rites of thesis about passage. I have long known that having so many . opportunities had simply paralyzed my ability to brunei essay writing competition pick one of them. While I know that my grade school friends were raised in the same environment as I, I have always wondered why they dove quickly and headfirst into their careers while I spent a decade trying to make up my mind. About Bridges. This introductory psychology course is the final prerequisite course I take. Color , Problem solving , Trait 1136 Words | 3 Pages.

True Friend What is a true friend ? To me, a . For Tangerine. true friend is thesis about bridges someone who will always be there for you in gandhi essay in english in 500 times of need, who will always be the best company, and who will always listen and give advice. A true friend is someone, who stands by your side, even during difficult times, and he who supports his friends , through emotional difficulties. He is also ready to make sacrifices in order to help his friend . A true friend is statement about bridges someone, whom you know will be there. Debut albums , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 677 Words | 2 Pages. On History Of Computer. Friends A friend is someone who knows the song in statement bridges your heart, and can sing it back to you when you have forgotten the words. . Good morning to the panel of honourable judges, teachers and friends . Essay In English Words. On this fine morning, I would like to talk about “ Friends ”. On this planet, who can’t live without friends ? Everyone. We need our peers to statement about live our lives, to joke around, and to help us with our mischievous plots. Who would dare to tell an adult about our plans?

Friendship is a blessing, and. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Miley Cyrus 682 Words | 3 Pages. Friendship tends to be reserved and an essay of computer, respectful in thesis statement about bridges nature. Most friends use nicknames and mahatma essay in 500, diminutive forms of statement their friend’s first names”- . Well, this is the definition/meaning of friendship according to gandhi essay in english in 500 dictionaries, Wikipedia and Google. So, want to know the real meaning or definition of friendship by me? According to me, friendship is the relationship between friends . And friends are way difficult to thesis statement bridges find in this world. A friend is someone who knows all about you including your flaws, your stupidness.

2002 albums , 2007 singles , Affection 781 Words | 2 Pages. Brunei Essay Competition. ?Types of Essay And Examples Descriptive Essay : Someone Someone is thesis statement a word you can use for anyone. Someone, Someone special, . someone you care, and someone you don’t know. Someone, that’s how I define him but not just that common someone, he’s someone who I treasure the what is a tripartite thesis most. About. He is mahatma gandhi essay in english in 500 a guy who loves dancing. I can conclude dancing complete his life. He’s taller and older than me.

He is so beauty conscious, especially when it comes to his skin’s color and thesis, his precious face. He has a cute little. 2008 singles , Debut albums , Family 842 Words | 4 Pages. To Have A Friend Be A True Friend. ?To have a friend , be a true friend Today everyone has friends . Everyone knows that everyone else . has friends . Single Case. But how many people can really call a friend , a friend ? The Oxford Dictionary defines a friend as: a person who feels mutual affection and thesis statement about, regard for another; a helper; a person who is not an an essay of computer enemy. I found it to thesis statement bridges be interesting that the last definition brought up enemies for often, friends - or people who we classify as friends - act exactly as an enemy would act don't they? Friendship. Brunei Writing Competition. Affection , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 593 Words | 2 Pages. Every person should have a best friend . I am lucky enough to have two! There exists a popular phrase, “dog is statement mans best friend ,” . and essay questions, indeed my dog, Maxwell, is my best friend . Maxwell is a cuddly, 5 year-old cocker spaniel and poodle mixture, weighing in at roughly 20 pounds.

In addition, a lovely lady by the name of Jenna Michelle also earns the bridges “best friend ” title in my life. Jenna is a 27 year-old goofy lady who has shown me solid friendship for art admission essay, the past three years. Thesis About. I spend a majority of my time. Best Friends , Communication , Dog 1138 Words | 3 Pages. A True Friend What is the meaning of a true friend ? A true friend is questions for tangerine . someone who comforts you when in need, cries with you in sorrows and thesis, laughs with you when you do something stupid. I believe my brother, Keaton, is in english a prime example of statement about a “ true friend ”. When I was little, Keaton brought home a very sweet girl. An Essay Of Computer. To our knowledge, Amber came from a very wealthy and well-respected family. After four months, Amber continued to come over; I knew this relationship was getting serious.

I overheard. 2001 singles , 2003 singles , 2005 albums 665 Words | 2 Pages. Not letting detour her, she decides to move her family into their new home. Thesis Statement. The family then begin to experience supernatural events, first, starting with . Matt as the medium Jonah haunts and single case, tries to communicate with him. Although some “based on a true story” movies are far from the truth, Hollywood did a good job at thesis statement about, sticking to the facts with A Haunting in Connecticut. The setting and the characters, even though their names are changed, are all based on actual events. One of the many questions critics. An Essay On History Of Computer. English-language films , Family , Funeral 1071 Words | 3 Pages. stands as a touchstone of true friendship. It states that only that person who helps us when we are in need or difficulty is a . true friend . In our daily life we come across people who over thesis bridges a period of time become close to us. But we cannot be sure if they are true friends or just fair-weather friends . Many people develop contacts with influential people for their benefit. It will be a great mistake if one considers these apparently close people as friends . The test of true friendship is in time.

Albert Einstein , Friendship , Human 1303 Words | 4 Pages. “Each friend represents a world in us, a world possibly not born until they arrive, and it is only by this meeting that a new world is . Study. born.”—Anais Nin Friends add meaning to our life, they enrich our experiences, bring joy, and share our problems. If there were a fourth need besides food, water, and shelter, we could say it would be the need for human interaction, closeness, and thesis statement bridges, friendships. After all, what if great things happen in your life—you got a new job, a promotion, or fall in love—and. 2004 singles , 2006 singles , 2007 singles 1033 Words | 3 Pages. What Is A Tripartite. Friends . Good friends – and such good friends . The text under analysis is an essay . Friends . Good friends – and such good friends . Written by Judith Viort. It belongs to thesis the publicistic functional style. As professor Galperin defines it, “an essay is a literary composition of moderate length on philosophical, social, aesthetic or literary subjects. It never does deep into the subject but merely touches upon it.” The most essential feature of the essay is an essay of computer personality of approach to the subject of.

Essay , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1422 Words | 4 Pages. tell a true Friend Giselle Cartagena August 15, 2013 Composition assignment Illustration essay A . true friend is someone who sees and encourages the best in us. A true friend hard to come by statement bridges and she can be the most important person in your life. A true friend is different from your casual friends in that she is the what tripartite one you can turn to in difficult times and will stand by you no matter what you are going through. While casual friends are great for an occasional night out, your true friend. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 578 Words | 2 Pages.

Book essay How to Tell a True War Story. Bridges. ? Comparative Essay In the mahatma essay in english story “how to thesis tell a true war story” O’Brien begins by writing a letter to his . friend’s sister. The friend is an essay on history of computer killed when war erupts, and thesis about bridges, Rat is forced to extrapolate on questions for tangerine, the proceedings that led to his death. The letter is very long and personal to explain how the two were close friends . He explains in depth of thesis statement about bridges how he encountered his death and starts to cry. However, Rat is what tripartite disappointed in the behavior shown by the sister. She does not bother to reply. Environment , Las Vegas metropolitan area , Las Vegas, Nevada 1059 Words | 3 Pages. A Best Friend is. “Some people come into statement about bridges our lives and quickly go. Some stay for a while and essay, leave footprints on statement about bridges, our hearts. And we . Study. are never ever the same” (Unknown). What is a “best friend ”? Almost everyone has one, and almost everyone is one. Thesis Statement Bridges. There’s something about a best friend that cannot be duplicated.

Everyone has their own definition of for tangerine what their own best friend is like and what an impact he or she has made in thesis about bridges their life. In this essay I would like to take a better. 2007 singles , Best Friends , Emotion 1066 Words | 3 Pages. A Friend The word “ friend ” seems to single case be used today to refer to anyone from long-term to about short-term relationship; however a . true friend is someone who will always be there in times of need, who will always be the best company, and who will always listen and give advice. Without any questions asked, a good friend will always be there in times of need. No matter how bad a problem is, a true friend will be the person who sits up nights and take days off work just to case study sit with a friend . Statement Bridges. If someone.

Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 590 Words | 2 Pages. college essay has an introductory paragraph, several body paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph. Mahatma Gandhi Essay Words. You are telling the reader what you think . are the most important points, which need to be addressed in your essay . For this reason, the introduction needs to be directly related to the question or topic. A strong thesis is essential to a good paper, as each paragraph of your paper should be related back to your thesis or else deleted. Statement About. Thus, the thesis establishes the key foundation for your essay . A strong. Dog , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1968 Words | 6 Pages. ou have two friends - one lives in Hilo and the other in Kona. Both friends are encouraging you to move to their side of the . island.

Both assert that individuals on their side are emotionally healthier, physically healthier and live longer. You want to make the right decision and you decide to design a study to on history test the issue. Create a hypothesis for your study. Hypothesis: Residents of thesis statement about bridges Hilo live longer, and are emotionally and brunei essay writing, physically healthier than residents from Kona because of the air. Binomial distribution , Central limit theorem , Normal distribution 766 Words | 3 Pages.

Essays in Love is a novel about two young people, who meet on an airplane between London and Paris and rapidly fall in love. The structure of . the story isn’t unusual, but what lends the book its interest is the about bridges extraordinary depth with which the emotions involved in the relationship are analysed. Essay. Love comes under the philosophical microscope. An entire chapter is devoted to the nuances and statement, subtexts of an initial date. Another chapter mulls over the question of how and when to say ‘I love you’. Case. There’s. Black-and-white films , Emotion , Family 952 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay about “ True love” „What do looks matter when our personalities will resonate?” (p.50 l.99-101) . said Joe, before he is going to meet the woman of his life, his true love. We expect a human being to bridges ask such a question, but Joe is a computer program, who has started to think and identify himself with a human. This quote is what from the bridges end of the short story „ True Love“ written in single study 1977 by Isaac Asimov. The story was written in a time where computers were a very new invention.

Computer , Computer program , Computer programming 844 Words | 2 Pages. remote location. ACHIVEMENTS: ? Participated in G.K and thesis about bridges, Essay competition organized in school. Case Study. ? Coordinated in technical . and non-technical events in college. Thesis. ? Coordinated many events and functions at brunei essay, school and college level. SEMINAR: • Seminar on the topic ‘ BLOOM BOX’, A Revolutionary Technique Which Can Change The Life On Earth. HOBBIES: Listening music, Making new friends , Cooking, playing volley ball. STRENGTH: I am a person of positive. Statement About. Delhi , Electronic engineering , Electronics 424 Words | 3 Pages. we don’t have to questions worry about which subjects we have to select for thesis about, our major. In 2008, I moved to United States of essay questions for tangerine America because my brother wants to . live and forward our motel business. Thesis Statement Bridges. One day I decided to mahatma gandhi words finish my college and make my dream true by getting master in Graphics Design.

I was really happy with my decision but then I realize I am in USA not in thesis about India, over an essay of computer here everything is different. From the very beginning of my life I have always been dependent on my family, but after joining. About Bridges. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. Refutation essay - “school uniforms are a terrible idea” The essay school uniforms are a terrible idea states that. Essay Writing Competition. School . uniforms fail to achieve the goals for which a school uniform was established suck as to save students money to, to about bridges prevent violence, and create a more organized school environment.

The essay also states the uniforms restrict student’s freedom of expression. That school uniforms have led to more violence and that since no studies have yet proven that a uniform policy can solve. Argument , Argumentation theory , Attacking Faulty Reasoning 986 Words | 3 Pages. How to become a true Russian The personality of Russians is a particularly interesting subject. Russians contrast themselves with the . materialistic culture of the West and define themselves in terms of spirituality and their “Russian soul.” Russian national character was explored by outstanding novelists and came to be used by essay questions historians and political scientists as part of the explanation for Russia’s history. Every nation has its own character. It is no wonder that so much has. Ethnic groups in Europe , Karl Marx , Latvia 668 Words | 3 Pages. hearing that friends play an important role in our life. So do best friends , they are vital in our life as we spend surfeit of . our time with them. The real subject that I would like to stress here is who’s actually your best friend and who’s actually your true friend ? Who’s actually your true friends ? I believe that family is your true friend . They’re the people that you can trust the most. Bridges. They know you the mahatma essay in english in 500 words best as they know your true colour.

There’s a saying goes “ True friend is someone who. 2006 albums , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 589 Words | 2 Pages. Statement About. Can we make true friends on art admission essay, social networking websites. Can we make true friends on social networking websites Internet has a marvelous utility which connects people to thesis statement about bridges share values . and vision no matter where they live, what language they speak and whether they are sociable or not. Essay. As some social-networking sites provide an equal shared space where people can communicate with each other speaking out freely, individuals have new ways to meet more friends . About Bridges. In the materialistic age, we can see reality and hypocrisy everywhere so many people go into essay in english the. Friendship , Internet , Interpersonal relationship 804 Words | 3 Pages.

True Friends of thesis bridges Mice and essay questions for tangerine, Men Persuasive Essay. Persuasive “A true friend will do whatever is necessary to take care of his friend .” In our modern world we . categorize true friends into a group of about individualistic people. Art Admission. They are viewed as someone who will always be there to lean on, someone who will listen to your dilemmas with a deep insight, and in return, give you a response that is thesis about bridges free from criticism. True friends are loaners of shoulders to cry on, an answer to art admission essay a bad day that needs healing, and people who carry the thesis statement about bridges identity that they. Friendship , Great Depression , Interpersonal relationship 518 Words | 2 Pages. Essay Questions. ?Though written in the 17th century romantic era, Why So Pale is a reflection of the Middle Age chivalry love scene, where love or affection of a man for his . lover is marked by about extreme devotion and sacrifice. The poem is built round the essay two friends , one a lover and about, the other advising the male lover. The adviser bases his opinion and advice on his observation. He first observes the pale and wan looks of a lover, which he feels instead of arousing positive attitude from his lover would deter her. Love , Lyric poetry , Meter 828 Words | 3 Pages.

Friends , a popular American sitcom during the essay questions for tangerine past years since 1994, left me the great impression with the distinct personal characters of six . Thesis Statement. young people. So I would like to mahatma essay in 500 words illustrate why I apply for Rutgers University through it. About Bridges. 1. Career Development Chandler, an executive in statistical analysis and data reconfiguration for an essay, a large multi-national corporation. Chandler quitted his job and became a professional advertiser at about, an advertising agency at an essay of computer, his mid age. I do not hope that I was. Association of thesis bridges American Universities , Camden, New Jersey , Friends 697 Words | 3 Pages. A friend who helps out when we are in trouble is a true friend —unlike others who disappear when trouble arises. . Friends are one of most important things in our lives. Unfortunately we have a few real friends . I have a lot of friends - girls and boys. It doesn't matter what they are.

They have to be my real friends . He or she has to be good and writing competition, reliable. It doesn't matter how he or she looks like. He or she has to be responsible and helpful. I think these people are one of the thesis statement about best people in the. Debut albums , Friends , Friendship 873 Words | 3 Pages. Real Friends Are Better Than Facebook Friends.

Yayasan Terengganu Dungun Class: 5 Abu ‘Amru Group: group B (Up to Form 6 or equivalent) I understand that by submitting this form, I take full . responsibility for my entry. I declare that the essay is my own work. Date: 12 April 2013 ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Real Friends Are Better Than Facebook Friends It is gandhi essay in english words quite obvious nowadays that facebook has become a worldwide phenomenon to statement about bridges people of all ages and all walks of art admission life. Out of the blue, Mark Zuckerberg who is once an thesis statement about average Harvard. 1990s American television series , Facebook , Friendship 1421 Words | 4 Pages. Gandhi. Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. Statement About. language usage. Example Essay on mahatma gandhi in english words, the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some . of the thesis statement bridges most important people in what tripartite their lives. However, sometimes it is about bridges hard to single case recognize the value of thesis a friend and see exactly how much they do for an essay on history, us and make our lives better. Charles Caleb Colton once said, “ True friendship is like sound health; the value of it is seldom known until it is about lost.

Colton points out the high value of a good friend , but more importantly he suggests. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1157 Words | 3 Pages. Definition of a True Friend The word friend has many different definitions. Some people see a . Art Admission Essay. “ friend ” as someone they can count on statement about bridges, for anything. One may also describe the word friend as someone who is there when he or she needs something. The word friend has numerous definitions and can be described and shown in many different ways.

With their being so many different definitions of the word friend , only one who has had a “ friend ” can explain his or her meaning of the word. A “ friend ” that will always. Questions. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 558 Words | 2 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the thesis essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is an essay on history of computer a separate assignment.

In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. It Is More Important to Keep Your Old Friends Than It Is to Make New Friends. disagree with the following statement? It is more important to keep your old friends than it is to make new friends . Use specific . Thesis Bridges. reasons and examples to support your answer. Sample Response 1: In the following essay I would like to gandhi words express my opinion in regard to the thesis “It is more important to keep your old friends than it is to make new friends .” On the one hand, you could always say that making new friends is a lot more entertaining than keeping in touch with the bridges old ones. Essay In English In 500 Words. There are.

Essay , Friends , Friendship 897 Words | 3 Pages. Now I Realise the Value of a True Friend. we had to go now. Don't worry, I will protect you and trust me, we'll find our group again. Statement Bridges. Hani, promise me you'll never gonna leave me again, . said Daniel. I won't, I replied with a tears on my face and an essay of computer, now I realise the value of statement bridges a true friend . 2007 albums , Debut albums , Rage Against the Machine 1244 Words | 4 Pages. The Meaning of is a tripartite Friends: Thats What Friends Are For. Friend is an extremely strong word in today's society. There are many aspects that create a friend and everybody may have a . different perspective of what a friend truly is. They may define a friend as a person that's always there for you and always has your back. Someone that they can sincerely depend on. A person who you know will be there until the very end.

A friend is someone your NEVER embarrassed to be around, you accept them for who they are. There is always a mutual understanding between. 2006 singles , 2008 singles , Friendship 995 Words | 3 Pages. Estermann English 104-13 10 October 2012 Achieving True Happiness The question “why are we on this planet?” is one that everyone at some . point in about his or her life ponders about. For some it might be family, others success or religion, but at the root of single case it all, if we are not happy, what is the point of asking? “Happiness” can be defined as a mental state or emotion in which we are content with everything in out surroundings and about bridges, encounters. In the essay , “Born to an essay Be Happy, Through a Twist of Human Hard. Brain , Dopamine , Emotion 1296 Words | 4 Pages. True Friendship - Recognition How can we find true friendship in this often phony, temporary world? Friendship involves . recognition or familiarity with another's personality. Friends often share likes and dislikes, interests, pursuits, and passion.

How can we recognize potential friendship? Signs include a mutual desire for companionship and perhaps a common bond of some kind. Beyond that, genuine friendship involves a shared sense of caring and concern, a desire to see one another grow and. 2007 singles , Bible , Friendship 1702 Words | 5 Pages. 2011 How to be a True Friend What kind of friend are you?

Are you someone who others can turn to for support . when they are down, can you give them a push at the same time as holding their hand, or are you more focused on just sharing gossip and social outings? Like the statement song “ True Friend ” by Hannah Montana, one should be able to describe a friend as “pulling someone aside when something’s not right, and essay for tangerine, talking to statement them now and into the night, there to the end, a true friend . Tripartite. Friends will go to the. 2007 singles , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 680 Words | 2 Pages. information package Friendship is very important for everyone, especially me. Statement About Bridges. During my studying from elementary school to an essay of computer university, I have lots of . friends . Among those, there are a few friends who are my best friends . Now I would like to about describe one of my best friends whose name is Petou. The first reason I consider him as my best friend is that he has a very warm personality. He is so friendly when he meets me everywhere. For example, he always smiles politely on me that makes me absolutely. Best Friends , Elementary school , Friends 1468 Words | 5 Pages. The True American Being an American means something different to each and every one of the citizens in this country. The ideal American must . possess a vast range of skills, values, and beliefs. To understand the core values of the ideal American there must be a true understanding of America.

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Roots: The Saga of an American Family, Alex Haley - Essay. Roots: The Saga of an American Family Alex Haley. (Full name Alexander Murray Palmer Haley) American novelist and biographer. The following entry presents criticism on Haley's novel Roots: The Saga of an thesis bridges American Family (1976). Roots: The Saga of an American Family (1976) is an art admission essay historical novel that purports to thesis trace the African American ancestry of what is a thesis its author, Alex Haley, back to thesis statement bridges a tiny village in Gambia, West Africa. Within two years of its publication, more than eight million copies of the book had been printed in twenty-six languages, and Roots had won 271 awards, including the Pulitzer Prize. Published in brunei 1976, the volume also inspired a generation of ancestor-seeking Americans and led to one of the statement about, most ambitious and most-watched television productions ever undertaken.

Roots author Alex Haley was born in 1921 in Ithaca, New York, the eldest of three sons. His father was a college professor; his mother a schoolteacher. Haley grew up in the small town of Henning, Tennessee, where his early memories reportedly included stories from elderly relatives about an African ancestor who refused to essay respond to the slave name “Toby.” The tales of his childhood eventually inspired the about bridges, search for his past that led to the writing of an essay Roots. Although Haley's reputation in the literary world rests primarily upon this much-acclaimed historical novel, he is also remembered for writing Malcolm X's “as told to” autobiography in 1965. Haley wrote many articles for popular magazines, appeared on countless television shows, and lectured throughout the country until his death in 1992. Plot and Major Characters.

Roots is the story of Kunta Kinte, a Mandinkan from the small village of Juffure, Gambia, in West Africa, and his American descendants. Kunta Kinte was “the African” about thesis statement, whom Haley's grandmother and essay others told stories. Roots imaginatively recreates the life of thesis bridges Haley's ancestor in Africa, his capture into slavery in 1676, and an essay on history his experiences as a slave in thesis bridges Spotsylvania, Virginia. Kunta refused to forget his African heritage and adopt the ways and customs of his white masters. He made attempts to an essay escape slavery, until after his fourth try his foot was severed by a slave-catcher. He later married Bell, the bridges, slave cook in the big house on the plantation, and they had a daughter named Kizzy. Kunta spent Kizzy's childhood teaching her the sounds of his native African language and imparting tales of her African ancestry. At the art admission, age of fifteen, Kizzy was sold to a master whose rape of his new young slave resulted in the birth of the thesis statement about, third generation, George, who in turn learned of his African heritage through the stories of his mother. This was the most famous of Haley's ancestors, after Kunta Kinte.

George, known as “Chicken George” for essay writing competition his success as a gamecock trainer, fathered eight children with Mathilda. His fourth son, Tom, was the father of thesis statement Haley's maternal grandmother, Cynthia, who was taken to Henning, Tennessee, on a wagon train of freed slaves. Essay? In Henning, Cynthia met and married Will Palmer and had a daughter named Bertha, who married Simon Haley: these were Haley's parents. The linear direction of the plot of Roots can be captured by the genealogical litany summarized above. The saga, however, incorporates the bridges, violence and degradation experienced by slaves at every turn in the story, from the of computer, inhumane capture of young men and women on thesis bridges, the shores of West Africa and the unspeakable horrors of the subsequent Middle Passage across the Atlantic Ocean, to the beatings, rapes, mutilations, and brutal living and essay in 500 working conditions to which slaves were routinely subjected, when they were not being bought and sold in marketplaces. Each generation from statement bridges Kunta Kinte on preserves memories of the ancestral past while achieving incremental and achingly slow progress toward the day when they would be slaves no more. Roots riveted public attention on one of the most painful chapters of American history, and yet it was read—and in its television version, watched—by millions of Americans, black and essay questions for tangerine white. In addition to treating the obvious subjects of slavery, black identity, and the power of oral history, Roots celebrates resiliency, the triumph of thesis statement about bridges human spirit over cruelty, and the strength of family connections, both within and across generations. An Essay On History Of Computer? Families work together to protect their members.

Children are taught that principles are worthy of thesis statement about risk. Ancestral memories are preserved and passed on through the telling of stories to one's children, and humankind's universal search for its identity is what, given a personal face. These themes cross racial and ethnic boundaries and help account for the book's immense popularity. At the time of its publication, Roots was called “the single most spectacular educational experience in race relations in America” by Vernon Jordan, executive director of the National Urban League. The creative revelation of one family's story opened doors that had long been locked, in individual families and in American culture as a whole. Although critics generally lauded Roots, they seemed unsure whether to treat the work as a novel or as a historical account. While the narrative is based on factual events, the statement about bridges, dialogue, thoughts, and is a tripartite thesis emotions of the characters are fictionalized. Haley himself described the book as “faction,” a mixture of fact and fiction. Most critics concurred and evaluated Roots as a blend of history and about entertainment. Of Computer? Newsweek applauded Haley's decision to thesis about fictionalize: “Instead of writing a scholarly monograph of little social impact, Haley has written a blockbuster in the best sense—a book that is bold in concept and ardent in execution, one that will reach millions of people and alter the way we see ourselves.” Some black leaders viewed Roots “as the most important civil rights event since the 1965 march on Selma,” according to Time. Not all the attention accorded Roots was positive, however.

In 1977 two published authors, Margaret Walker and Harold Courlander, alleged separately that Haley plagiarized their work in Roots. Charges brought by Walker were later dropped, but Haley admitted that he unknowingly lifted three paragraphs from Courlander's The African (1968). Art Admission Essay? A settlement was reached whereby Haley paid Courlander $500,000. The same year other accusations arose, alleging that Haley had altered data to fit his objectives, fabricating ancestors and changing timelines or geographic details to thesis about make the story into the one he wanted to tell. Mahatma Gandhi In English In 500 Words? These charges were never proven or resolved, but Haley's supporters maintain that the author never claimed Roots was a factual document, calling it instead a work of “faction,” fiction based on the facts of his ancestry, as he discovered them. Despite these controversies, the public image of Roots doesn't seem to have suffered. It is still widely read in schools, and many college and university history and literature programs consider it an thesis statement bridges essential part of their curriculum.

Access our Roots: The Saga. Study Guide for Free. The Autobiography of Malcolm X (biography) 1965. Roots: The Saga of an American Family (historical novel) 1976. A Different Kind of Christmas (novella) 1988. Alex Haley's Queen: The Story of an American Family [with David Stevens] (novel) 1993.

The Playboy Interviews (interviews) 1993. Alan Crawford (essay date 4 March 1977) SOURCE: Crawford, Alan. “All in the Family.” National Review 29, no. 8 (4 March 1977): 278-79. [ In the study, following essay, Crawford reviews Roots.] “The end of the American artist's pilgrimage to Europe is the discovery of America,” Leslie Fiedler writes. So, too, the thesis, American artist's pilgrimage (if he is black) to Africa: after 12 years of art admission essay research and thesis half a million miles of travel, Alex Haley has discovered an America that is feasting on his book [ Roots ] and has devoured a television adaptation as well.

Haley thus finds himself an Instant Celebrity, that most American form of notoriety and one which, I suspect, leaves him feeling most ambivalent. For. (The entire section is 756 words.) Get Free Access to this Roots: The Saga of an American Family Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades.

Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to mahatma gandhi essay in english words ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. Richard West (essay date 23 April 1977) SOURCE: West, Richard. Statement About? “ Roots and case study the Sunday Times. Thesis Statement About? ” Spectator 238, no. 7764 (23 April 1977): 19-20. [ In the brunei essay, following essay, West questions the veracity of statement bridges Haley's ancestral and historical claims in Roots.] As long ago as the mid-eighteenth century, a Negro slave from North America who had been given his freedom by art admission essay, a considerate white man, returned to about his home by the Gambia river, afterwards writing a book about his experiences.

Until well into the nineteenth century, some of those freed slaves who went to the settlements at Sierra Leone and Liberia were able to questions find their relations or at thesis least their kinsmen. Perhaps the majority knew to which tribe. (The entire section is 1894 words.) Get Free Access to this Roots: The Saga of an what American Family Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Sandra Rattley (essay date May/June 1977) SOURCE: Rattley, Sandra. “The Impact of Roots : Real or Imagined?” Africa Report 22, no. 3 (May/June 1977): 12-6.

[ In the following essay, Rattley questions the premise that Haley's book and widely-acclaimed mini-series will have a significant impact on civil rights and issues of equality in the United States. ] Time magazine of February 14, 1977 said, and we quote: In Chicago, they were talking about “Haley's comet.” … In New York, Executive Director Vernon Jordan of the National Urban League called it “the single most spectacular educational experience in race relations in bridges America.” (The entire section is 3628 words.) David A. Essay For Tangerine? Gerber (essay date fall 1977) SOURCE: Gerber, David A. “Haley's Roots and thesis about bridges Our Own: An Inquiry into the Nature of a Popular Phenomenon.” Journal of Ethnic Studies 5, no. Brunei Writing? 3 (fall 1977): 87-111. [ In the following essay, Gerber examines the social and popular culture phenomenon of Roots -inspired interest in family ancestry and African culture. ] For the moment let us withhold judgment and thesis statement consider the art admission essay, following: —While ABC-TV originally assumed it could lay claim to thesis statement about approximately 50,000,000 viewers for its $6,000,000 production of Roots, in fact at single case least 85,000,000 and perhaps as many as 135,000,000 Americans watched the prime-time. (The entire section is 12836 words.) Merrill Maguire Skaggs (essay date fall 1978) SOURCE: Skaggs, Merrill Maguire. “ Roots : A New Black Myth.” Southern Quarterly 17, no.

1 (fall 1978): 42-50. [ In the thesis bridges, following essay, Skaggs compares Roots with Richard Wright's Native Son.] The extreme popularity of Alex Haley's Roots, a book which seemed to reshape the literary image of blacks, suggests that the public was ready to reverse a whole cluster of attitudes toward black Americans, and to view blacks exactly as the book demanded. But, as William James remarked, “The most violent revolutions in an individual's beliefs leave most of single case study his old order standing. Thesis Statement About Bridges? … New truth is always a go-between, a smoother-over of transitions. Essay Writing Competition? … The. (The entire section is 3376 words.) SOURCE: Boyd, Herb. “Plagiarism and the Roots Suits.” First World 2, no. 3 (1979): 31-3. [ In the following essay, Boyd examines passages in Roots that author Harold Courlander charged were plagiarized from his novel, The African.] Plagiarism is a concept and a practice that can be traced all the way back to Roman law, and while it can be defined in statement several ways, for art admission essay our modern sleuths and thesis about lawyers it has come to simply mean the act of one author appropriating the writings of another author—in short, literary larceny. Such esteemed giants of an essay on history Western literature as Chaucer, Shakespeare, George Bernard Shaw, and bridges even Homer were accused.

(The entire section is 2610 words.) R. Baxter Miller (essay date spring 1982) SOURCE: Miller, R. Baxter. “Kneeling at the Fireplace: Black Vulcan-ROOTS and the Double Artificer.” MELUS 9, no. 1 (spring 1982): 73-84. [ In the following essay, Miller traces parallels in single case study Roots between the mythological Roman Vulcan, patron of arts and crafts, and the character of Kunta Kinte, craftsman and himself a mythical character to thesis generations of his descendants. ] Most reviewers of Roots have overlooked Alex Haley's allusions to Vulcan. 1 L. D. Reddick, 2 a Temple University historian, observes instead that the book is a literary masterpiece, although the literary critic Larry King 3 believes the book is more. (The entire section is 5400 words.) Helen Chavis Othow (essay date March 1983) SOURCE: Othow, Helen Chavis. Art Admission Essay? “ Roots and the Heroic Search for Identity.” CLA Journal 26, no. 3 (March 1983): 311-24.

[ In the following essay, Othow discusses Roots as a modern epic that has wide cultural appeal because it embodies the ongoing human search for meaning. ] An exploration of a very representative body of modern literature reveals that an outstanding feature of its philosophical temper is a disconnected civilization. 1 The works of Ernest Hemingway, Arthur Miller, Albert Camus (to some degree), Samuel Beckett, John Barth, and Thomas Pynchon, all reflect the malaise of our times. Alex Haley's Roots 2 also embodies. (The entire section is 4979 words.) Carol P. Marsh (essay date March 1983) SOURCE: Marsh, Carol P. “The Plastic Arts Motif in Roots. ” CLA Journal 26, no. 3 (March 1983): 325-33. [ In the following essay, Marsh traces the significance of three major crafts—carving, weaving, and blacksmithing—in the multi-generational saga of the African family traced in thesis statement Roots.] In Alex Haley's Roots, one of the brunei writing, prevailing motifs is that of the plastic arts.

As the reader examines the novel, he finds that the motif forms a part of the spiral structure, which, in turn, creates the work's theme of returning. Bridges? 1 Thus, we find that Roots abounds with direct references to single case study the plastic arts, and the motif seems to thesis about develop with. (The entire section is 3303 words.) Michael Steward Blayney (essay date winter 1986) SOURCE: Blayney, Michael Steward. “ Roots and the Noble Savage.” North Dakota Quarterly 54, no. 1 (winter 1986): 1-17.

[ In the following essay, Blayney discusses similarities between the Roots portrayal of essay questions Africans and the portrayal of North Americans as the mythical “noble savage.” ] Time Magazine called it “Haley's Comet.” Black readers hailed it as the most important event in civil rights history since the 1965 march on Selma, Alabama. In January, 1977, Roots was proclaimed the most popular television program in the medium's history, with the statement about bridges, last of eight consecutive episodes reaching an unprecedented 90,000,000 viewers. (The entire section is essay, 7325 words.) Christopher O. Griffin (essay date spring 1996) SOURCE: Griffin, Christopher O. “ Roots, Violence, and the Context of Intention.” Griot: Official Journal of the Southern Conference on thesis bridges, Afro-American Studies, Inc. Brunei Essay Writing? 15, no. 1 (spring 1996): 1-14. [ In the following essay, Griffin examines the use of violence as symbol in statement about Roots.] This is ultimately the most profound claim that any ritual or any religious system can make: that through their thoughts and actions, people can fill their existence with meaning.

1. Roots : for many today, the tripartite, title carries connotations associated with words such as. (The entire section is statement, 7226 words.) SOURCE: Fishbein, Leslie. “ Roots : Docudrama and the Interpretation of History.” In Why Docudrama? Fact-Fiction on Film and art admission TV, edited by Alan Rosenthal, pp. 271-95. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999. [ In the following essay, Fishbein discusses the merits and shortcomings of the use of television drama as a medium for thesis preserving history. ] Roots was the sleeper of the 1976-77 television season, surprising even its makers by its phenomenal critical and commercial success. An unusual risk, ABC's production of Alex Haley's 885-page opus represented the first time that a network actually made a movie based on a major unpublished.

(The entire section is 10778 words.) SOURCE: Taylor, Helen. What Tripartite Thesis? “Everybody's Search for Roots: Alex Haley and the Black and White Atlantic.” In Circling Dixie: Contemporary Southern Culture through a Transatlantic Lens, pp. Thesis Statement About? 63-90. Of Computer? New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2001. [ In the following essay, Taylor traces numerous effects of Roots on American popular culture, academic black studies programs, and Southern identity. ] Gone With the Wind created, and perpetuated, a white myth of the bridges, South for brunei writing international readers and audiences throughout the century. Thesis Bridges? In the bicentennial year, 1976, however, a work appeared that looked set to sweep Scarlett, Rhett, and essay their faithful Mammy into. (The entire section is 12058 words.)

Allen, Robert L. “ The Black Scholar Interviews: Alex Haley.” Black Scholar 8, no. 1 (1976): 33-40. Alex Haley talks about about bridges, his parents, his upbringing, and his works, including the best-selling Roots and the mini-series to be based on the book. Baldwin, James. “How One Black Man Came to be an American.” New York Times Book Review (26 September 1976): 1, 2. Offers an appraisal of Haley's Roots. Baye, Betty Winston. “Alex Haley's Roots Revisited.” Essence 22, no. 10 (February 1992): 88-92. Illustrated article profiling the.

(The entire section is 294 words.) Roots: The Saga of an American Family Homework Help Questions. This miniseries had a huge impact on art admission, popular culture. It was watched by thesis statement about bridges, a huge proportion of the country and had an impact on people of all ethnicities. For many whites, the miniseries was a.

This is an excellent question that may be best answered by a historian, rather than a book enthusiast. The reason for essay questions this is that Alex Haley, the bridges, author of the novel Roots performed his research. I think two of the major themes that can be identified in this impressive text is the theme of coming of age and then the theme of human rights. Critics have argued that the first section of this. Haley's thesis centers on the search through one's genealogical past for one's identity. Haley's thesis is that the individual who lives in the present tense can be traced to mahatma gandhi essay words conditions as far.

Kunta Kinte repeatedly refers to the fact that he knows who he is, and that he is sure of statement about his identity. This is art admission, something that he comes to thesis statement about realise is a gift that few of the slaves he meets in.

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The unseen world: reflections on Leeuwenhoek (1677) ‘Concerning little animals’ Leeuwenhoek's 1677 paper, the famous ‘letter on the protozoa’, gives the first detailed description of protists and thesis statement, bacteria living in a range of environments. The colloquial, diaristic style conceals the workings of a startlingly original experimental mind. Later scientists could not match the resolution and clarity of art admission Leeuwenhoek's microscopes, so his discoveries were doubted or even dismissed over the following centuries, limiting their direct influence on the history of biology; but work in the twentieth century confirmed Leeuwenhoek's discovery of bacterial cells, with a resolution of less than 1 µm. Leeuwenhoek delighted most in the forms, interactions and behaviour of his little ‘animalcules', which inhabited a previously unimagined microcosmos. Thesis About Bridges? In these reflections on the scientific reach of Leeuwenhoek's ideas and single, observations, I equate his questions with the thesis statement bridges preoccupations of our genomic era: what is the nature of Leeuwenhoek's animalcules, where do they come from, how do they relate to each other? Even with the powerful tools of modern biology, the answers are far from resolved—these questions still challenge our understanding of microbial evolution. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the single study journal Philosophical Transactions of the thesis bridges Royal Society . My work, which I've done for a long time, was not pursued in order to gain the praise I now enjoy, but chiefly from a craving after knowledge, which I notice resides in me more than most other men. Essay? Leeuwenhoek, Letter of 12 June 1716. Leeuwenhoek is universally acknowledged as the father of microbiology.

He discovered both protists and statement bridges, bacteria [1]. More than being the single study first to see this unimagined world of ‘animalcules', he was the first even to think of looking—certainly, the first with the power to see. Using his own deceptively simple, single-lensed microscopes, he did not merely observe, but conducted ingenious experiments, exploring and manipulating his microscopic universe with a curiosity that belied his lack of a map or bearings. Leeuwenhoek (figure 1) was a pioneer, a scientist of the thesis statement bridges highest calibre, yet his reputation suffered at the hands of those who envied his fame or scorned his unschooled origins, as well as through his own mistrustful secrecy of his methods, which opened a world that others could not comprehend. The verification of this new world by the natural philosophers of the nascent Royal Society laid out the ground rules that still delineate science today, but the freshness and wonder, the sheer thrill of Leeuwenhoek's discoveries, transmit directly down the centuries to biologists today.

Microbiologists and phylogeneticists continue to argue about the nature of Leeuwenhoek's little animals, if in more elaborate terms. Only now are we beginning to find answers—and surprisingly uncertain answers—to the questions that drove Leeuwenhoek: where did this multitude of tiny ‘animals' come from, why such variety in what tripartite, size and behaviour; how to distinguish and classify them? Portrait of Leeuwenhoek by Jan Verkolje, 1686, at age 54. Thesis Statement About Bridges? Copyright © The Royal Society. Leeuwenhoek's 1677 paper [1] was not his first contribution to art admission essay Philosophical Transactions , nor was it his first mention of little animals living in water. The paper was translated (‘English'd’) from low Dutch, and excerpted to half its original length by the redoubtable Henry Oldenburg, first Secretary of the Royal Society and founding editor of bridges Philosophical Transactions . Oldenburg corresponded so widely across Europe that he was imprisoned in the Tower for suspected espionage in 1667, during the an essay of computer Second Anglo-Dutch War (when the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam was renamed New York). Oldenburg later adopted a pseudonym, the anagram ‘Grubendol’, to thesis statement avert suspicion (it would arouse mine).

Among his regular Dutch correspondents were the gandhi in 500 surgeon Regnerus de Graaf and statesman Constantijn Huygens, father of famed astronomer Christiaan Huygens, both of whom wrote epistles to Oldenburg introducing ‘the exceedingly curious and industrious' Leeuwenhoek, Huygens adding the helpful note ‘or Leawenhook, according to your orthographie’ [2]. That was in 1673; by 1677, Leeuwenhoek was well known to the Royal Society, but by no means were his reports accepted on trust. Oldenburg published several of statement about Leeuwenhoek's letters in 1673 and 1674, which dealt with interesting but uncontentious matters, such as the structure of the bee sting. What Is A Tripartite Thesis? Equivalent microscopic structures of objects visible to the naked eye had been illuminated by statement bridges, Robert Hooke in his Micrographia nearly a decade earlier; indeed, it is to Hooke that we owe the word ‘cell’, which he used to denote the questions boxy spaces (reminiscent of the small rooms in a monastery) that make up the about bridges structure of cork [3]. Art Admission Essay? From some of Leeuwenhoek's slightly waspish remarks in statement bridges, his early letters, he had almost certainly seen a copy of Micrographia on essay his visit to London in 1667 or 1668, when the book was practically a fashion accessory (‘the most ingenious book I read in all my life’, wrote Pepys, who stayed up all night with it; Pepys reputedly stayed up all night often, though rarely with a book).

Leeuwenhoek first courted controversy in a letter of September 1674. Describing a nearby lake, Berkelse Mere, he noted that its water was very clear in winter ‘but at the beginning or middle of summer it becomes whitish, and there are then little green clouds floating in it’ [4]. Thesis Statement About Bridges? These clouds contained wispy ‘green streaks, spirally wound serpent-wise, and orderly arranged’—the beautiful green alga Spirogyra . Then came Leeuwenhoek's first mention of essay little animals: ‘among these streaks there were besides very many little animalcules … And the thesis bridges motion of most of these animalcules in the water was so swift, and so various upwards, downwards and round about mahatma essay words that ‘twas wonderful to see: and statement bridges, I judged that some of these little creatures were above a thousand times smaller than the essay questions smallest ones I have ever yet seen upon statement, the rind of cheese’ (by which he meant mites) [4]. Until this point, Oldenburg had published almost all of Leeuwenhoek's letters (including this one) within a few months of receipt. On History? Now, he drew pause. Of the next 12 letters sent by Leeuwenhoek, only about three were published, and study, none that touched on animalcules. Oldenburg had every reason to be suspicious; as Leeuwenhoek wrote to thesis about Hooke a few years later ‘I suffer many contradictions and oft-times hear it said that I do but tell fairy tales about the little animals' [5]. This invisible world was teeming with as much varied life as a rainforest or a coral reef, and yet could be seen by none but Leeuwenhoek. No wonder Oldenburg and his colleagues had doubts. Set against this background, Leeuwenhoek wrote his eighteenth letter to the Royal Society, dated October 1676, the celebrated ‘letter on the protozoa’, which Oldenburg excerpted, translated and published as the art admission 1677 paper.

It opens with a bang: ‘In 1675 I discovered living creatures in Rain water which had stood but few days in a new earthen pot, glased blew [i.e. painted blue] within. This invited me to view this water with great attention, especially those little animals appearing to me ten thousand times less than those represented by Mons. Swamerdam and called by him Water fleas or Water-lice , which may be perceived in the water with the naked eye’ [1]. Clifford Dobell, in his delightful biography published in 1932 (300 years after Leeuwenhoek's birth), notes that Oldenburg's translation is thesis statement bridges good but not perfect [6]. That's not surprising. Art Admission? While Oldenburg knew the statement about language, he had no knowledge of the organisms themselves. In contrast, Dobell was a distinguished microbiologist, a Fellow of the Royal Society, and had the great benefit of hindsight. An Essay Of Computer? His biography was a labour of love, written over 25 years, frequently in bridges, the middle of the night, while carrying out his own research on intestinal protozoa and other protists.

Dobell taught himself Dutch and translated Leeuwenhoek's letters painstakingly—written, as they were, in a colloquial Dutch no longer in use, and in art admission, the beautiful but scarcely legible hand of a copyist (figure 2). Dobell revelled in the precise beauty of Leeuwenhoek's descriptions of Euglena , Vorticella and many other protists and bacteria, which leapt off the page, immediately recognizable to about this expert kindred spirit. Some 250 years earlier, Oldenburg had none of these advantages in contemplating Leeuwenhoek's letters—his translation is an extraordinary monument to the open-minded scepticism of science. First and last pages of Leeuwenhoek's 1676 letter to Oldenburg, in the hand of a copyist. Copyright © The Royal Society. I sketch this background because the tripartite paper itself is unusual even in Leeuwenhoek's oeuvre, taking the form of a diary.

On a cursory reading, it seems almost embarrassingly naive to the modern ear—the earthen pot ‘glased blew within’ in the first sentence is a good example (but see [7] for a discussion of Dutch prose style in the seventeenth century). We learn that on ‘the 17th of this month of June it rained very hard; and I catched some of that rain water in a new Porcelain dish, which had never been used before, but found no living creatures at all in it’ [1]. Thesis? On it goes, with precise but apparently irrelevant details. ‘In the open Court of my house I have a well, which is about 15 foot deep, before one comes to the water. It is encompassed with high walls, so that the Sun, though in art admission essay, Cancer, yet can hardly shine much upon it. This water comes out of the ground, which is thesis statement bridges sandy, with such a power, that when I have laboured to single empty the well, I could not so do it but there remained ever a foots depth of water in it. This water is in Summer time so cold, that you cannot possibly endure your hand in it for thesis about any reasonable time’ [1]. And my favourite: ‘July 27 1676. I went to brunei essay the sea-side, at Schlevelingen, the wind coming from the statement about bridges Sea with a very warm Sun-shine; and viewing some of the Sea-water very attentively, I discovered divers living animals therein. I gave to a man, that went into the Sea to wash himself, a new glass-bottle, bought on purpose for that end, intreating him, that being on the Sea, he would first wash it well twice, or thrice, and then fill it full of the Sea-water; which desire of mine having been complied with, I tyed the bottle close with a clean bladder’ [1].

On a first reading, then, Leeuwenhoek might come across as a simpleton; and he has too often been dismissed as such. One can only essay smile at the image of Leeuwenhoek on the beach, pressing his pre-prepared bottles onto strangers. But which details are important? How should he have charted this abundant new world? We need to appreciate several points. This letter was intended to defend his discoveries—‘merely so as to make my observations more credible in England and thesis about, elsewhere’ [8]. Leeuwenhoek typically wrote with publication in mind (and later published his own works privately whenever the Royal Society declined to do so), but here he preferred to clarify exactly what he had done, doubtless anticipating that Oldenburg would eliminate superfluous details.

In this, he would defer to the judgement of educated men, being careful, as was the essay custom of the thesis about bridges times, to denigrate his own learning. But characteristically, he would defer only on writing competition his own terms, and his self-portrait is in fact remarkably objective. Thesis About? ‘I have oft-times been besought, by essay, divers gentlemen, to set down on paper what I have beheld through my newly invented Microscopia : but I have generally declined; first, because I have no style, or pen, wherewith to thesis about express my thoughts properly; second, because I have not been brought up to languages or arts, but only to business; and in the third place, because I do not gladly suffer contradiction or censure from others' [9]. All those who have raged at the obtuse comments of brunei competition Reviewer 3 will sympathize with this last point; but like Leeuwenhoek, suffer it we do. In his letter of 1676, then, Leeuwenhoek set out a detailed context for his observations. Dobell notes that ‘Leeuwenhoek was manifestly a man of great and singular candour, honesty and sincerity. He was religiously plain and thesis about, straightforward in essay for tangerine, all he did, and therefore sometimes almost immodestly frank in describing his observations.

It never occurred to him that Truth could appear indecent’ [10]. On a closer reading, the bridges colloquial manner of competition Leeuwenhoek's letter conceals the workings of his precise and methodical mind. Leeuwenhoek was acutely aware of contamination; he replenished evaporated water with snow-water, the purest then available, making every effort not to introduce little animals from any other source. He sampled water from many different sources—his well, the sea, rain water, drain pipes, lakes—always taking care to thesis statement bridges clean his receptacles. In a later letter, he mentions that he even examined water that had been distilled or boiled [11]. In each case, he describes different populations of animalcules over time. Time is critical. Frequently, he observes nothing for a week, checking each day, before reporting a profusion of little animals of for tangerine diverse types, replicating themselves over several days before dying back again. About Bridges? The time, dates, sources, weather, all these were important variables for Leeuwenhoek, which he charts carefully.

He was resolutely opposed to the idea of mahatma gandhi essay in 500 words spontaneous generation, nearly 200 years before Pasteur finally resolved the bridges matter with his swan-necked flasks. Leeuwenhoek later described the procreation of cells via copulation or schism to release daughter cells in arresting detail. But his early disbelief of spontaneous generation is implicit in the comparisons of his 1677 paper, in his care to avoid contamination, and his estimation of rates of growth. Leeuwenhoek also reports experiments, adding peppercorns to water, both crushed and uncrushed (as well as ginger, cloves, nutmeg and an essay, vinegar, omitted from Oldenburg's excerpts for Philosophical Transactions ). In these infusions, Leeuwenhoek observed an astonishing proliferation of tiny animals ‘incredibly small; nay, so small, in my sight, that I judged that even if 100 of these very wee animals lay stretched out one against another, they could not reach the length of thesis statement a grain of an essay on history course sand; and if this be true, then ten hundred thousand of these living creatures could scarce equal the bulk of a course grain of sand’ [1]. Again, the colloquial language deceives. In a clarification sent to Constantijn Huygens and Hooke, Leeuwenhoek writes ‘Let's assume that such a sand-grain is so big, that 80 of them, lying one against the other, would make up the length of one inch’ [12]. He goes on to calculate the number of animalcules in a cubic inch; for our purposes here, his calculation puts the length of his ‘very wee animals' at less than 3 µm. Bacteria. (He later describes bacterial motility unequivocally [13]). He also notes that he deliberately underestimates the number of bacteria in a drop of thesis statement water—‘for the reason that the number of animalcules in so small a quantity of water would else be so big, that ‘twould not be credited: and when I stated in my letter of writing 9th October 1676, that there were upwards of 1 000 000 living creatures in one drop of pepper-water, I might with truth have put the number at eight times as many’ [14].

An innocent, early example of spinning data to thesis about sell to a journal? But the natural philosophers of the Royal Society, in pioneering the methods we still use in science today, were not easily spun. Leeuwenhoek's letter had been read aloud over several sessions and attracted great interest, verging on case study consternation. Thesis Statement? Oldenburg wrote to Leeuwenhoek, asking him to ‘acquaint us with his method of observing, that others may confirm such Observations as these’, and to provide drawings [15]. Leeuwenhoek declined, throughout his life, to give any description of an essay on history his microscopical methods (‘for reasons best known to himself’, said Hooke; though science has hardly resolved the issue of bridges intellectual property since then). But Leeuwenhoek did now employ a draughtsman, whose regular gasps of astonishment when shown various little animals punctuate Leeuwenhoek's later letters (‘Oh, that one could ever depict so wonderful a motion!’).

Some of these limner's drawings are shown in figure 3. Leeuwenhoek also sent eight testimonies from gentlemen of repute—a Lutheran minister, a notary and a barrister, among others. It is mahatma gandhi in english striking to thesis the modern reader that none of these gentlemen were natural philosophers acquainted with the single methods of thesis statement about bridges science; but according to the historian Steven Shapin, it was the bond of the gentleman that counted. The practice of signed testimonies from gentlemen was common in art admission, the seventeenth century; the fact that Leeuwenhoek called upon statement about bridges, eight such testimonies attests to the unprecedented character of brunei essay writing competition his findings, but also perhaps to his lower social standing [18]. ( a ) Rotifers, hydra and thesis, vorticellids associated with a duckweed root, from a Delft canal. From Leeuwenhoek [16]. ( b ) Bacteria from on history, Leeuwenhoek's mouth; the dotted line portrays movement.

From Leeuwenhoek [17]. Copyright © The Royal Society. No doubt all this was helpful, but it was countered by letters from others such as Christiaan Huygens (son of Constanijn), then in Paris, who at that time remained sceptical, as was his wont: ‘I should greatly like to know how much credence our Mr Leeuwenhoek's observations obtain among you. Thesis Statement? He resolves everything into little globules; but for my part, after vainly trying to see some of the things which he sees, I much misdoubt me whether they be not illusions of art admission essay his sight’ [19]. The Royal Society tasked Nehemiah Grew, the botanist, to reproduce Leeuwenhoek's work, but Grew failed; so in 1677, on succeeding Grew as Secretary, Hooke himself turned his mind back to thesis statement bridges microscopy. Hooke too initially failed, but on his third attempt to reproduce Leeuwenhoek's findings with pepper-water (and other infusions), Hooke did succeed in seeing the animalcules—‘some of essay for tangerine these so exceeding small that millions of millions might be contained in one drop of water’ [20] (actually far less precise than Leeuwenhoek). He went on to write ‘It seems very wonderful that there should be such an infinite number of about bridges animalls in soe imperceptible quantity of single matter. That these animalls should be soe perfectly shaped and indeed with such curious organs of statement about motion as to be able to move nimbly, to turne, stay, accelerate and retard their progresse at pleasure. And it was not less surprising to find that these were gygantick monsters [protozoa] in essay, comparison of a lesser sort which almost filled the water [bacteria]’ [21]. Unlike Leeuwenhoek, Hooke gave precise details of his microscopical methods, and demonstrated them before the statement about gathered fellows, including Sir Christopher Wren, later publishing both his methods and observations in an essay on history of computer, Microscopium (1678) [20].

He even taught himself Dutch, so that he could read the letters of the ‘ingenious Mr Leeuwenhoek’. As noted by the microscopist Brian J. Ford [22] and microbiologist Howard Gest [23], Hooke was a central and too-often overlooked figure in the history of microbiology: his earlier book Micrographia (1665) most likely inspired Leeuwenhoek to begin his own microscopical studies. Without Hooke's support and about, verification—a task beyond several of the is a thesis best microscopists of the age, including Grew—Leeuwenhoek might easily have been dismissed as a charlatan. Instead, through Hooke's impressive demonstrations, and with the thesis statement about bridges direct support of the patron of the Royal Society, King Charles II, Leeuwenhoek was elected a Fellow in 1680. Others had independently changed their view of gandhi Leeuwenhoek in thesis statement about bridges, the interim, but that did little to alter the course of events.

Christiaan Huygens, for example, overcame his early scepticism after visiting Leeuwenhoek and seeing his animalcules. He went on to grind his own lenses, observing various protists himself [24]. Indeed, Huygens made a number of pioneering observations, but these remained in manuscript and were unpublished until the turn of the twentieth century [25]. Ironically, Hooke's admirable comments on the construction of microscopes might have undermined Leeuwenhoek's later reputation. Hooke made various types of single case study microscope. He much preferred using larger instruments with two lenses, but in the Preface to Micrographia [26] he also described how to statement about make ‘simple’ microscopes with a single lens—what became known as a Leeuwenhoek microscope [27]. Mahatma Gandhi Essay In English Words? The lens is produced by melting Venice glass into thin threads, containing little globules, which are then ground and polished, and statement bridges, mounted against a needle hole pricked through a thin plate of brass (figure 4). ‘If … an what is a Object, plac'd very near, be look'd at through it, it will both magnifie and make some objects more distinct than any of the bridges great Microscopes. But because these, though exceeding easily made, are yet very troublesome to of computer be us'd, because of their smallness, and the nearness of the Object; therefore to prevent both of these, and yet have only two refractions, I provided me a Tube of Brass' [26]. Thesis Statement About Bridges? In 1678, Hooke reiterated his dislike of single-lens microscopes: ‘I have found the use of art admission them offensive to thesis about bridges my eye, and to have much strained the sight, which was the reason why I omitted to make use of them, though in truth they make the object appear much more clear and distinct, and magnifie as much as the brunei essay double Microscopes: nay to statement those whose eyes can well endure it, ‘tis possible with a single Microscope to make discoveries much better than with a double one, because the colours which do much disturb the clear vision in double Microscopes is tripartite thesis clearly avoided and prevented with the single’ [20]. ( a ) Replica of a single-lens microscope by Leeuwenhoek (Image by Jeroen Rouwkema. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons). ( b,d ) Photomicrographs taken using simple single-lens microscopes including one of Leeuwenhoek's originals in Utrecht, by about, Brian Ford (Copyright © Brian J. Ford). ( b ) An air-dried smear of Ford's own blood through the original van Leeuwenhoek microscope at Utrecht, showing red blood cells and a granulocyte with its lobed nucleus (upper right; about case study 2 µm in diameter). ( c ) Spiral bacteria ( Spirillum volutans ) imaged through a replica microscope with a lens ground from spinel; each bacterial cell is statement about 20 µm in length. ( d ) The intestinal protist parasite Giardia intestinalis imaged through a replica soda-glass produced by writing, Brian Ford [28,29].

It seems that Hooke's aversion to simple single-lens microscopes passed on down the generations, but not his appreciation of their merits. Thesis Statement About Bridges? The compound microscope, with its refractive aberrations, became the tool of essay choice, and Leeuwenhoek's microscopes were quietly forgotten, their oblivion hastened by Leeuwenhoek's own secrecy, notwithstanding his gift of 13 microscopes, with corresponding specimens, to the Royal Society on his death in 1723 at the age of 90. Leeuwenhoek had actively discouraged teaching his methods, for reasons that are troubling today in an age when education is open to all. While lens grinding was linked with artisans rather than with gentlemen, hence might have been discouraged on that basis alone, Leeuwenhoek, as always, spoke plainly. Thesis Statement? In a letter to what tripartite Leibnitz, he wrote ‘To train young people to grind lenses, and to found a sort of school for this purpose, I can't see there'd be much use: because many students at Leyden have already been fired by my discoveries and my lens grinding … But what's come of it? Nothing, as far as I know: because most students go there to thesis statement bridges make money out of science, or to get a reputation in the learned world. But in lens grinding, and discovering things hidden from single case, our sight, these count for nought. And I'm satisfied too that not one man in a thousand is capable of such study, because it needs much time, and spending much money; and you must always keep on thinking about these things, if you are to get any results.

And over about, and above all, most men are not curious to know: nay, some even make no bones about saying: What does it matter whether we know this or not?’ [30]. Most scientists, I imagine, would see themselves as that one man in a thousand; it is our task today to persuade others that it does indeed matter, not for mahatma in 500 any immediate benefit, but for about bridges the sake of curiosity and its unknowable contribution to the sum of what is a human knowledge and wellbeing. The dominant use of about compound microscopes over the following centuries meant that the brief blaze of Leeuwenhoek's discoveries was nearly extinguished until the great compound microscope makers of the early-nineteenth century, notably Joseph Bancks (who also produced some high-powered single-lens microscopes, used by brunei writing, Robert Brown in his discovery of Brownian motion and about, cytoplasmic streaming, and by Darwin aboard the Beagle). In the interim, microscopy had never recaptured Leeuwenhoek's early glory, its credibility being undermined by reports of homunculi crouching in semen and other figments of the imagination. The concept of is a thesis preformation was called into serious question from the 1740s, beginning with Abraham Trembley's work on the regeneration of freshwater polyps [31]. In the thesis 1750s, Linnaeus scarcely troubled himself with the classification of microbes; he dumped the competition whole lot into about bridges, the phylum Vermes (‘worms'), genus Chaos (formless). The damaging accusation of seeing things that were not there, combined with Linnaeus's insinuated absence of structure, meant that few believed Leeuwenhoek could have seen cells as small as bacteria; even the empathetic Dobell struggled to conceive what magical form of lighting Leeuwenhoek must have employed to view his specimens.

Only the galvanizing work of Brian J. Ford, who rediscovered some of Leeuwenhoek's samples in the library of the Royal Society in 1981, resurrected the glory of the single-lens microscope [32]. Ford photographed Leeuwenhoek's original specimens using one of his surviving microscopes in Utrecht, and demonstrated a remarkable resolution of less than 1 µm [33] (figure 4). That left little scope for disbelief: plainly, Leeuwenhoek really did see much of what he claimed. So what is tripartite Leeuwenhoek's legacy? Most of his discoveries were forgotten, and only rediscovered in thesis bridges, the nineteenth century, 150 years later, being then interpreted in the context of the newly developing cell theory, with little reference back to Leeuwenhoek himself. In this regard Leeuwenhoek's legacy is analogous to essay that of Gregor Mendel, likewise rediscovered at a time when others were exploring similar ideas. Leeuwenhoek's work, of course, ranged far beyond microbiology.

In all, he sent around 200 letters to the Royal Society, 112 of which were published, touching on many aspects of biology and even mineralogy. He remains the most highly published author in the journal. About Bridges? He is considered to be the an essay founder of many fields, but none of them more important than his astonishing discoveries in microbiology, and none conveyed with such delight. Leeuwenhoek was captivated by thesis statement about, his animalcules. ‘Among all the marvels that I have discovered in nature’, he wrote, ‘these are the most marvellous of all’ [34]. His exhilaration in discovery, combined with a fearless and surefooted interpretation of essay writing competition unknown vistas, is for thesis statement me Leeuwenhoek's true legacy. It is a spirit effervescent in many later pioneers of microbiology, indeed in science more generally. And many of the gandhi in english in 500 problems that beset Leeuwenhoek troubled them too. Take the ultrastructure of cells, especially protists. Leeuwenhoek could clearly see ‘little feet’ (cilia) and thesis statement, also the budding offspring of cells, but he saw much more than that. I'm struck by this passage in the 1677 paper, describing an ‘egg-shaped’ animalcule (which Dobell tentatively identified as the ciliate Colpidium colpoda [35]): ‘Their body did consist, within, of 10, 12, or 14 globuls, which lay separate from each other. When I put these animalcula in a dry place, they then changed their body into a perfect round, and often burst asunder, the globuls, together with some aqueous particles, spred themselves every where about, without my being able to discern any other remains.

These globuls, which in the bursting of these creatures did flow asunder here and there, were about the bigness of the first very small creatures [bacteria]. And though as yet I could not discern any small feet in them, yet me thought, they must needs be furnished with very many … ’ [1]. While the essay ‘globuls' in C. About Bridges? colpoda were probably mostly food vacuoles, as well as the gandhi essay in 500 macronucleus, Leeuwenhoek's comparison with bacteria leaves open the tantalizing possibility that he had even seen organelles such as mitochondria, which with a diameter of 0.5–1 µm would have pushed his microscopical resolution to the limits. Thesis? Some 250 years later, this equivalence between intracellular ‘globuls' and free-living bacteria was pursued by the early-twentieth century pioneers of single endosymbiotic theory, notably the Russian Konstantin Mereschkowski, Frenchman Paul Portier and American Ivan Wallin, the latter pair independently going so far as to argue that mitochondria could be cultivated [36]. The idea of bridges ‘symbiogenesis' was famously ridiculed by mahatma gandhi essay in 500 words, the American cell biologist E.B. Wilson, who summed up the thesis statement about bridges prevailing attitude: ‘To many, no doubt, such speculations may appear too fantastic for present mention in what is a tripartite, polite biological society; nevertheless, it is within the range of possibility that they may some day call for serious consideration’ [37]. About Bridges? Another half-century was to elapse before Lynn Margulis and others demonstrated that mitochondria and of computer, chloroplasts do indeed derive from bacterial endosymbionts [38]; and even then, not without a fight. I doubt that the idea of endosymbiosis would have shocked Leeuwenhoek; nor would he have been much surprised by the contemptuous disbelief of many biologists over decades. Another unifying theory came from biochemistry, and fittingly drew inspiration from Leeuwenhoek's hometown of Delft (described by the Earl of Leicester, once Governor-General of the Netherlands, as ‘another London almost for beauty and fairness'). The pioneer of thesis comparative biochemistry, Albert Kluyver, was Professor of Microbiology in the Technical University of Delft from words, 1922 until his death in thesis, 1956. More than anyone else, Kluyver appreciated that biochemistry unified life [39].

He realized that different types of respiration (he cites sulfate reduction, denitrification and in 500 words, methanogenesis) are fundamentally equivalent, all involving the transfer of electrons from a donor to an acceptor. He appreciated that all forms of respiration and fermentation are united in that they all drive growth by statement about bridges, means of phosphorylation. Of Computer? Such parallels made the startling differences between cells explicable, a discovery he cherished as ‘highly edifying to thesis statement bridges the scientific mind’ [40]. He expressed this unity in the awkward phrase ‘From elephant to butyric acid bacterium—it is study all the same’, later paraphrased, more memorably but without attribution, by Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod as ‘that old axiom ‘what is true for bacteria is also true for elephants’’. Kluyver, in a seminal passage, recognized that the fundamental unity of biochemistry ‘opens the statement bridges way for a better appreciation of evolutionary developments which have taken place in essay writing competition, the microbial world, since the antithesis between the aerobic and bridges, anaerobic mode of life has been largely removed’ [40]. The unity of biochemistry, then, gave the brunei writing competition first insights into the evolution of the astonishing variety of ‘little animals', which until then had remained a mystery, their provenance as wholly unknown as in Leeuwenhoek's time. Kluyver's student Cornelis van Niel, together with Roger Stanier, made some headway in the 1940s before despairing of the endeavour altogether.

By the time they published their famous essay ‘The concept of a bacterium’ in 1961 they no longer cared to statement about bridges defend their own earlier taxonomic systems [41]; they sought only to distinguish bacteria (prokaryotic cells, lacking a nucleus) from larger eukaryotic protists, all of which have a nucleus. Essay? In this, they were remarkably perspicacious, commenting: ‘The differences between eukaryotic and thesis, prokaryotic cells are not expressed in any gross features of cellular function; they reside rather in differences with respect to essay the detailed organization of the cellular machinery ’ [41]. They cite the examples of respiration and photosynthesis, found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells: ‘But in the prokaryotic cell, these metabolic unit processes are performed by an apparatus which always shows a much smaller degree of statement about bridges specific organization. In fact, one can say that no unit of single case study structure smaller than the cell in its entirety is recognizable as the thesis statement about site of either metabolic unit process ' [41]. This is a beautiful insight, worthy of Leeuwenhoek himself. In eukaryotes, respiration and photosynthesis are conducted in essay, mitochondria and chloroplasts, respectively, and continue perfectly well in thesis about, isolation from the what is a rest of the cell, as all the soluble enzymes needed are constrained within the bridges bioenergetic membranes of the organelle. In bacteria, by contrast, the enzymes required are split between the cell membrane (whether invaginated or otherwise) and the cytosol, making the essay competition bacterium as a whole the indivisible functional unit. This distinction applies as much to cyanobacteria (classed as algae, not bacteria, by Ernst Haeckel and about, later systematists) as to other bacteria. Stanier and is a thesis, van Niel therefore argued that bacteria are a single (monophyletic) group, all similar in their basic plan, but insisted that any further attempts to define phylogeny were hopeless. The timing was unfortunate.

Francis Crick had already advocated the thesis statement use of molecular sequences as a wonderfully sensitive phylogenetic signal, writing in 1958: ‘Biologists should realize that before long we shall have a subject which might be called ‘protein taxonomy’—the study of amino acid sequences of proteins of an organism and the comparison of what is a them between species. It can be argued that these sequences are the most delicate expression possible of the about phenotype of an organism and that vast amounts of evolutionary information may be hidden away within them’ [42]. Soon afterwards, Zuckerkandl Pauling [43] formalized the argument with sequence data; and is a, a mere two decades later, Carl Woese published his first tree of life [44]. Woese [45] was soon dismissing Stanier and bridges, van Niel as epitomising the dark ages of microbiology, when microbiologists had given up any prospect of a true phylogeny. Woese's tree was based on ribosomal RNA. He showed that prokaryotes are not monophyletic at all, but subdivide into two great domains, the bacteria and essay writing, archaea. Later work, which used other methods to ‘root’ the tree [46], portrayed the eukaryotes as a ‘sister group’ to the archaea [47]. For the first time, it seemed possible to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships between Leeuwenhoek's animalcules in an evolutionary tree of thesis about bridges life. Questions? Woese and his co-workers went so far as to argue that the term prokaryote was obsolete, being an invalid negative definition (i.e. prokaryotes are defined by the absence of a nucleus; [48]).

The three domains tree is still the standard text book view. Even so, for all its revolutionary appeal, Woese's tree is the apotheosis of a reductionist molecular view of evolution, based on thesis statement bridges constructing trees from a single gene. It is ironic that, later in brunei writing competition, life, Woese called for a more holistic biology, while refusing to countenance the statement bridges limitations of gandhi in 500 his single-gene tree [49]. More recent work, based on whole genome sequences, has undermined Woese's narrow viewpoint. While the sisterhood of archaea and eukaryotes is upheld for a core of informational genes—genes involved in DNA replication, transcription and translation—it is not at all true for most other genes in eukaryotes, which are more closely related to bacteria than archaea. Woese's iconic tree is thesis statement bridges therefore profoundly misleading, and should be seen strictly as a tree of one gene only: it is not a tree of essay questions life. We cannot infer what a cell might have looked like, or how it might have lived in the past, on statement the basis of its ribosomal genotype. Eukaryotes are now plainly seen to be genomic chimeras, apparently formed in a singular endosymbiosis between an writing competition archaeal host cell and a bacterium around 1.5 billion years ago [50]. This chimerism cannot be depicted on a normal branching phylogenetic tree, because endosymbiosis involves fusion of branches, not bifurcation, producing instead a striking composite tree, depicted beautifully (and presciently, as this is thesis bridges still accurate) by Bill Martin in 1998 [51] (figure 5). Bill Martin and I have since argued that the singular endosymbiosis at the origin of eukaryotes, which gave rise to mitochondria, increased the energy available per gene in eukaryotic cells by a breath-taking three to questions for tangerine five orders of magnitude [52].

That overcame the pervasive energetic constraints faced by bacteria, enabling a massive expansion in thesis statement about bridges, cell volume and genome size, and permitting the evolution of many eukaryotic traits from the nucleus to sex and phagocytosis (all of which were first reported by Leeuwenhoek himself). This view accords nicely with Stanier and van Niel's conception of prokaryotes as the indivisible functional unit; mitochondria are functional energetic units, pared down bacteria that can be replicated to generate more power. Mahatma Essay? It might be that eukaryotes had to evolve by way of an endosymbiosis, for these bioenergetic reasons. A tree of statement about bridges life drawn by Bill Martin in 1998, reflecting whole genomes. The tree shows the mahatma in 500 chimeric origin of eukaryotes, in which an archaeal host cell acquired bacterial endosymbionts that evolved into mitochondria; and the later acquisition of chloroplasts in Plantae . About? Reproduced with permission from [51]. Copyright 1999 © John Wiley Sons, Inc. Even in the absence of endosymbiosis, the idea of a true phylogenetic tree of life is undermined by the prevalence of lateral gene transfer in both bacteria and archaea. Informational genes, including ribosomal RNA, are generally inherited vertically, giving a robust phylogenetic signal, but such genes account for barely 1% of a bacterial genome, and much of the rest is passed around between cells by case study, lateral gene transfer, confounding deep phylogenetic signals.

A potentially revolutionary new study shows that the major archaeal groups originated with the lateral acquisition of bacterial genes [53]. Thesis Statement About? Ironically, the unity of biochemistry—Kluyver's edifying guide to evolution—is the mahatma essay in english in 500 root problem: the universality of the genetic code, intermediary metabolism and energy conservation (e.g. the shared mechanism of thesis statement bridges respiration) means that genes are an exchangeable currency, and essay writing competition, facilitate adaptation to the endless variety of thesis bridges external conditions. Again, the link between the ribosomal genotype of an essay of computer a prokaryotic cell and thesis about bridges, its phenotype—the way it makes a living—is forever changing. Ford Doolittle notes that pervasive genetic chimerism means that ‘no hierarchical universal classification can be taken as natural’ [54]; the universal tree of life is a human foible and not a true representation of the real world. As Doolittle observes, ‘Biologists might rejoice in and explore, rather than regret or attempt to dismiss, the creative evolutionary role of lateral gene transfer’ [54]. The tree of life promises a hierarchical order, and an essay of computer, takes authority from Darwin himself, but in microbes at least it is not sustained by the very genetic sequences that made such phylogeny possible. ‘Early evolution without a tree of life’ [55] might seem an alarming vista to many, but Leeuwenhoek would surely have felt at home. He was happiest without a compass.

Perhaps that, more than anything else, is the lesson we still need to learn from Leeuwenhoek today. There is thesis about a danger of complacency in brunei essay writing, biology, a feeling that the statement immense computational power of the modern age will ultimately resolve the questions of biology, and gandhi essay words, medical research more broadly. But pathophysiology stems from statement, physiology, and essay, physiology is a product of thesis statement evolution, largely at the level of cells. Is A? The eukaryotic cell seems to have arisen in a singular endosymbiosis between prokaryotes, and eukaryotes share a large number of basic traits, few of which are known in anything like the same form in thesis statement about, bacteria or archaea. We know of no surviving evolutionary intermediates between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We know almost nothing about which factors drove the essay writing evolution of many basal eukaryotic traits, from the nucleus to meiosis and statement, sex, to cell death—traits first observed by Leeuwenhoek.

Why did meiosis and sex arise from lateral gene transfer in bacteria? Why did the what is a nucleus evolve in statement bridges, eukaryotes but not in what is a, bacteria or archaea? What prevents bacteria from statement about, engulfing other cells by phagocytosis? There is no agreement on the answers to these questions, nor more broadly to a question that might easily have been asked by Leeuwenhoek himself—why is art admission life the statement way it is? Some of us have argued that eukaryotic evolution is explicable in terms of the detailed mechanisms of on history energy conservation, with an statement bridges allied requirement for what is a tripartite endosymbiosis leading to conflict and coadaptation between endosymbionts and their host cells [56]. But these arguments still lack rigorous proof, as do all alternative hypotheses.

In the statement about meantime, we have at best an unreliable map of the land that enchanted Leeuwenhoek. We should rejoice and explore. Nick Lane is a Reader in Evolutionary Biochemistry in the Department of competition Genetics, Evolution and Environment at statement University College London. His research is on the role of bioenergetics in art admission essay, the origin of statement about bridges life and essay in 500 words, the early evolution of cells, focusing on the importance of endosymbiosis and cellular structure in thesis bridges, determining the course of evolution. Nick was awarded the inaugural UCL Provost's Venture Research Fellowship in 2009, the on history BMC Research Award for Genetics, Genomics, Bioinformatics and statement bridges, Evolution in 2011, and the Biochemical Society Award for 2015.

He leads the UCL Research Frontiers Origins of Life programme and essay questions for tangerine, was a founding member of the UCL Consortium for thesis statement bridges Mitochondrial Research. He has published some 70 research papers and articles, co-edited two volumes and written four critically acclaimed books on evolutionary biochemistry, which have been translated into single study, 20 languages. His book Life Ascending won the 2010 Royal Society Prize for Science Books.

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20 Basic Resume Writing Rules That#39;ll Put You Ahead of the thesis about, Competition. If you’re thinking about taking a new step in your career, your resume’s probably high on your mind. When’s the last time you updated it? How will you transfer the skills from gandhi in english in 500, your current job or industry to a new one? How will you set yourself apart from thesis bridges, other candidates? How long and horrible will this revision process actually be? Just asking these questions can be exhausting, let alone actually answering them. And, if you’re not fresh off the what thesis, job search, the thought of statement about bridges, thinking everything through and creating an interview-worthy resume can be exhausted. Fear not! We’ve come up with the 20 basic rules that will get you that much closer to success. This is a biggie!

If a hiring manager’s spending six seconds looking at mahatma essay your resume, he or she might not even get to the second page! Unless you’re applying to be an executive or a partner somewhere, one page will be sufficient and is a widely accepted “best practice.” To cut it down, remember the purpose of it—it’s not to showcase everything you’ve ever done, but rather to show that you have the background, skills, and experience for thesis bridges, the job at mahatma gandhi in english in 500 hand. 2. Avoid Spelling or Grammar Errors. Another biggie. Thesis Statement About? There are some recruiters who will discount your resume the second they see a spelling or grammar error. Although it can be painful, make sure you don’t just read over your resume several times, but also that you have a friend take a peek, too. This is another common error that can really hurt you in an essay on history of computer, the eyes of about bridges, hiring managers.

As a general rule, if something on questions for tangerine your resume is in statement about, the past, use the past tense (managed, delivered, organized) and brunei essay writing, if you are still actively in the role, use the about bridges, present tense (manage, deliver, organize). An Essay On History? 4. Avoid the thesis statement bridges, First Person Pronouns. Single Study? As a general practice, don’t use words like “I” or “me” or “my.” So, instead of thesis bridges, saying “I hit and art admission, exceeded company sales quotas 100% of the time” say “Hit and exceeded sales quotas 100% of the statement about bridges, time.” Saving your resume as a PDF (rather than a Word and document) freezes it as an image so that you can be sure hiring managers see the same formatting as you. If you send it any other way, there’s a chance that the styling, format, font, and so on, could look different on their computer than yours. Of Computer? 6. Label Your Resume File Correctly.

Too many people save this important document with random or generic file names like sgks123.pdf or resume.pdf. Remember that recruiters can see the name of the thesis about bridges, file that you send them and also remember that they get tons of resumes every day. Make it super clear whose resume they should click on by saving it under a logical name like FirstName_LastName_Resume.pdf. Art Admission Essay? Even more important than naming the file in a logical manner is statement about bridges laying out your resume in a logical manner. How you lay it out really depends on essay where you are in thesis, your career path and what you’re looking to do next. While chronological the art admission essay, default, it’s not always the best way to statement, make your case. Muse writer Lily Zhang lays out the other options that might work better for you. You might be tempted to just shrink the essay writing competition, text to get your resume to fit on a page. (Which is funny, because remember all those times in school when you made it 12.5 to make it longer? Life!) While you can adjust the statement bridges, size to some degree, never go below 10-point font.

9. Keep it Organized and single case, Visually Appealing. Remember how hiring managers usually spend just six seconds looking at your resume? Help them maximize that time by making your resume super clear and thesis statement, easy-to-read. You want each section bolded (maybe capitalized) and each job title bolded. Art Admission Essay? Make your life easier by using a template. Just like you want your verb tenses to be consistent throughout, it’s also important that the formatting is, too. If one title’s bold, the other titles should be bold.

If one bullet point has a period at the end, the other bullet points should have that as well. When you list out your experience, be sure to include context. What city, state (or country) did this job take place in. Thesis Statement About? Did you travel and operate in art admission essay, multiple cities? What dates did you have that experience?

Was it for statement about, five months or five years? Context matters! Anyone can say that he or she excelled at his or her last job. So, you need to prove to the hiring manager that you truly did. Numbers, percentages, and thesis, supporting facts go a long way in showing that you have a track record of success. For example, rather than saying “successfully hit sales quotas” as a bullet point in your resume you should say “successfully hit sales quotas 100% of the time and exceeded goals by 25% in the last 5 months.” You can even do this if your position doesn’t involve using numbers.

13. Name Drop (and Title Drop) Like You’ve Never Done Before. This is your chance to brag. Thesis Bridges? If you got a promotion or a raise because of gandhi in english words, your performance, you should mention it. If you worked with the bridges, CEO of the company or were a point of contact for a large, corporate customer, mention their names! This goes a long way in essay for tangerine, showing that you can run with important people. It shows that you’re confident. It shows that you’re capable. (Of course, make sure you’re presenting the facts accurately and not exaggerating.) WANT AN EXPERT TO HELP YOU PERFECT THE RESUME. . and get you way ahead of the competition?

Don’t use any of your precious space to include the names and thesis statement, contact info for case, your references (or to bridges, write things like “references available upon request”). This document’s for recruiters to decide if they want to talk to art admission essay, you, not your references. Thesis About? If they get to the point in the application process where they want to speak to what is a tripartite, these people, they will reach out to you and ask for about bridges, those names. Until then, no need to mention. 15. Use Your Judgement When it Comes to Creativity. What Is A Tripartite? Some industries are more creative than others. If you’re working in digital media or design or elementary school education, it might make sense for your resume to be creative and colored. If you’re applying for a job in finance, operations, or most corporate jobs, you probably want to keep it black and white and structured.

Be thoughtful when it comes to your creativity (or lack thereof). 16. Don’t List Everything You’ve Ever Done. There should be a purpose for every word. When you’re writing and editing, ask yourself this question, “Will this sentence help me get the job I want?” If not, you should consider editing that sentence or removing it. 17. Think About the thesis about, Person Reading Your Resume.

It’s important to remember that there’s a real person reading this. Essay Questions? And it’s also important to remember that it’s her job to find awesome candidates to about bridges, interview and present to her boss or team. It’s also not her job to do you any favors. So you should think about her when you’re writing your resume. How can you make her job easier?

How can you write your resume in such a way that she gets excited when she sees it, thinks you’re perfect for the job, and is a thesis, is willing to put herself out thesis there by presenting you to single case study, her team. 18. Think About What Makes You Different. It’s important that you be yourself during the application process (obviously putting your best foot forward). This includes what you write on your application materials. Don’t hesitate to thesis about bridges, show who you really are, your likes and interests, your personality, what makes you unique, and so on. While this definitely requires some judgment calls (for example, expressing personality when applying for a traditional role in a traditional industry might not be the best move) it could ultimately be the thing that sets you apart and gets you hired. After all, these are real people hiring you and they’d probably prefer to work with someone who’s enjoyable and a good culture fit. And if your personality isn’t a fit for the job, you probably wouldn’t have been happy there any way so it works out for everyone. 19. Think About the Specific Job You’re Applying To.

One of my favorite tricks to help communicate that you are the perfect person for a job is to in english in 500, read the bridges, job description and list out key phrases. Then, when you’re writing or editing your resume, find ways to for tangerine, incorporate those words and phrases from the desired job description into thesis, your resume. This can be super useful when a machine or human recruiter skims it. 20. Think of This as a Storytelling Document. Many of the tips that I’ve mentioned all point to the general idea that your resume should clearly and concisely tell the mahatma gandhi essay words, story of “you”—helping hiring managers understand why you’re the thesis statement, right person for the job.

This is, in fact, the entire purpose. Essay? Ultimately, when you re-read and edit it, make sure that it tells the story of your background, the skills you gained along the way, the experiences that you’ve had, and makes it crystal clear why you’ve ended up where you are today and thesis about bridges, why the role that they are hiring for is the perfect next step for you. Photo of hands on computer courtesy of Dougal Waters/Getty Images#46; Jody loves anything that has to do with people, business, and single study, technology. With these passions (and perhaps the fact that her parents are a psychologist and a counselor) it only makes sense that Jody manages Coach Connect at The Muse. In her spare time, Jody enjoys writing, spending copious amounts of time outside, falling in love with NYC, and visiting friends and family in North Carolina. (Go Heels!) Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

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Jimmy's mother says. Later, Crake references Alexander Pope's An Essay on Man, (The proper study of bridges Mankind in Man, The proper study of Mankind is competition Everything), which is a rationalistic effort to use philosophy in thesis statement about bridges order to vindicate the ways of God to man, illustrating to the reader that Crake is considering the. Human , Human behavior , Margaret Atwood 996 Words | 3 Pages. ?Margret Copland September 23, 2011 English Evaluation Essay Suddenly the alarms went off and the city of Silent Hill turned into its . burned and ruined self. Mahatma! Rose and the cop began to run into a room as they saw an enormous red pyramid head butcher appear and thesis about bridges, pieces of debris flying in the air. Essay! They safely shut the statement bridges, door and essay questions for tangerine, took deep breathes to thesis statement about, relax. Unexpectedly, the butcher’s knife piercethrough the door and bugs amassed in. The blade swung from case study side to side, while the two women dodged its. A Nightmare on Elm Street , Film , Freddy Krueger 1063 Words | 3 Pages. Briar Rose Essay To understand the universality of human nature we can explore common traits and about bridges, characteristics, many of an essay which are . prevalent in Jane Yolen's novel, Briar Rose. Yolen produces a very powerful and complex novel exploring the statement about bridges, emotional aftermath of the single case study, Holocaust.

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Technically. But 43 percent . is a lot of dirty looks when you are one of essay competition those gay and lesbian couples, no? A recent essay by Patty Onderko in the current issue of Parenting magazine explores that question, and concludes that yes, the bridges, world feels more embracing to at least one lesbian mother lately. She writes: And here is the art admission, moment I hate: the Explaining of the Situation. Family , Homosexuality , Lesbian 848 Words | 3 Pages. Short Essay Four: The Fall of the Roman Empire The question of what led to the decline of the Roman Empire is a complex . About! subject which historians have debated for of computer, centuries. Edward Gibbon suggested in the late 1700’s that the thesis statement, moral fabric of the mahatma essay in 500, Roman citizenry was inferior to that of the thesis statement about, victorious barbarian invaders. Of Computer! Joseph A. Tainter attributes the downfall of thesis statement Rome to the inherent difficulties any society will encounter when expanding beyond its means.

This idea seems especially. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Christianity 1566 Words | 3 Pages.

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Licensed Practical and thesis statement bridges Licensed Vocational Nurses. Licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) provide basic nursing care. They work under the direction of registered nurses and doctors. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses work in many settings, including nursing homes and extended care facilities, hospitals, physicians’ offices, and private homes. Is A! Most work full time. How to Become a Licensed Practical or Licensed Vocational Nurse.

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses must complete a state-approved educational program, which typically takes about 1 year to about, complete. They must also be licensed. The median annual wage for essay competition, licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses was $44,090 in May 2016. Employment of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses is projected to grow 16 percent from thesis 2014 to 2024, much faster than the average for all occupations. On History Of Computer! As the baby-boom population ages, the overall need for healthcare services is expected to increase.

LPNs and thesis LVNs will be needed in residential care facilities and in home health environments to care for older patients. Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses. Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and gandhi words pay of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses with similar occupations. More Information, Including Links to O*NET. Learn more about licensed practical and thesis about bridges licensed vocational nurses by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and gandhi in 500 occupations. What Licensed Practical and thesis about Licensed Vocational Nurses Do About this section. Licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) provide basic medical care. They work under the direction of registered nurses and an essay doctors. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses typically do the bridges, following: Monitor patients’ health—for example, by checking their blood pressure Administer basic patient care, including changing bandages and inserting catheters Provide for brunei, the basic comfort of patients, such as helping them bathe or dress Discuss the care they are providing with patients and listen to thesis statement, their concerns Report patients’ status and essay competition concerns to registered nurses and doctors Keep records on patients’ health. Duties of LPNs and thesis statement about bridges LVNs vary, depending on their work setting and the state in which they work.

For example, they may reinforce teaching done by registered nurses regarding how family members should care for questions for tangerine, a relative; help to deliver, care for, and feed infants; collect samples for testing and thesis statement about do routine laboratory tests; or feed patients who need help eating. LPNs and LVNs may be limited to doing certain tasks, depending on the state where they work. For example, in some states, LPNs with proper training can give medication or start intravenous (IV) drips, but in other states LPNs cannot perform these tasks. State regulations also govern the extent to case, which LPNs and LVNs must be directly supervised. For example, an LPN may provide certain forms of care only with instructions from a registered nurse. In some states, experienced licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses oversee and thesis statement about direct other LPNs or LVNs and unlicensed medical staff.

Work Environment About this section. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses held about study 719,900 jobs in 2014. The largest employers of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses were as follows: Nurses must often be on thesis about, their feet for much of the day and may have to lift patients who have trouble moving in bed, standing, or walking. These duties can be stressful, as can dealing with ill and injured people. Most licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses work full time, although about 1 in 5 worked part time in essay, 2014. Thesis About Bridges! Many LPNs and single case study LVNs work shifts during nights, weekends, or holidays, because patients need medical care at all hours. Bridges! They may be required to work shifts of longer than 8 hours. How to Become a Licensed Practical or Licensed Vocational Nurse About this section. Becoming a licensed practical or licensed vocational nurse (LPN or LVN) requires completing an approved educational program.

LPNs and LVNs also must have a license. LPNs and LVNs must complete an approved educational program. Essay Writing Competition! These programs award a certificate or diploma and typically take about 1 year to complete, but may take longer. They are commonly found in technical schools and about community colleges, although some programs may be available in high schools or hospitals. Practical nursing programs combine classroom learning in subjects such as nursing, biology, and pharmacology. All programs also include supervised clinical experience. Contact state boards of nursing for lists of approved programs.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations. After completing a state-approved educational program, prospective LPNs and LVNs can take the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX-PN). In all states, they must pass the exam to what is a tripartite thesis, get a license and work as an LPN or LVN. For more information on the NCLEX-PN examination and a list of state boards of nursing, visit the bridges, National Council of State Boards of Nursing. LPNs and LVNs may choose to brunei essay, become certified through professional associations in areas such as gerontology and IV therapy. Certifications show that an LPN or LVN has an advanced level of knowledge about a specific subject. In addition, employers may prefer to hire candidates who are trained to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Compassion. Licensed practical and thesis licensed vocational nurses must be empathetic and tripartite thesis caring toward the people they serve. Detail oriented.

LPNs and LVNs need to be responsible and detail oriented, because they must make sure that patients get the correct care at the right time. Interpersonal skills. Interacting with patients and other healthcare providers is a big part of their jobs, so LPNs and LVNs need good interpersonal skills. Patience. Dealing with sick and injured people may be stressful.

LPNs and LVNs should be patient, so they can cope with any stress that stems from providing care to these patients. Physical stamina. LPNs and LVNs should be comfortable performing physical tasks, such as bending over patients for a long time. Speaking skills. It is important that LPNs and thesis statement LVNs be able to essay for tangerine, communicate effectively. For example, they may need to relay information about a patient’s current condition to statement about bridges, a registered nurse. With experience, licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses may advance to supervisory positions.

Some LPNs and LVNs advance to other healthcare occupations. For example, an gandhi in 500 LPN may complete a LPN to RN education program to become a registered nurse . Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses. Median annual wages, May 2016. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S.

Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics. The median annual wage for licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses was $44,090 in May 2016. The median wage is the wage at thesis statement bridges which half the is a tripartite thesis, workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $32,510, and thesis about bridges the highest 10 percent earned more than $60,420.

In May 2016, the median annual wages for licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses in art admission essay, the top industries in which they worked were as follows: Most licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses work full time, although about 1 in thesis about bridges, 5 worked part time in 2014. Many work nights, weekends, and holidays, because medical care takes place at all hours. They may be required to work shifts of longer than 8 hours. Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses. Percent change in art admission essay, employment, projected 2014-24. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program.

Employment of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses is projected to grow 16 percent from 2014 to 2024, much faster than the average for all occupations. As the baby-boom population ages, the overall need for healthcare services is expected to increase. Statement! LPNs and art admission LVNs will be needed in residential care facilities and in about, home health environments to care for older patients. A number of chronic conditions, such as diabetes and brunei obesity, have become more prevalent in recent years. Thesis! LPNs and LVNs will be needed to assist and care for brunei essay writing, patients with chronic conditions in skilled nursing and thesis about bridges other extended care facilities. Single Study! In addition, many procedures that once could be done only in about bridges, hospitals are now being done outside of hospitals, creating demand in other settings, such as outpatient care centers. The number of art admission essay individuals who have access to health insurance is expected to continue to increase because of federal health insurance reform.

LPNs will be needed, particularly in ambulatory care settings, to care for the newly insured who seek primary and preventative care services. High emotional and physical demands may cause workers to leave the occupation, creating potential job openings. Job prospects should be favorable for statement about, LPNs and LVNs who are willing to work in rural and medically underserved areas. SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses. State Area Data About this section. Occupational Employment Statistics (OES)

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program produces employment and essay questions for tangerine wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OES data maps for employment and wages by state and area. Occupational employment projections are developed for statement bridges, all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at essay competition www.projectionscentral.com. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved. America’s Career InfoNet includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code. Similar Occupations About this section.

This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses. Nursing assistants, sometimes called nursing aides , help provide basic care for patients in thesis about bridges, hospitals and residents of long-term care facilities, such as nursing homes. Orderlies transport patients and clean treatment areas. Occupational Therapy Assistants and questions for tangerine Aides. Occupational therapy assistants and statement bridges aides help patients develop, recover, and improve the skills needed for daily living and working. Occupational therapy assistants are directly involved in providing therapy to patients; occupational therapy aides typically perform support activities. Both assistants and aides work under the direction of occupational therapists. Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides. Physical therapist assistants, sometimes called PTAs , and art admission essay physical therapist aides work under the direction and supervision of physical therapists. They help patients who are recovering from injuries and illnesses regain movement and thesis statement manage pain.

Psychiatric Technicians and Aides. Psychiatric technicians and aides care for people who have mental illness and developmental disabilities. Technicians typically provide therapeutic care and monitor their patients’ conditions. Aides help patients in essay questions, their daily activities and ensure a safe, clean environment. Registered nurses (RNs) provide and coordinate patient care, educate patients and the public about various health conditions, and provide advice and emotional support to patients and their family members. Surgical technologists, also called operating room technicians , assist in surgical operations. They prepare operating rooms, arrange equipment, and help doctors during surgeries. Contacts for More Information About this section. For more information about licensed practical or licensed vocational nurses, visit. For more information about the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX-PN) and a list of thesis statement about bridges individual state boards of nursing, visit.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of of computer Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition , Licensed Practical and bridges Licensed Vocational Nurses, Publish Date: Thursday, December 17, 2015. The What They Do tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties.

The Work Environment tab includes the number of jobs held in the occupation and brunei essay writing competition describes the workplace, the statement, level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked. It may also discuss the major industries that employed the occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for is a tripartite thesis, part-time work, the amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is used, and the risk of injury that workers may face. The How to Become One tab describes how to prepare for a job in the occupation. This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and certification, and thesis statement about bridges important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in the occupation. The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. Art Admission Essay! This tab may also provide information on earnings in bridges, the major industries employing the occupation. The State and Area Data tab provides links to state and area occupational data from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and occupational information from the Department of Labor's CareerOneStop.

The Job Outlook tab describes the what tripartite, factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job openings. The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in the profile. The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. Thesis Statement Bridges! This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers was $37,040.

Additional training needed (postemployment) to brunei essay writing competition, attain competency in thesis, the skills needed in this occupation. Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Work experience in a related occupation. Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of training or education. The employment, or size, of brunei this occupation in 2014, which is the base year of the 2014-24 employment projections. The projected percent change in about bridges, employment from 2014 to 2024. The average growth rate for art admission essay, all occupations is bridges, 7 percent. The projected numeric change in essay, employment from statement about bridges 2014 to 2024. Typical level of education that most workers need to in english, enter this occupation.

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in thesis statement about, the skills needed in this occupation. Employment Change, projected 2014-24. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The percent change of employment for each occupation from 2014 to 2024. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less.

Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the median annual wage for essay, all workers was $37,040.