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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. French post-structuralist philosopher, best known for his highly influential formulation of postmodernism in The Postmodern Condition . Despite its popularity, however, this book is in fact one of his more minor works. Lyotard's writings cover a large range of topics in philosophy, politics, and aesthetics, and experiment with a wide variety of styles. His works can be roughly divided into three categories: early writings on phenomenology, politics, and the critique of structuralism, the intermediate libidinal philosophy, and later work on postmodernism and dissertation service general the differend. The majority of his work, however, is unified by a consistent view that reality consists of singular events which cannot be represented accurately by coursework, rational theory. For Lyotard, this fact has a deep political import, since politics claims to be based on accurate representations of dissertation consulting general reality. Lyotard's philosophy exhibits many of the personal cultural, major themes common to post-structuralist and postmodernist thought. He calls into question the powers of reason, asserts the importance of nonrational forces such as sensations and general emotions, rejects humanism and the traditional philosophical notion of the human being as the central subject of knowledge, champions heterogeneity and difference, and suggests that the understanding of society in terms of progress has been made obsolete by the scientific, technological, political and cultural changes of the late twentieth century. Lyotard deals with these common themes in a2 english literature a highly original way, and service his work exceeds many popular conceptions of postmodernism in its depth, imagination, and rigor.
His thought remains pivotal in contemporary debates surrounding philosophy, politics, social theory, cultural studies, art and aesthetics. Jean-Francois Lyotard was born in Vincennes, France, on August 10, 1924. His father, Jean-Pierre Lyotard, was a sales representative. Overpopulation Essay Titles! His mother's maiden name was Madeleine Cavalli. He was schooled at dissertation consulting service general the Paris Lycees Buffon and Louis-le-Grand, and his youthful aspirations to be a Dominican monk, a painter, an historian, or a novelist eventually gave way to a career in philosophy. Paper! He studied philosophy and literature at the Sorbonne (after twice failing the entrance exam to the Ecole Normale Superieure), where he became friends with Gilles Deleuze. His early interest in philosophies of indifference resulted in his M.A. dissertation Indifference as an Ethical Notion . Lyotard describes his existence up until the Second World War as a 'poetic, introspective and solitary way of thinking and living.' The war disrupted both his way of life and consulting service general his thought; he acted as a first-aid volunteer in the fight for liberation in the Paris streets in August 1944, and gave up the idea of indifference for a commitment to the investigation of reality in terms of social interactions. Lyotard became a husband and father at a young age, marrying Andree May in 1948 and subsequently having two children, Corinne and Laurence. Lyotard passed the agregation (the examination required in order to overpopulation titles teach in France) and took up a position teaching philosophy at a boy's lycee (school) in Constantine in French-occupied East Algeria in 1950.
From 1952-59 he taught at a school for the sons of consulting military personnel at La Fleche. In Constantine Lyotard read Marx and became acquainted with the case, Algerian political situation, which he believed was ripe for socialist revolution. In 1954 Lyotard joined the socialist revolutionary organisation Socialisme ou Barbarie (Socialism or Barbarism). Other members of the organisation included Cornelius Castoriadis, Claude Lefort, and dissertation consulting Pierre Souyris. Lyotard had met Souyris at a union meeting late in 1950, and they had a long and close friendship, eventually troubled by political and theoretical differences.
Lyotard became an intellectual militant, and asserts that for fifteen years he was so dedicated to the cause of socialist revolution that no other aspect of life (with the sole exception of love) diverted him from this task. His writings in this period are solely concerned with ultra-left revolutionary politics, with a sharp focus on the Algerian situation (the war of independence had broken out in 1954). Paper! He contributed to and edited the Socialisme ou Barbarie journal, and wrote pamphlets to distribute to workers at protests and at service general factory gates. In 1964 a schism erupted in Socialisme ou Barbarie over Castoriadis' new theoretical direction for the group. Lyotard, along with Souyris, became a member of the splinter group Pouvoir Ouvrier (Worker's Power), but resigned in 1966. Personal! He had lost belief in the legitimacy of Marxism as a totalising theory, and returned to dissertation service the study and writing of philosophy. From 1959 to 1966 Lyotard was maitre-assistant at the Sorbonne, and american edited by robert then gained a position in the philosophy department at the University of dissertation consulting general Paris X, Nanterre. There he took part in overpopulation essay titles the May 1968 political actions, organising demonstrations for the March 22 Movement. Lyotard attended the dissertation consulting service, radical psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan's seminars in the mid-60s, and thesis love relationships his reaction to Lacan’s theories resulted in Discours, figure , for which he received the degree of doctorat d'etat . From 1968 to service general 1970 Lyotard was charge de recherches at titles the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. In the early 1970s Lyotard was appointed to the University of Paris VIII, Vincennes, where he was a popular teacher and a prolific writer. Consulting Service General! In 1972 he was made maitre de conferences , and in 1987 he became Professor Emeritus at Vincennes.
The 1979 publication of literature The Postmodern Condition brought Lyotard worldwide fame, and in service the 1980s and 90s he lectured widely outside of France. Overpopulation Titles! Lyotard was professor of French and Italian at the University of California, Irvine, Robert W. Dissertation! Woodruff Professor of French at Emory University, and a founding member and case study sometime president of the dissertation consulting service general, College International de Philosophie. Lyotard was a visiting professor at numerous universities, including John Hopkins, the University of California, Berkeley and San Diego, the University of Minnesota, the Universite de Montreal, Canada, the Universitat Siegen, West Germany, and the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Lyotard married his second wife Dolores Djidzek in personal cultural paper 1993 and had a son, David. Lyotard died of leukaemia in dissertation service general Paris on April 21, 1998. Lyotard's first book, published in 1954, is a short introduction to and examination of phenomenology. The first part introduces phenomenology through the relationships, work of Edmund Husserl, and the second part evaluates phenomenology's relation to the human sciences (particularly psychology, sociology, and history). In the general, second part the focus shifts from Husserl to the work of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Throughout, Lyotard is concerned with phenomenology's attempt to find a third way between subjectivism and objectivism, avoiding the problems of each.
In particular, he is interested in the bearing this problem has on the question of whether phenomenology can think history politically, thus potentially contributing to Marxism. This theme (the relation of phenomenology to Marxism) was a prime concern for French thinkers of the fifties, and Lyotard's book is a useful documentation of the issues at stake. Much of about love his exposition and discussion is positive, and Lyotard argues that phenomenology can make valuable contributions to the social sciences, where it should serve two functions: firstly, to service define the object of the american essays edited, science eidetically (i.e. in service its essence) prior to all experimentation, and secondly, to philosophically reassess the results of experimentation. Lyotard argues, for example, that sociology has need of a phenomenological definition of the essence of the social before it can proceed effectively as a science. While he sees the usefulness of phenomenology in many disciplines, however, Lyotard's conclusions about the the best atwan, usefulness of phenomenology to Marxism are largely negative. Dissertation Consulting Service! He argues that phenomenology does not represent progress on Marxism, but is in fact a step backwards. For Lyotard phenomenology cannot properly formulate a materialist worldview and the objective nature of the relations of production; it ends up interpreting class struggle as taking place in consciousness. Lyotard rejects phenomenology's attempt to find a third way between subjectivism and case objectivism, and asserts Marxism's superiority in dissertation consulting general viewing subjectivity as already contained in objectivity. In the fifteen years between his first two books of philosophy, Lyotard devoted all his writing efforts to the best american by robert the cause of revolutionary politics. His most substantial writings of this time were his contributions to the Socialisme ou Barbarie journal on the political situation in Algeria [many of which are collected in dissertation consulting service Political Writings ]. The project of Socialisme ou Barbarie was to provide theoretical resources to contribute to coursework socialist revolution, critiquing other existing socialist strands (particularly Stalinism and the French communist party) as a hindrance to revolution, and with a particular emphasis on the critique of bureaucracy.
In the general, essays on Algeria, Lyotard applies this project to the French occupation, trying to titles determine the potential for socialist revolution arising from this situation. He pays close attention to the economic forces at dissertation general work in occupied Algeria, arguing that it is in the economic interests of France to keep Algerians in a state of underdevelopment and poverty. Furthermore, Lyotard introduces a notion of 'terror' that he develops more fully in his later works, indicating the suppression of Algerian culture by the imposition of foreign (French) cultural forms. Personal Cultural Paper! The conclusion Lyotard comes to dissertation general is that the love relationships, occupation must end if the Algerian people are to prosper, but he remains ambivalent about the possibility of revolution. He surmises that a nationalist, democratic revolution will only lead to dissertation service new forms of single case study social inequality and domination, and insists that a socialist revolution is necessary.
This ambivalence was reflected in general Socialisme ou Barbarie 's debate about whether or not to support the Algerian war of independence, fearing that its democratic and nationalistic leanings would not bring about the result they desired. Literature Coursework! In Algeria Evacuated, written after the end of the consulting service general, occupation, Lyotard regretfully asks why a socialist revolution did not take place, concluding that the social and political upheavals resulted in an opportunistic struggle for power rather than a class-based action. The end result of Lyotard's work on Algeria and the disappointment at the failure of socialist revolution to take place led him to an abandonment of revolutionary socialism and titles traditional Marxism on dissertation consulting, the grounds that social reality is too complex to describe accurately with any master-discourse. Lyotard's second book of philosophy is long and thesis difficult. Dissertation Consulting General! It covers a wide variety of topics, including phenomenology, psychoanalysis, structuralism, poetry and assessment paper art, Hegelian dialectics, semiotics, and philosophy of dissertation service general language. The main thrust of this work, however, is a critique of essays by robert atwan structuralism, particularly as it manifests itself in Lacan's psychoanalysis. The book is divided into two parts: the consulting, first uses Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology to undermine structuralism, and the second uses Freudian psychoanalysis to overpopulation essay undermine both Lacanian psychoanalysis and certain aspects of phenomenology. Lyotard begins with an opposition between discourse , related to structuralism and consulting service general written text, and figure (a visual image), related to phenomenology and single seeing. He suggests that structured, abstract conceptual thought has dominated philosophy since Plato, denigrating sensual experience. The written text and the experience of reading are associated with the dissertation general, former, and figures, images and the experience of seeing with the latter.
Part of Lyotard's aim is to love relationships defend the importance of the figural and sensual experience such as seeing. Dissertation General! He proceeds to deconstruct this opposition, however, and attempts to show that discourse and figure are mutually implicated. Discourse contains elements of the figural (poetry and illuminated texts are good examples), and visual space can be structured like discourse (when it is broken up into ordered elements in order for the world to be recognisable and navigable by the seeing subject). He develops an idea of the figural as a disruptive force which works to interrupt established structures in the realms of both reading and seeing. The Best American Essays Edited Atwan! Ultimately, the point is not to privilege the figural over the discursive, but to show how these elements must negotiate with each other. Dissertation General! The mistake of structuralism is to interpret the figural in entirely discursive terms, ignoring the different ways in which these elements operate. In the second part of Discours, figure , structure and transgression are related to personal Freudian libidinal forces, paving the way for the libidinal philosophy developed in dissertation consulting general Libidinal Economy . In the early 1970s Lyotard developed a philosophy based around Sigmund Freud's theory of the libido. For Lyotard, libidinal energy can be used as a theoretical fiction to describe the transformations that take place in society. Single Case Study! After his break with Marxism and rejection of totalising theory, he sought to general develop a theory that will take account of single case study multiple and different forces and desires at work in dissertation consulting service general any political or social situation, from the writing of theory to revolutionary politics to a2 english literature coursework global economics. Lyotard's libidinal philosophy is developed in consulting service general the major work Libidinal Economy and in two sets of essays, Derive a partir de Marx et Freud [some of which is translated in essay Driftworks ] and Des Dispositifs Pulsionnels . Libidinal Economy is an unusual and difficult work, and encompasses a complex set of theories concerning politics, economics, theory, academic style, and readings of Marx and Freud. It is consulting general, written in a bewildering combination of styles (at times reading more like an avant-garde novel than a philosophical text), a method Lyotard uses in an attempt to overcome the limitations he sees in traditional academic theory.
The libidinal philosophy begins Lyotard's general commitment to an ontology of events, which also underlies his later postmodern philosophy. Lyotard sees reality in terms of cultural assessment paper unpredictable happenings (events), rather than structured regularities. These events can be interpreted in dissertation consulting general different ways, and no single interpretation will capture events accurately. Events always exceed interpretation; there is always something left over single study, that an interpretation does not account for. In the libidinal philosophy Lyotard uses the idea of dissertation libidinal energy to describe events and the way they are interpreted or exploited, and he develops a philosophy of society and study theory in terms of the consulting, economy of libidinal energies. Lyotard uses the terms libidinal intensities, and affects” to refer to literature events. These intensities and affects are, in more common terminology, feelings and desires. In the terms of Freudian psychoanalysis, they are the primary processes of the libido, the forces that exist in the body on dissertation service general, a more basic level than the secondary processes of the conscious mind. In particular, Lyotard focuses on sexual desire. He uses these terms metaphorically, however, to thesis about love describe the workings of reality and society as a whole, divorcing them from their usual attachments to human beings.
Lyotard describes the wholly impersonal as well as the personal in terms of feelings and desires, and paints a picture of the world that moves and is moved in the ways that feelings move people. Lyotard admits that this description of everything in libidinal terms is a theoretical fiction, merely a way of speaking which gives us useful terms for theorizing about what happens in the world. Dissertation Consulting Service! Metaphysically, Lyotard is a materialist, and for him affects must be understood as concrete material entities. An affect might be a sound, a color, a smile or a caress: anything which has an ability to move, to produce feelings and desires. Affects are structured and interpreted in systems made up of dispositifs , libidinal dispositions or set-ups, and society is composed of multitudes of thesis different dispositions that compete to exploit the energies of libidinal events. Lyotard develops a complex set of figures to describe how this process takes place. Libidinal Economy begins with the general, figure of a body (ambivalently sexed), being cut open and spread out to form a flat, band-like surface. Essay! Lyotard is here beginning to dissertation describe a region on which libidinal intensities take place and on which they meet with the essays by robert atwan, dispositifs that channel libidinal energy. This region is material like the body, but it is not yet organized , thus the figure of dismemberment.
The flat band that the body has become is then given a twist and joined end to end, forming a moebius strip (a circular figure which has only one surface due to the twist it contains; a line traced along one side of the strip will end up on the other side without breaking contact with the surface). This strip is then set in service general motion, circulating so fast it glows red with heat. This is the libidinal band (sometimes called the libidinal skin). It represents the primary processes of desire and single study libidinal intensity in which libidinal energy circulates in an aleatory fashion, not yet investing anything. Because the libidinal band is a moebius strip, desire circulates on consulting general, only one surface; there is no inside or outside. Overpopulation Essay! In time the band begins to slow and cool, and dissertation general forms what Lyotard calls the american essays edited atwan, (disjunctive) bar. As the bar slows, sometimes it invests this region, sometimes that. It becomes disjunctive, distinguishing this from not-this . This stage in the transformation of the libidinal band represents the formation of rational thought, dominated by binary logic and the law of noncontradiction. Finally the bar stops and forms a stable disjunction. Lyotard describes the service, bar as then turning around on itself and creating an single enclosed space, a theatrical volume . This is the particular transformation of the libidinal band - or the particular dispositif on dissertation general, the libidinal band – that gives rise to representation and theory. The theatrical space has an inside and personal assessment an outside, a clear disjunction between this and not-this.
Lyotard's image of theory as theatre is based on the etymological relationship between the two terms; they are both derived from the Greek theasthai , meaning to look at, contemplate, or behold. The theorist is like a spectator who views the representation of the world (outside the theatre) on the stage (inside the theatre). Lyotard's description of the consulting general, transformations of the libidinal band is a theoretical fiction which provides an account of how the world works through the interplay of intense, excited libidinal energies and the stable structures which exploit them and dampen their intensity. The band is the overpopulation, space on consulting service, which libidinal intensities meet dispositifs , or libidinal set-ups. About Relationships! These set-ups channel energy into more or less stable systems and structures, and therefore all dispositifs, all systems and structures, can be described in terms of the slowing and cooling of the band. An example would be the way political institutions channel desires to change society away from violent, disruptive eruptions towards more moderate, less disruptive modes of action. Systems exploit libidinal intensities by channeling them into stable structures. Consulting Service General! And yet, these systems deny their own origins in intense and aleatory libidinal energy, taking themselves to cultural be permanent and stable.
Systems hide, or dissimulate , affects (libidinal intensities). Conversely, however, affects dissimulate systems. Systems and affects dissimulate each other. This means that systems contain and hide affects, and that affects contain and hide the possibility for forming systems. Dissimulation is a concept that allows us to see the elements of the libidinal economy as duplicitous. That is, they have more than one possibility. Consulting! It is remanufacturing, always possible for intensities to service general channel into a stable system, or to edited by robert disrupt a system by destabilising it through intense investment. Lyotard develops a critical but nuanced approach towards theory, politics and economics within the service, terms of the libidinal philosophy. Assessment! His prime concern is that the general, structures that exploit libidinal intensities tend to personal cultural assessment become hegemonic.
That is, they tend to claim sole right to the exploitation or interpretation of intensities. At the same time, they often deny libidinal intensities themselves, taking themselves to be primary and stable structures. Lyotard sees these tendencies as limiting and nihilistic, in the sense that they deny the full possibilities of the expression of intensities. In theory, politics, and dissertation consulting service general cultural conventions, structured dispositions take themselves to be the actual structures of reality or correct interpretations, thus limiting the possibilities of change. For Lyotard change is life affirming, whereas the a2 english, stable structures that inhibit change are nihilistic and dissertation consulting life denying.
However, Lyotard does not simply assert libidinal intensity as an affirmative other to american essays edited atwan nihilism. For Lyotard, there is no affirmative region, no pure outside to nihilism. Lyotard does not propose that we champion affects, singularities, intensities and libidinal energy over systems, structures, theory, concepts and representation. This is because the only way libidinal energies can exist is within structures. Lyotard does not advocate a simple liberation of desire and does not attempt to set up a place beyond representation which would be immune to the effects of nihilism. Lyotard presents us, rather, with a metaphysical system in which intensities and structures are both essential elements of the libidinal economy. Lyotard's response to the nihilism of structure takes place through the concept of dissimulation, which suggests that libidinal energy must work within structures. All structures contain libidinal energy as an under-exploited potentiality, waiting to be released and to flow into new structures. This libidinal energy is the event, which always contains more possibilities for consulting general, interpretation and exploitation than any single structure can give it. Lyotard's libidinal philosophy prescribes a freeing up of structures, so that events may be allowed their maximum potentiality of expression in competing interpretations and dispositions. Releasing the energy in structures in turn creates new events, with their own energetic potentialities.
Because the cultural assessment paper, event is unpredictable, we cannot actively control the way it will be released and form new structures. However, we can act passively so as to encourage the maximum release of intensity within structures. Lyotard's own style of writing in dissertation consulting service Libidinal Economy is one attempt to do this: by multiplying genres of american essays by robert atwan discourse, there is no overall dominant structure in the text and dissertation consulting service it is open to several competing modes of reading, interpretation and application. Ultimately, libidinal philosophy suggests a method of subversion from within existing structures through experimentation with the forms of those structures. Lyotard abandoned his libidinal philosophy in the later years of the seventies, beginning a philosophy of paganism that developed, by the eighties, into his unique version of postmodernism. The turn from the libidinal to the best essays edited by robert atwan the pagan and dissertation service general the postmodern continued a concern with events and the limits of representation, but concerned two key changes: 1. A change in the mode of analysis from libidinal forces to language, and study 2. a new focus on justice.
Whereas in the libidinal philosophy the focus was to see that a single interpretation of an event did not become hegemonic, in Lyotard's later philosophy he is primarily concerned with the problems of justice that arise between competing interpretations of events. Lyotard's philosophy of language and justice is most fully developed through the concept of the differend, in general the book of the same name. Lyotard develops the notion of paganism in Lessons in Paganism (reprinted in The Lyotard Reader ), Just Gaming and various other short works of the late seventies. The term paganism refers to a way of thinking that takes into account and strives to do justice to incommensurable differences. Just as pagan religions believe in a number of thesis about love relationships different gods rather than just one God, Lyotard's pagan philosophy represents a concern for pluralism and multiplicity (terms he uses synonymously to oppose the idea of universality). This concern for difference, multiplicity and pluralism is related to Lyotard's basic commitment to an ontology of singular events: if reality is constituted by unique happenings, then there will be no universal law of judgement which will be able to take account of each and every event in a way which does them all justice. Paganism suggests that there are irreducible differences in the order of things, and that we must take things on their own terms without attempting to reduce them to universals. In his writings on paganism, Lyotard analyses politics in the form of a justice of rhetoric. Consulting! In Lessons in Paganism he claims that all discourse is narrative; all theory, all politics, all law, are merely a collection of stories.
In Just Gaming , he analyses situations where questions of cultural justice and judgement arise in terms of language games. Lyotard rejects the claims of any discourse to be grounded in truth. He rejects the idea of dissertation a master-discourse (later called a metanarrative) that is thought to a2 english literature coursework provide the basis for judgement in all situations. (Marxism, Hegelian philosophy, and Kant's ideal of unity or totality as regulating justice are examples of master-discourses that have dominated the philosophical tradition.) Instead, Lyotard suggests that paganism is the most appropriate response to the desire for dissertation consulting service general, justice. Paganism is godless politics; it is the abandonment of universal judgement for single case study, specific, plural judgements. This means giving up the idea of consulting a single, law-like theoretical schema which could be applied to any situation in which judgment is required. Lyotard asserts that a justice of multiplicities requires a multiplicity of justices. Paganism is the attempt to judge without pre-existing criteria, in matters of truth, beauty, politics and ethics. Paganism rejects any universal criteria for judgement, yet Lyotard claims that we must judge, that justice demands this of us. So how do we judge, without criteria? Lyotard invokes both Kant and Nietzsche in his answer. In Kantian terms, we judge through the constitutive imagination . For Kant, this ability to judge, and to invent criteria, is mysterious, and there is little we can say about it.
In Nietzschean terms, Lyotard says that judgement is an expression of the will to power. It is perhaps misleading of personal cultural assessment paper Lyotard to say that paganism is judgement without criteria; for it is judgement only without universal criteria. General! What he is denying is the possibility of a discourse that will give us adequate criteria for judgement in each and every case. Instead, what we must do (as pagans) is meet every circumstance that requires judgement anew, and create criteria specific to that case by an affirmative act of the imaginative will. Thus we will get a plurality of criteria, a plurality of judgements, a plurality of overpopulation essay justices.
In this sense, paganism can be thought of as a plurality of rules of judgement (gods), as opposed to belief in just one rule or set of rules (God). Somewhat paradoxically, perhaps (as Lyotard himself admits), the justice of this pluralism is assured by a prescriptive of universal value - the prescriptive that the rules of individual language games be respected; that they are not subsumed under a single criterion of judgement. Lyotard soon abandoned the dissertation consulting service general, term 'paganism' in favour of thesis relationships ‘postmodernism.’ He presents his initial and highly influential formulation of postmodernism in The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge , commissioned by the government of Quebec and published in consulting 1979. Lyotard famously defines the postmodern as 'incredulity towards metanarratives,' where metanarratives are understood as totalising stories about history and the goals of the human race that ground and legitimise knowledges and thesis cultural practises. The two metanarratives that Lyotard sees as having been most important in general the past are (1) history as progressing towards social enlightenment and personal paper emancipation, and (2) knowledge as progressing towards totalisation. Modernity is defined as the age of metanarrative legitimation, and postmodernity as the age in which metanarratives have become bankrupt. Through his theory of the end of metanarratives, Lyotard develops his own version of what tends to be a consensus among theorists of the postmodern - postmodernity as an consulting service general age of fragmentation and literature coursework pluralism. The Postmodern Condition is a study of the status of service general knowledge in computerized societies.
It is Lyotard's view that certain technical and literature technological advancements have taken place since the Second World War (his historical pin-pointing of the beginning of postmodernity) which have had and are still having a radical effect on the status of knowledge in the world's most advanced countries. As a defining element with which to characterise these technical and technological advancements, Lyotard chooses computerization . Lyotard identifies the consulting, problem with which he is dealing - the variable in the status of knowledge - as one of legitimation . For Lyotard, this is overpopulation essay, a question of both knowledge and power. Knowledge and power are simply two sides of the same question: who decides what knowledge is, and who knows what needs to be decided? According to Lyotard, in the computer age the question of knowledge is now more than ever a question of government. With vast amounts of dissertation consulting knowledge stored digitally in databases, who decides what knowledge is cultural assessment paper, worth storing (what is legitimate knowledge) and who has access to these databases? Lyotard points a suspicious finger at multinational corporations. Using IBM as an example, he suggests a hypothetical in which the corporation owns a certain belt in the Earth's orbital field in which circulate satellites for communication and/or for storing data banks.
Lyotard then asks, 'who will have access to general them? Who will determine which channels or data are forbidden? The State? Or will the State simply be one user among others?' The method Lyotard chooses to use in his investigations is that of language games . Lyotard writes that the developments in postmodernity he is dealing with have been largely concerned with language: 'phonology and cultural paper theories of linguistics, problems of communication and cybernetics, modern theories of algebra and informatics, computers and their languages, problems of translation and the search for areas of compatibility among computer languages, problems of general information storage and data banks, telematics and the perfection of intelligent terminals, paradoxology.' Lyotard’s use of language games is derived from Ludwig Wittgenstein.
The theory of language games means that each of the various categories of utterance can be defined in terms of rules specifying their properties and edited atwan the uses to which they can be put. Lyotard makes three particularly important observations about language games. Firstly, the rules of language games do not carry within themselves their own legitimation, but are subject to a contract between “players” (interlocutors). Secondly, if there are no rules there is no game and even a small change in consulting general the rules changes the remanufacturing, game. Thirdly, every utterance should be thought of as a move in a game. Different types of utterances, as identified by Wittgenstein, pertain to different types of language games. Lyotard gives us a few examples of dissertation service general types of utterances. The denotative is an utterance which attempts to about love relationships correctly identify the dissertation service, object or referent to which it refers (such as Snow is white). The “performative” is an utterance which is personal, itself a performance of an act to which it refers (such as I promise). The “prescriptive” is an utterance which instructs, recommends, requests, or commands (such as Give me money). Service! For both Wittgenstein and Lyotard, language games are incommensurable, and moves in one language game cannot be translated into moves in another language game.
For example, we cannot judge what ought to be the case (a prescriptive) from a2 english, what is the case (a denotative.) Lyotard's choice of language games is primarily political in motivation, and relates to the close links between knowledge and power. In examining the status of knowledge in postmodernity, Lyotard is examining the political as well as epistemological aspects of knowledge (legitimation), and he sees the basic social bond - the minimum relation required for society to exist - as moves within language games. Lyotard needs a methodological representation to apply to society in order to examine the status of knowledge in postmodern societies. He presents us with two alternative views of society that have been popular in this century: society as a unitary whole (traditional theory) or society as a binary division (“critical” theory). Lyotard rejects both of dissertation consulting general these alternatives on single case study, the grounds that the choice seems difficult or arbitrary, and consulting service also rejects a third alternative - that we might distinguish two kinds of study equally legitimate knowledge, one based on the view of society as unitary and the other on the view of society as binary.
This division of knowledge is caught within a type of oppositional thinking that Lyotard believes is out of step with postmodern modes of dissertation consulting general knowledge. Instead of the recently popular or modern models of society, Lyotard argues that even as the assessment, status of knowledge has changed in postmodernity, so has the nature of the social bond, particularly as it is service general, evident in society's institutions of knowledge. Lyotard presents a postmodern methodological representation of a2 english literature society as composed of multifarious and fragmented language games, but games which strictly (but not rigidly - the rules of a game can change) control the moves which can be made within them by reference to narratives of legitimation which are deemed appropriate by dissertation consulting service, their respective institutions. Thus one follows orders in the army, prays in remanufacturing thesis church, questions in philosophy, etc., etc. In his analysis of the dissertation consulting general, state of knowledge in postmodernity, Lyotard firstly distinguishes between two types of knowledge - narrative knowledge and “scientific” knowledge. Narrative knowledge is the kind of overpopulation titles knowledge prevalent in primitive or “traditional' societies, and is based on storytelling, sometimes in the form of ritual, music and dance. Narrative knowledge has no recourse to legitimation - its legitimation is immediate within the narrative itself, in general the timelessness of the narrative as an enduring tradition - it is told by people who once heard it to listeners who will one day tell it themselves. There is no question of questioning it. Indeed, Lyotard suggests that there is an incommensurability between the question of legitimation itself and the authority of narrative knowledge. In scientific knowledge, however, the question of legitimation always arises. Lyotard says that one of the most striking features of scientific knowledge is that it includes only denotative statements, to the exclusion of all other kinds (narrative knowledge includes other kinds of statements, such as prescriptives).
According to the narrative of science, however, only knowledge which is legitimated is legitimate - i.e. is thesis about, knowledge at all. Scientific knowledge is legitimated by certain scientific criteria - the repeatability of experiments, etc. If the entire project of science needs a metalegitimation, however (and the criteria for service general, scientific knowledge would itself seem to demand that it does) then science has no recourse but to narrative knowledge (which according to scientific criteria is no knowledge at all). This narrative has usually taken the form of a heroic epic of some kind, with the thesis about love, scientist as a hero of knowledge who discovers scientific truths. The distinction between narrative and scientific knowledge is a crucial point in Lyotard's theory of postmodernism, and one of the defining features of postmodernity, on his account, is the dominance of scientific knowledge over narrative knowledge. The pragmatics of scientific knowledge do not allow the recognition of dissertation narrative knowledge as legitimate, since it is not restricted to denotative statements). Lyotard sees a danger in this dominance, since it follows from his view that reality cannot be captured within one genre of discourse or representation of events that science will miss aspects of the best american events which narrative knowledge will capture.
In other words, Lyotard does not believe that science has any justification in claiming to be a more legitimate form of knowledge than narrative. Part of his work in service The Postmodern Condition can be read as a defence of narrative knowledge from the increasing dominance of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, Lyotard sees a danger to the future of academic research which stems from the way scientific knowledge has come to be legitimated in postmodernity (as opposed to the way it was legitimated in modernity). In modernity the narrative of science was legitimated by one of a number of metanarratives, the personal assessment paper, two principal ones being respectively Hegelian and dissertation general Marxist in assessment paper nature. The Hegelian metanarrative speculates on the eventual totality and unity of all knowledge; scientific advancement is legitimated by the story that it will one day lead us to that goal. The Marxist metanarrative gives science a role in the emancipation of humanity. According to Lyotard, postmodernity is dissertation consulting, characterised by the end of metanarratives. Single Case Study! So what legitimates science now? Lyotard's answer is - performativity . This is what Lyotard calls the technological criterion - the most efficient input/output ratio. Service! The technical and technological changes over the last few decades - as well as the development of capitalism - have caused the production of knowledge to become increasingly influenced by a technological model.
It was during the industrial revolution, Lyotard suggests, that knowledge entered into coursework the economic equation and became a force for production, but it is in postmodernity that knowledge is dissertation general, becoming the central force for american edited by robert, production. Dissertation Consulting Service! Lyotard believes that knowledge is becoming so important an economic factor, in fact, that he suggests that one day wars will be waged over the control of information. Lyotard calls the cultural, change that has taken place in dissertation consulting general the status of knowledge due to the rise of the performativity criterion the mercantilization of knowledge. In postmodernity, knowledge has become primarily a saleable commodity. Knowledge is produced in thesis order to be sold, and is consumed in order to fuel a new production. According to general Lyotard knowledge in postmodernity has largely lost its truth-value, or rather, the personal assessment paper, production of knowledge is no longer an aspiration to produce truth. Today students no longer ask if something is dissertation general, true, but what use it is to them.
Lyotard believes that computerization and the legitimation of knowledge by the performativity criterion is paper, doing away with the idea that the absorption of knowledge is inseparable from the training of minds. In the near future, he predicts, education will no longer be given en bloc to people in their youth as a preparation for life. Rather, it will be an ongoing process of learning updated technical information that will be essential for their functioning in dissertation their respective professions. Lyotard does not believe that the innovations he predicts in postmodern education will necessarily have a detrimental effect on erudition. He does, however, see a problem with the love, legitimation of knowledge by dissertation consulting service, performativity. This problem lies in the area of research. Overpopulation Essay! Legitimation by performativity lends itself to what Lyotard calls terror - the exclusion of players from language games or the dissertation general, exclusion of certain games entirely. Most true discoveries, Lyotard argues, are discoveries by virtue of the fact that they are so radical that they change the rules of the game - they cannot even be articulated within the rules of the dominant game (which is dominant because it draws the consensus of opinions). Essays Edited Atwan! Many discoveries are not found to have a use until quite some time after they are made; therefore they seem to dissertation service general be of little value by the best by robert atwan, the performativity criterion.
Furthermore, for economic reasons, legitimation by dissertation, performativity tends to follow the consensus opinion - that which is perceived by the majority of experts to have the most efficient input/output ratio is considered most likely in fact to be most performatively efficient, and hence the safest investment. Lyotard argues that legitimation by personal assessment paper, performativity is against the interests of research. He does not claim that research should be aimed at production of the consulting general, truth; he does not try to overpopulation essay re-invoke the metanarratives of modernity to legitimate research. Rather, he sees the role of dissertation consulting research as the production of ideas. Legitimation of knowledge by performativity terrorises the production of ideas. Single Case Study! What, then, is the alternative?
Lyotard proposes that a better form of consulting legitimation would be legitimation by paralogy . The etymology of this word resides in the Greek words para - beside, past, beyond - and logos in its sense as reason. Thus paralogy is the the best american essays, movement beyond or against reason. Lyotard sees reason not as a universal and immutable human faculty or principle but as a specific and variable human production; paralogy for him means the movement against an established way of dissertation general reasoning. In relation to research, this means the production of new ideas by going against or outside of established norms, of american essays edited by robert atwan making new moves in language games, changing the consulting service, rules of language games and thesis about love inventing new games. Lyotard argues that this is in fact what takes place in scientific research, despite the imposition of the performativity criterion of legitimation.
This is particularly evident in what Lyotard calls postmodern science - the search for instabilities [see Science and Technology]. For Lyotard, knowledge is not only the known but also the revelation or “articulation” of the unknown. Thus he advocates the legitimation of knowledge by paralogy as a form of legitimation that would satisfy both the desire for justice and the desire for the unknown. Lyotard develops the philosophy of language that underlies his work on paganism and postmodernism most fully in The Differend: Phrases in Dispute . This book is, by Lyotard's own estimation, both his most philosophical and most important. Dissertation Consulting Service General! Here he analyses how injustices take place in the context of language. A differend is a case of remanufacturing thesis conflict between parties that cannot be equitably resolved for lack of a rule of judgement applicable to both.
In the case of a differend, the parties cannot agree on a rule or criterion by consulting service, which their dispute might be decided. A differend is opposed to a litigation - a dispute which can be equitably resolved because the parties involved can agree on literature coursework, a rule of judgement. Lyotard distinguishes the general, victim from the plaintiff. About Love! The later is the consulting, wronged party in a litigation; the former, the wronged party in a differend. In a litigation, the plaintiff's wrong can be presented. In a differend, the victim’s wrong cannot be presented. A victim, for Lyotard, is not just someone who has been wronged, but someone who has also lost the power to present this wrong. This disempowerment can occur in several ways: it may quite literally be a silencing; the victim may be threatened into silence or in some other way disallowed to speak. Alternatively, the victim may be able to speak, but that speech is unable to literature present the wrong done in the discourse of the rule of judgement. The victim may not be believed, may be thought to be mad, or not be understood.
The discourse of the dissertation general, rule of judgement may be such that the victim's wrong cannot be translated into its terms; the wrong may not be presentable as a wrong. Lyotard presents various examples of the differend, the most important of which is Auschwitz. He uses the example of the revisionist historian Faurisson's demands for proof of the Holocaust to show how the differend operates as a sort of double bind or catch-22. Faurisson will only remanufacturing, accept proof of the existence of gas chambers from eyewitnesses who were themselves victims of the gas chambers. Dissertation General! But of course, any such eyewitnesses are dead and are not able to testify. Faurisson concludes from this that there were no gas chambers. The situation is this: either there were no gas chambers, in which case there would be no eyewitnesses to produce evidence, or there were gas chambers, in which case there would still be no eyewitnesses to produce evidence (since they would be dead). Since Faurisson will accept no evidence for the existence of gas chambers except the testimony of actual victims, he will conclude from remanufacturing thesis, both possibilities (i.e. gas chambers existed; gas chambers didn't exist) that gas chambers didn't exist. The situation is a double bind because there are two alternatives - either there were gas chambers or there were not - which lead to the same conclusion: there were no gas chambers (and no Final Solution). The case is a differend because the harm done to the victims cannot be presented in the standard of judgment upheld by Faurisson.
Lyotard presents the logic of the double bind involved in the differend in consulting service general as follows: either p or not p; if not-p, then Fp; if p, then not-p, then Fp. The two possibilities (p or not-p) both lead to the same conclusion (Fp). Lyotard gives a further example of the logic of the double bind: it is like saying both either it is white, or it is not white; and a2 english coursework if it is white it is not white. Another example of the differend which commentators on Lyotard often invoke is dissertation consulting general, that of indigenous peoples' claims to personal cultural paper land rights in service general colonised countries. This example shows the relevance of Lyotard's work for practical problems of justice in the contemporary world. Let us take Australian Aborigines as an example. Many tribal groups claim that land which they traditionally inhabited is now owned and controlled by remanufacturing, the descendants of dissertation consulting general European colonists. They claim that the land was taken from them wrongfully, and cultural that it should be given back to dissertation general them.
There is a differend in this case because Aboriginal land rights are established by tribal law, and evidence for such rights may not be presentable in the law of the Australian government. The court of a2 english literature appeal in which claims to land rights are heard functions entirely according to government law, and tribal law is not considered a valid system of service judgment. In the case of a dispute over a certain area of land by farmers who are descendants of colonists on the one hand, and a tribe of single Aborigines on the other hand, the consulting general, court of appeal will be the one which involves the law that the farmers recognise (government law), while the law that the Aborigines recognise (tribal law) will not be considered valid. It may be the case that the only evidence for the claim to land rights that the Aborigines have will not be admissible as evidence in the court of government law (though it is perfectly acceptable in tribal law). Hence, we have a case of a wrong which cannot be presented as a wrong; a differend.
Lyotard develops the theory of the differend through a complex analysis of language, drawing heavily on analytic philosophers as well as ancients and thesis early moderns. Lyotard's ontology of events is developed here in terms of the phrase as event, and consulting general the limits of representation are seen in personal the indeterminacy involved in general the linking of phrases. Phrases, on Lyotard's account, may be extralinguistic, and overpopulation can include signs, gestures, or anything that happens. Every event is to be understood as a phrase in the philosophy of the differend. This characterisation of events as phrases may be understood as a theoretical fiction or a way of speaking which allows Lyotard to develop a theory of events through the analysis of language, just as the libidinal philosophy does using libidinal energy.
Lyotard calls the way phrases are linked together in series, one after the other, the concatenation of phrases. The law of concatenation states that these linkages must be made - that is, a phrase must be followed by dissertation consulting, another phrase - but that how to a2 english coursework link is never determinate. There are many possible ways of linking on to a phrase, and no way is the right way. In order to dissertation consulting general characterise phrases as events which are beyond full understanding and accurate representation, Lyotard undermines the cultural assessment, common view that the meanings of service phrases can be determined by what they refer to (the referent). That is, for Lyotard the meaning of a phrase as event (something happens) cannot be fixed by appealing to reality (what actually happened). He develops this view of language by appealing to Saul Kripke's concept of the proper name as a rigid designator and by defining reality in remanufacturing an original way. Proper names pick our referents in a way that is rigid and general consistent but, according to Lyotard, empty of sense. For example, the name Fred may consistently pick out a particular person, but there are many different senses or meanings which may be attached to this person.
Only phrases carry sense (i.e. tell us something meaningful about Fred). The proper name may fix reference, but does nothing to fix sense. The name acts as a point which links the remanufacturing thesis, referent and the many senses which may be attached to it. Lyotard then defines reality as this complex of possible senses attached to a referent through a name. The correct sense of a phrase cannot be determined by a reference to reality, since the dissertation consulting service, referent itself does not fix sense and reality itself is essay titles, defined as the consulting service, complex of competing senses attached to literature coursework a referent. The phrase event remains indeterminate.
Lyotard uses the concepts of a phrase universe and dissertation general of the difference between presentation and situation in order to show how phases can carry meanings and yet be indeterminate. Every phrase presents a universe, composed of the following four elements or, as Lyotard calls them, instances: The sense (the possible meanings of the phrase) The referent (the thing to which the phrase refers) The addressor (that from which the phrase comes) The addressee (that to which the phrase is sent) In the initial presentation of the phrase, the instances of the universe are equivocal. That is, there are many possible ways in which the instances may be situated in relation to each other. Personal Cultural Assessment Paper! Who or what uttered the phrase, and to whom?
To what does the phrase refer? What sense of the phrase is meant? This equivocation means that the meaning of the phrase is not fixed in service general the initial presentation, and only becomes fixed through what Lyotard calls situation. Situation takes place when the instances of the phrase universe are fixed through the concatenation of phrases. That is, when the phrase is followed by another phrase. When phrases are concatenated, they follow rules for linking called phrase regimens . Phrase regimens fix the instances of the phrase universe within a concatenation; these regimens are syntactic types of phrases such as the cognitive, the descriptive, the prescriptive, the interrogative, the overpopulation essay titles, evaluative, and so on. Any situation of dissertation consulting a phrase within a concatenation will only be one possible situation of the initial presentation of the phrase, however.
It is always possible to situate the phrase in a different way by concatenating with a different phrase regimen. In other words, the remanufacturing, presentation of the phrase event is not able to be accurately represented by dissertation, any particular situation. This also means that there is single case study, no correct way of concatenating a phrase, no correct phrase regimen to consulting general be employed in overpopulation essay following one phrase with another. Lyotard insists that phrase regimens are heterogenous and consulting service incommensurable. That is, they are of radically different types and cannot be meaningfully compared through an initial presentation of the phrase event of which they are situations. However, different phrase regimens can be brought together through genres. Genres supply rules for the linking of phrases, but rather than being syntactic rules as phrase regimens are, genres direct how to concatenate through ends, goals, or stakes. What is at thesis about love stake in the genre of comedy, for example, is to be humorous, to make people laugh.
This goal directs how phrases are linked on from one to another. As an example, Lyotard suggests that the phrase To arms! might be followed by the phrase “You have just formulated a prescription if the consulting general, goal is to make people laugh, but not if the goal implied by the genre is to inspire direct action (such as may be the case if it is uttered by a military commander on a battlefield). Genres of discourse can bring heterogenous phrase regimens together in a concatenation, but genres themselves are heterogenous and incommensurable. This means that there is no correct genre in which to situate the initial phrase which is presented, and no genre has more validity than others. The differend arises on this level of genres when the phrase event gives rise to different genres, but one genre claims validity over the others. That is, one genre claims the overpopulation, exclusive right to impose rules of concatenation from the initial phrase. How do we know when a differend has occurred? Lyotard says that it is signalled by the difficulty of consulting linking on thesis, from one phrase to another.
A differend occurs when a discourse does not allow the dissertation service general, linkages which would enable the presentation of a wrong. Lyotard insists that phrases must, of necessity, follow other phrases - even silence is remanufacturing, a kind of phrase, with its own generic effects. A silent phrase in the context of a dispute may be covering four possible states of affairs, corresponding to each of the instances in service general the phrase universe: The sense: The meaning of the referent cannot be signified. The referent: The referent (the wrong, etc.) did not take place. The addressor: The addressor does not believe that the american essays edited by robert, referent falls within the competence of him/her self to present. The addressee: The addressor does not believe that the referent (the wrong, etc.) falls within the competence (to hear, to understand, to service judge, etc.) of the love, addressee. In order for the referent to be expressed, these four silent negations must be withdrawn. The referent must have reality, must be presentable in the rules of the discourse, and the addressor must have confidence in the competence of both him/her self and the addressee. Through the idea of the differend, Lyotard has drawn particular attention to the problems of the presentability of the referent when the parties in dispute cannot agree on a common discourse, or rule of judgement (i.e. cannot agree on the genre(s) of phrase linkage).
Justice demands, however, that wrongs be presented - we must at least try to present the unpresentable. How is this possible? Lyotard does not believe that there is any easy answer. But for the sake of justice, we must try. We must identify differends as best we can - sometimes, no more than vague feelings attest to dissertation consulting the existence of a differend. It may be the feeling of not being able to find the about relationships, words.
Lyotard associates the identification of general a differend with the feeling of the sublime, the mixture of pleasure and pain which accompanies the attempt to present the unpresentable. He privileges art as the realm which is about love relationships, best able to provide testimony to differends through its sublime effects [see Reason and Representation; Politics; Art and dissertation consulting service general Aesthetics]. Lyotard's philosophy frequently calls into question the powers of reason, rejecting many of the claims that have been made about the best american essays edited by robert it in the history of philosophy. The limitations of service general reason are particularly evident for Lyotard in regard to the problems of relationships representation. Since Descartes, the dominant model of rational thought in Western philosophy has been that of the human subject representing the objective world to its self. It has frequently been claimed that in this way complete and certain knowledge is possible, at least in dissertation service general theory.
Lyotard calls such claims into doubt through his thesis that events exceed representation. Furthermore, Lyotard draws attention to the fact that reason tends to operate with structured systems of concepts which exclude the sensual and american by robert atwan emotional, but that these exclusions can never be entirely maintained. On the one hand, any representation will miss something of the event, and on the other, non-rational forces such as feelings and desires will arise to disrupt rational schemas of thought. Lyotard's analysis of the limits of reason and representation is played out in Discours, figure through the dissertation service, terms of the discursive and the figural. The discursive is the overpopulation titles, term used for reason and representation here; it is the rational system of representation by concepts that forms a system of oppositions. Dissertation Service! The figural is a2 english coursework, what exceeds rational representation; it appeals to sensual experience, emotions and desires. Lyotard uses the metaphors of flatness and depth to service refer to discourse and figure, respectively. The opposition between discourse and figure is deconstructed, however, since to maintain it as an opposition would be to remain within the logic of discourse (and to retain discourse as primary).
Lyotard introduces a distinction between opposition and coursework difference to account for the differing ways in service which the discursive and the figural function. Difference corresponds to figure, and the distinction between discourse and figure itself is said to be one of difference rather than opposition. In opposition, two terms are rigidly opposed and remanufacturing quite distinct; in difference, the two terms are mutually implicated, yet ultimately irreconcilable. Difference is a disruptive force at the limits of discourse, indicating that no rational system of representation can ever be closed or complete, but is always opened up to forces (sensual, emotional, figural) that it cannot enclose within itself. In Discours, figure , Lyotard takes structuralism (still a dominant intellectual trend in France in dissertation general the early seventies when the book was written) as an example of the excesses of reason and representation. Structuralism seeks to explain everything in terms of underlying, conditioning structures that take the form of rigid systems of oppositions. His aim is to overpopulation essay titles show that structuralism ignores the figural elements at work both outside and within representational structures. Lyotard shows that discourse and figure are mutually implicated (thus deconstructing the opposition) by examining the relationship of Ferdinand de Saussure's linguistics and Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology. For Saussure, language is dissertation service general, a flat system of opposing terms that gain meaning from each other, rather than from referents outside the system. Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology suggests that we experience the world on a pre-cognitive level as ambiguous and somewhat chaotic sense data which must be synthesized by the perceiving subject in order to structure the world in a meaningful way. Saussure's linguistics suggests that our understanding of the world is given as a structure to begin with, while Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology suggests that we first encounter an unstructured world, which we must work to structure.
Drawing on Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological analysis of the depth of the visual field, Lyotard posits an interruption of the supposedly flat system of language by this depth. This takes place through the thesis, deictic terms in language (such as here, now, I, you, this) which gain meaning by referring to temporal and spatial specificities in the world of the language-user. The discursive structure of language, therefore, needs reference at some points to sensual experience. The opposition is further deconstructed by consulting general, Lyotard's insistence that our experience of space may also be structured in a discursive fashion. Remanufacturing! Space can be broken into ordered elements related to dissertation each other in a structured and organised way, such as by mapping it with a three dimensional grid. A rigid theory of thesis how the body interacts with space, as Merleau-Ponty may arguably be accused of developing, also exhibits structuralist tendencies. This leads Lyotard to general a criticism of phenomenology as well, on the grounds that its descriptions of the atwan, body in the world are also too structural and do not account for the disruptive force of the figural.
Lyotard sees Lacan's application of Saussurean linguistics to psychoanalysis as particularly worrisome. He attacks Lacan's famous dictum that 'the unconscious is structured like a language’ on the grounds that it is an over-rationalisation that posits representational structures to the exclusion of the figural. Returning to Freud, Lyotard develops a theory of libidinal forces as figural, as disruptive of reason and representation. Reason and representation are further critiqued in the libidinal philosophy of Libidinal Economy and the related essays, although here the very idea of critique itself is called into question, since insofar as it remains theory, it remains within the consulting service, oppositional logic of representational rationality. Rather than opposing the libidinal to literature the rational, then, Lyotard develops his theory of dissimulation , the mutual enfoldment of the libidinal and the rational which is similar to the deconstructive logic of difference worked out in Discours, figure . Lyotard's main criticism of representation in the libidinal philosophy is that it is nihilistic.
He draws an analogy between representational structures and Friedrich Nietzsche's characterisation of religion and transcendental philosophy as forms of nihilism. For Nietzsche religion is nihilistic because it places the highest values (as the ground for all values) in a transcendent realm which cannot be accessed, thereby cutting us off from the highest values and devaluing the realm of our actual experience. According to Lyotard, representational theory follows this model by placing the reality that representation refers to in a transcendent realm. Lyotard expresses this nihilism in dissertation consulting general terms of what he calls the Great zero. This zero is the divide between representation and a2 english what it represents. Representation is nihilistic because it can never close the divide between representation and reality, effectively cutting off representational thought from access to dissertation service general reality. What is represented is constantly deferred. For Lyotard semiotics is a prime example of representational nihilism, because the definition of the sign is that it replaces something (negating that which it replaces).
In the remanufacturing thesis, libidinal philosophy Lyotard does not reject theory and dissertation service representation itself as necessarily nihilistic; rather, it is representational theory's own understanding of itself - how it represents itself – that is the focus of Lyotard’s attack. Instead of opposing theory with alternative practises which are more libidinal, Lyotard asserts that theory itself is a libidinal practice which denies that it is libidinal. The nihilistic aspect of representational theory is this denial of the libidinal. Theory attempts to be detached and cold, and takes itself to be a stable and consistent structure which represents stable structures in the world. Lyotard's response to the nihilism of about love relationships representational theory is not to propose an other to it (which he believes is impossible), but to inscribe theory itself into the libidinal economy.
It is the concept of dissimulation which makes this possible. Systems dissimulate affects. Representational theory is itself a libidinal dispositif , and Lyotard accentuates the libidinal aspects of theory in general order to combat its nihilistic tendencies. A2 English Coursework! Against the nihilism of the semiotic sign Lyotard proposes a reinterpretation of the sign: the tensor . The tensor is a duplicitous sign. One of its sides (or potentialities) is the semiotic sign; this side is the potential to dissertation general be inscribed in an existing structure of meaning. The other side of the edited by robert, tensor contains residual potentialities for other meanings. This side of the tensor disrupts and escapes the system, flowing into new systems and structures.
The tensor expresses the theory of dissimulation at consulting service general work in the sign. We might think of the tensor as the semiotic sign dissimulating affects which might disrupt its meaning and flow into new systems. The critique of reason and representation shift in Lyotard's postmodern philosophy from a focus on the figurative and libidinal forces which disrupt systems to an analysis of incommensurability in language and the limits of the rational faculty. Lyotard uses Wittgenstein's idea of language games to show that reason and representation cannot be totalizing. The end of metanarratives means that no single overarching theory can pretend to account for everything. Rather, the postmodern condition is composed of fragmented language games attached to study incommensurable forms of life. For Lyotard language is composed of a multiplicity of phrase regimes which cannot be translated into each other. Some are descriptive, some prescriptive, etc. These phrase regimes have no outside criteria for comparison.
Between them lies the differend, an absolute difference which cannot be reconciled. In Lyotard's postmodern philosophy, then, reason and representation are set limits by service, the incommensurability of language games; it is not possible for reason to understand everything through a representational system. In the postmodern philosophy events are analyzed as phrases, and again Lyotard asserts that events exceed representation in case study that no representational system can account for all phrases. Furthermore, Lyotard's postmodernism draws attention to the limits of dissertation service general reason through its focus on the sublime . The differend is experienced as a feeling of not being able to find the words to express something; it signals the limits of one language game or phrase regime and the attempt to move on to another one. Lyotard analyses this experience in terms of Kant's idea of the the best american essays atwan, sublime, which is itself an experience of the limits of dissertation consulting service reason. In Kant's philosophy, the sublime is the mixed feeling of study pleasure and pain that we feel in the face of something of great magnitude and grandeur. We can have an idea of such things, but we cannot match up that idea with a direct sensory intuition since sublime objects surpass our sensory abilities. An example of a sublime object for Kant would be a mountain; we can have an idea of a mountain, but not a sensory intuition of it as a whole.
We feel pain at the frustration of our faculties to fully grasp the sublime object, but a pleasure as well in the attempt to do so. Lyotard extends the notion of the sublime from that which is absolutely great to all things which confound our abilities to synthesize them into knowledge. Thus the sublime is situated at the differend between language games and consulting service phrase regimes; we feel a mixture of pleasure and pain in the frustration of not knowing how to follow on from a phrase but feeling that there is something important that must be put into single case words. In Lyotard's postmodern philosophy the sublime is the feeling that indicates the limits of reason and representation. Like many other prominent French thinkers of his generation (such as Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida and Gilles Deleuze), Lyotard develops critiques of the service general, subject and of humanism. Lyotard's misgivings about the subject as a central epistemological category can be understood in assessment terms of his concern for difference, multiplicity, and the limits of organisational systems. Consulting General! For Lyotard the subject as traditionally understood in philosophy acts as a central point for the organisation of knowledge, eliminating difference and disorderly elements. Lyotard seeks to dethrone the subject from this organisational role, which in effect means decentring it as a philosophical category. He sees the subject not as primary, foundational, and central, but as one element among others which should be examined by thought.
Furthermore, he does not see the subject as a transcendent and the best atwan immutable entity, but as produced by wider social and political forces. In the libidinal philosophy, the subject is construed as one organisational structure or dispositif which channels and exploits libidinal energies. Like other structures which threaten to be hegemonic, Lyotard proposes its disruption through the release of the dissertation consulting, libidinal forces it contains which are not consistent with it. That is, the opening of the essay, subject to forces which are deemed irrational, such as feelings and desires. Furthermore, Lyotard's insistence that the freeing of service dissimulated libidinal forces can only be passively done and not actively controlled is the best essays atwan, motivated by dissertation consulting general, his identification of wilful acts with the thesis, organisational subject.
In Lyotard's postmodern philosophy, the fragmentation of language games also means the social subject fragments and seems to dissolve. The subject cannot be seen as a master of language games, a unifying power, but is rather a node at which different incommensurable language games intersect. Lyotard furthermore asserts that avant-garde art works of the twentieth century do not reinforce the dissertation consulting general, subject, but call it into question through the unsettling effect of the sublime. Humanism is also called into question in remanufacturing thesis Lyotard's later philosophy through the term Inhuman. Lyotard objects to humanism on the grounds that it depends upon a definition of the human which is exclusionary of difference. He asks why, if humanism is correct that there is dissertation consulting service, a human nature, we are not born human but rather have to go through a terroristic education in order to become acceptably human. The term Inhuman has two meanings for Lyotard. Firstly, it refers to the dehumanising effects of science and technology in thesis love relationships society. Secondly, it refers to those potentially positive forces that the idea of the human tries to repress or exclude, but which inevitably return with disruptive effects. Lyotard tries to show the limit of the humanistic ideal by imagining a science-fiction-like scenario in consulting which, in 4.5 billion years time when our sun explodes, the human race will have developed the ability to survive without the Earth.
In one sense this survival is the humanist dream (since survival is essential for the central importance of the human race in the universe), but in another sense it might constitute the end of the human, since the thesis, changes required to general survive in space would be so radical as to erase anything we currently recognise as human. On the one hand Lyotard criticises the remanufacturing thesis, dehumanising effects of the progress of science and technology that are themselves bound up with the dissertation, idea of human progress, and on the other he affirms the thesis, dehumanising forces that open up our thinking to more than a simple definition of the human. Lyotard develops some reflections on science and technology within the scope of dissertation service general his postmodern philosophy [see The Postmodern Condition]. The changing status of science and technology is a primary feature of the postmodern condition, and Lyotard calls certain new forms of science postmodern. His concern with an ontology of events and a politics of competing representations of those events underlies his theorization of science and technology in postmodernity, in which the collapse of single case study metanarratives has meant the proliferation of multiple, incommensurable language games (of which science is only one). We should interpret Lyotard as taking this to be a good thing, since such a proliferation more accurately reflects his general ontological view of the world as composed of events which give rise to multiple interpretations, and which can never be accurately captured by a single narrative. Metanarratives do violence to general alternative representations of remanufacturing events that are valid in dissertation general their own right.
Lyotard sees the rise of titles capital, science and technology linked through legitimation by performativity as a similar threat, however. He calls this threat terrorism: the threat of general exclusion from playing a language game. The principle of legitimation functioning in capitalism is efficiency or performativity [see The Postmodern Condition], and this principle attempts to case study be hegemonic. Science and technology are prime candidates for dissertation consulting service, this attempted hegemony, since they contribute to the growth of capital. Lyotard accepts that performativity is a legitimate criterion for technology, but argues that it is not proper to science.
He develops his argument around what he calls postmodern science, by which he means recent sciences such as Benoit Mandelbrot's fractal theory and Rene Thom’s catastrophe theory that search for the best essays edited, instabilities rather than regularities in systems. Following to some extent philosophers of science Thomas Kuhn and dissertation consulting Paul Feyerabend, Lyotard argues that the the best american by robert, performativity criterion does not accurately capture the kind of knowledge developed in the sciences nor the way such knowledge develops. For Lyotard, science is a language game to which legitimation by general, performativity is not proper. Such performativity merely subordinates science to capital. According to Lyotard, it is the idea of a deterministic system that allows performativity in science, since determinism allows the prediction and calculation of input/output values.
Postmodern science, however, does not function according to a legitimation by performativity precisely because it undermines determinism. Postmodern science searches for instabilities in systems, undermining predictability. Lyotard cites thermodynamics as the beginning of performativity in terms of determinism, and suggests that quantum mechanics and atomic physics have limited the applicability of this principle. Postmodern sciences, which concern themselves with undecidables, the limits of precise control, conflicts characterized by incomplete information, fracta, catastrophes, and pragmatic paradoxes, continue to undermine performativity in american edited by robert the form of dissertation consulting service general determinism. Furthermore, postmodern science is undermining legitimation by performativity by retheorizing the way science itself develops: science does not develop in overpopulation titles a progressive fashion and towards a unified knowledge, but in a discontinuous and paradoxical manner, undermining previous paradigms by the development of new ones. This is what Lyotard calls legitimation by paralogy. He suggests that science may be undergoing a paradigm shift from deterministic performativity to the paralogy of instabilities. Yet this is only a possibility: performativity still looms large on the horizon. Lyotard suggests science could go either way. General! He champions paralogy over personal cultural paper, performativity, since it contributes to healthy research in the sciences and dissertation consulting service general undermines the american essays edited, hegemonic control capital attempts to have. Postmodern science is about the generation of new ideas rather than the general, efficient application of existing knowledge.
Lyotard is also concerned about the social impact of science and technology in postmodernity. Personal Assessment Paper! He sees the dissertation consulting service general, performativity criterion as applying not just to science, technology, and capital, but to the State as well. According to the performativity criterion, society is american essays edited by robert atwan, seen as a system which must aim for efficient functioning, and this efficiency is a kind of terror which threatens to exclude inefficient elements. Consulting General! Furthermore, in post-industrial society information has become a primary mode of production, and Lyotard is american essays edited by robert atwan, concerned that in the interests of maximising profits information will become increasingly privatised by corporations. He proposes the dissertation, possibility of IBM having exclusive control of databases and satellites. In response to these threats, Lyotard proposes that the public be given free access to memory and data banks. This will allow computerization to case study contribute to knowledge functioning by paralogy rather than by performativity, and to dissertation consulting service general the free functioning of society as a set of cultural assessment paper heterogenous elements rather than an efficient system, removing the dissertation service, threat of terror.
Lyotard's early political commitments were to revolutionary socialism and a relatively orthodox Marxism (see Biography and Early Works (b) Algeria). Despite his radical disillusion with these early political commitments, however, a strong political concern remains a central feature of all of Lyotard's mature works. Lyotard’s notion of the political, however, must be understood as quite distinct from overpopulation titles, that employed in much traditional and contemporary politics and political theory. Dissertation Consulting Service General! Having rejected the possibility of a politics based on a single theory that will accurately capture the truth of all social events (such as Marxism), Lyotard's later concern is to do justice to multiple social realities. He is concerned with the free proliferation of heterogenous elements in society, and for him the institutions of politics and traditional political theory limit multiplicities and overpopulation differences. Lyotard's politics can be traced back to his general concern for dissertation general, events and the limits of representation. There is a strong correlation between his concern that events are not done justice by thesis about, any one theoretical, representational system, and his concern that events of political import are not done justice by dissertation consulting service, the way any particular political party or philosophy represents them. The politics of the libidinal philosophy revolves around a nuanced reading of Marx and a duplicitous relation to capitalism. While Lyotard has given up on the possibility and desirability of a socialist revolution, he is still interested in the deployment of revolutionary desires. Libidinal Economy contains a reading of Marx's texts as works of art, an emphasis which seeks to release the libidinal aspects of Marx, the desire for revolution.
Lyotard's interpretation of capitalism in the libidinal economy sees two possibilities inherent in capitalism, each entwined and inextricable. Remanufacturing Thesis! On the one hand, capitalism is a good system for the circulation of libidinal energies; it encourages enterprising explorations of and investments in new areas. On the other hand, capitalism tends to hoard up libidinal energy into structured and regulated systems, restricting its flow. This latter tendency is at consulting general work in the capitalist exploitation that Marx rallied against. Lyotard interprets these two tendencies of capitalism in terms of the theory of dissimulation. For Lyotard, there is no possible society that is not open to essays edited atwan the desire to exploit and dissertation consulting general hoard libidinal energy in the way the capitalist does. This means that there is no utopian society free from exploitation, either pre-capitalist or post-revolutionary. Single Case! Lyotard's libidinal politics is not aimed at overthrowing capitalism, then, but of working within it to release the libidinal energies dissimulated within its structures. Practically, this also means working within existing political institutions, but passively, so as to release as much desire dissimulated within those institutions as possible, without constraining desires through planned outcomes. Lyotard's postmodern politics involves the attempt to rethink the political after the death of metanarratives such as Marxism and liberalism.
Lyotard rejects all dominant political ideologies as master-narratives which exclude minorities and do violence to the heterogenous nature of social reality. This rejection is manifested in the philosophy of paganism that preceded Lyotard's postmodernism. Consulting! Here, the notion of impiety associated with the pagan is a rejection of “pious” political ideologies which unquestioningly assert principles and values as universally and unquestioningly true. Single Case! In its mature form, Lyotard's postmodern politics deals with the concern for justice and dissertation consulting service the need to bear witness to the differend. In the case of a differend, a wrong is done to a party who cannot phrase their hurt (See Postmodernism (c) The Differend). For Lyotard, no just resolution of a differend is possible. Because of the single, radical incommensurability of dissertation consulting general phrase regimes in the case of a differend, any resolution would only assert the legitimacy of one phrase regime at the cost of silencing the other, thus deepening the wrong.
Justice demands a witnessing and a remembering of the fact that there is a differend. This means presenting the fact that a wrong has been done which cannot itself be presented. This is then the contradictory task of presenting the unpresentable, a task Lyotard sees as best accomplished in the arena of art. Lyotard was a prolific writer on both art and philosophical aesthetics. An aesthetic theory focusing on the avant-garde deeply informs both major phases of his philosophical thought (the libidinal and the postmodern). Examples from particular movements in art and individual artists and writers are common in his philosophical works, and in addition he wrote a number of books on individual artists, including Georges Guiffrey, Albert Ayme, Gian-franco Baruchello, Jacques Monory, Valerio Adami, Shusaku Arakawa, and Daniel Buren. Lyotard also organised an art exhibition, Les immateriaux , at the Centre Georges Pompidou in 1985. The exhibition collected works which explored connections between the media, art, space, and matter. Art has a privileged place in Lyotard's philosophy of events, since it calls attention to essay titles the limits of representation.
In the earlier phase of his work, art is celebrated for its figural and libidinal aspects that oppose and deregulate systems of discourse and rational thought. In Lyotard's postmodern period, art is privileged for its sublime effects and the attention it calls to the differend. It is not all kinds of art that Lyotard celebrates; he is particularly interested in the avant-garde. Some forms of art can reinforce structured systems of meaning, but the special feature of avant-garde art is to disrupt expectations, conventions, and established orders of reception. Dissertation General! In Discours, figure , visual arts are associated with the figural and the process of seeing. However, poetry is also privileged as a manifestation of the essay titles, figural in the way it upsets established orders of meaning, following Lyotard's move from the figural as simply sensuous to the figural as disruptive force in any system. The libidinal philosophy engages with art on the level of its affective force: shapes and colours act as tensors within the system of consulting signification that the artwork forms, and unlike more rigidly structured systems, artworks more readily release their affective energy into different systems of interpretation, reception, and influence. Assessment Paper! Furthermore, the process of painting exemplifies the ambiguously passive yet active way in which Lyotard sees the release of dissertation service libidinal energies as most effective.
A painting is not a rigidly pre-planned structured piece of cultural assessment work in which the outcome is determined beforehand, but a process of experimentation. In this process, affects are inscribed on a surface without being strictly controlled by an actively willing and organising subject. The most important artists for Lyotard in this period include Paul Cezanne, Marcel Duchamp, and Robert Delaunay. In Lyotard's philosophy of postmodernism and the differend, he develops an aesthetic theory of postmodern art. It is essential to distinguish Lyotard's concept of postmodern art from dissertation, other ideas of postmodern art. There are many theories of postmodernism in the arts, literature, architecture, and other areas of cultural practise. Other theorists (such as Jean Baudrillard) have also proposed aesthetic theories of postmodernism which differ from Lyotard's understanding of postmodernism in the arts. In particular, Lyotard's postmodern art must be distinguished from the stylistic trends often called postmodern in overpopulation essay titles the art world (such as the dissertation consulting general, anti-modern return to representational realism or the simulationism of coursework Peter Halley, Sherrie Levine, Jeff Koons and others). Lyotard's concept of service postmodernism in the arts relates more to what is usually called modernism in the arts.
It focuses on the experimentation of the essay, avant-garde, and Lyotard takes as privileged examples Abstract Expressionism and particularly the work of Barnett Newman. Lyotard makes his own distinction between the categories of modern and postmodern in art, however, in a couple of ways. Firstly, postmodernism is said to be the avant-garde movement always at consulting service work within modernism itself. It is that which is the best essays by robert, so new and different it can only be called modern in retrospect. In this sense, postmodernism is the spirit of experimentation that drives modernism into ever-changing forms; it is the disruptive force that unsettles accepted rules for reception and meaning.
For Lyotard something must be postmodern before it can become modern. That is, it must be unsettling before it becomes an accepted norm. Secondly, however, according to Lyotard postmodern avant-garde art never entirely loses its ability to disturb. This power of disturbance is related to the feeling of the sublime, and it is an indication of the differend. Dissertation Consulting General! In this context, modern and postmodern art can be distinguished in the following way. Both are concerned with the unpresentable: that which cannot be presented (or represented) in art.
Modern art, however, presents the fact that there is an american essays by robert atwan unpresentable, while postmodern art attempts to present the unpresentable. This is a paradoxical task, and arouses in the viewer the dissertation service, mixture of pleasure and pain that is the sublime. Lyotard takes Barnett Newman's work as a paragon of postmodern, avant-garde art. Single! Newman consciously seeks to achieve the sublime in his paintings, and Lyotard believes he achieves this by making his viewers feel that something profound and important is going on in his works, but without being able to dissertation identify what this is. Postmodern art has a political importance for american essays atwan, Lyotard, since it can call attention to differends through the feeling of the sublime, showing us that a wrong has been done. Bearing witness to dissertation service general the differend is the primary focus of Lyotard's postmodern politics, and art is the privileged arena in which this witnessing takes place.
Two of Lyotard's latest works were on the French writer, activist, and politician, Andre Malraux. Signed, Malraux is an unconventional autobiography. Lyotard's philosophical commitments distance him from the presuppositions underlying the traditional genre of biography, where the subject is assumed to be unified and the text is taken to represent the truth about that subject. Lyotard instead takes Malraux as a set of heterogenous elements (texts, political activities, personal relationships, etc), which he, as author, consciously unifies through the creation of a fictional character. Lyotard's interest in Malraux may be explained through the commonalities they share, in particular a problematic relation to the political and an attempted solution to this problem through art. Soundproof Room: Malraux's Anti-Aesthetics situates Malraux’s work in a nihilist and abjectivist tradition of writers that includes Louis Celine, Georges Bataille, Antonin Artaud, and a2 english Albert Camus.
What these writers share is a concern with the decline of belief in objective values (the death of God) and the strangeness and nausea of the human body. The Confession of Augustine was incomplete at the time of Lyotard's death, and has been published posthumously in partial form, with working notes appended. At first glance this somewhat cryptic, poetic, and quasi-religious work seems to bear little resemblance to any other piece in Lyotard's oeuvre. On closer inspection, however, the themes Lyotard works through in his reading of dissertation service Augustine's Confessions can be recognised as those already touched on in earlier works. The discussion of thesis signs recalls Lyotard's analysis of the nihilism of semiotics in Libidinal Economy , where he refers to Augustine, and what is perhaps the consulting service, main theme of this work - Augustine's writing as a study in the phenomenology of time – is referred to overpopulation in the dissertation consulting service general, earlier paper The Sublime and the Avant-Garde.
Lyotard reads Augustine as the precursor to the phenomenological studies of time developed by Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, and Jean-Paul Sartre. This study problematises the temporal mode of the 'now', the present, in its relations to the past and the best edited atwan the future. Service General! The problematic of time is american essays by robert, a recurring feature in Lyotard's work, and thus The Confession of Augustine can be seen as a further investigation into consulting one of Lyotard's ongoing concerns. 11. References and personal assessment paper Further Reading.
The following is a list of books by and about dissertation service general Lyotard available in English. For further bibliographical references, including further original French editions, journal articles, and personal cultural contributions by and about dissertation consulting service general Lyotard, see Lyotard’s Peregrinations and Joan Nordquist's Jean-Francois Lyotard: A Bibliography .
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Essay: Was Edmund Burke A Conservative? (Irish Studies) Edmund Burke (1729-97) was a British-Irish philosopher and politician who is generally considered the founding father of conservatism. According to the monograph T he Conservative Political Tradition in consulting service general Britain and about love, the United States (1992): “[T]he writings of Edmund Burke constitute the benchmark of conservative thought” (Aughey 1992, 2). General! However, Terry Eagleton, a renowned Irish leftwing critic and professor of Cultural Theory, is very critical of the assumption that Burke should be the touchstone of a2 english, British conservative thought. In his essay “Saving Burke from the consulting service general Tories” from the remanufacturing thesis New Statesman (July 4, 1997), Eagleton asks the dissertation service question: “How did an Irish Whig come to be transformed into an English Tory?” His underlying agenda seemingly is to remanufacturing thesis, reclaim Burke from being a Conservative icon. In his article, Eagleton argues that in order to get another perspective on Burke, one should read Burke’s arguments against the Penal Laws that oppressed Irish Catholics during the 17th and 18th centuries (Eagleton 1997, 32). In this essay, I will examine Eagleton’s question: was the early Burke more a liberal politician than a conservative one in dissertation service his attitude to Ireland and in particular to the Penal Laws and what were the historical and philosophical reasons for that in remanufacturing thesis the 18th century? I will investigate how one can characterize Edmund Burke’s early political thought from my main source: Burke’s Tracts on the Popery Laws.
My thesis is that (the early) Burke was hugely influenced by liberal and Enlightenment ideas of his time, yet his overall political thinking was part of a conservative discourse, as exemplified in his T racts on the Popery Laws . As such, I find it difficult to agree with Eagleton’s attempt to reclaim Burke from service general being a conservative or a Tory. Yet he is right, to a certain extent, in thesis about relationships emphasizing the consulting early Burke’s political ambivalence. Essay Titles! Although one must not forget that it is very difficult to compare 18th century political ideology to contemporary political ideology because of the change of historical context and semantic transformations of dissertation service general, political concepts. The origin of conservatism. Before proceeding with the thesis relationships discussion of Burke’s conservatism, one must also consider that conservatism is a political ideology defined later in history and the term ‘conservative’ has gone through considerable transformations during the dissertation service general centuries. Burke did not use the term conservatism in the exact meaning it has today, as it had not yet emerged in the 18th century. Although in his Reflections on the Revolution in France he did state: “A state without the single case study means of some change, is without the means of its own conservation” (Reflections 2009, 21). This sentence has indeed become one of the roots of the concept “conservative”. Yet before the publication of his Reflections, Burke was not considered a conservative at all (Janes 2002, 2). If one goes back to the beginning of dissertation service, his authorship, one finds writings that are indicating an american essays edited, Enlightenment liberalism – especially when analyzing his writings on the conditions in Ireland (Janes 2002, 2).
In the nineteenth century, Burke was in fact mostly interpreted as a utilitarian liberal where the conservatism of his Reflections was only a deviation in his thought (Macpherson 1980, 3). The ideology ‘conservatism’ has in the Anglophone world by a large degree been defined by and through a later conservative mythologizing of Burke’s writings and persona, making him the very origin of the conservative ideology both in Britain and the US – however different the two interpretations of Burke’s conservatism might be (Aughey 1992, 7). In this essay, I will mainly focus on the British version. According to consulting, the monograph The Conservative Political Tradition in Britain and United States , Burke can be understood as one of the original designers of the essays by robert conservative ideology (if one can speak of an dissertation general, ideology). In any case, when analyzing an ideology like conservatism, it is relationships obvious that we also have to understand its origin and genealogy. Although originally terms of abuse, ‘Whig’ and ‘Tory’ are terms that have been used in a political context in England since the 1680s in order to dissertation service, describe the political coalitions or groupings. They did not resemble the terms ‘liberal’ and ‘conservative’ from the beginning, nor were they political parties in the modern conception of a political party (Sack 1993, 46). However, in 1742 David Hume did, in his essay Of the Parties of thesis about love, Great Britain, define the terms in dissertation service close analogy to ‘conservative’ and ‘liberal’: “A Tory, […] since the revolution [of 1688], may be defined in a few words, to be a lover of monarchy, tho’ without abandoning liberty; and a partizan of the family of Stuart,” while a “Whig may be defin’d to be a Lover of Liberty, tho’ without renouncing Monarchy; a Friend to the Settlement in the Protestant Line” (mason.gmu.edu §28). In other words, Tories are associated with ‘order’ and ‘monarchy’ and Whigs are the believers in ‘liberty’.
Originally, the Whigs suspected that the Tories were Catholics which gave the Tories their name, as ‘Tory’ was a nickname for an Irish Catholic outlaw. However, the distinction between the Tories being supporters of Stuarts (Catholicism) and Whigs being supporters of essays by robert atwan, Protestantism changed in the 18th century via a semantic transformation and they became to signify the opposition between ‘court’ and ‘country’, ‘nobility’, and ‘gentry’ – or between ‘court’ and ‘patriot opposition’ in the new party formations (mason.gmu.edu §29). During George III’s reign with Edmund Burke as an MP for the Whigs, the party formations mainly divided either, on the one hand, around Lord North (Tory), William Pitt the Younger (Tory) or around the Marquis of Rockingham (Whig) and Charles James Fox (Whig – although in coalition with Lord North) on the other hand. Consulting General! In the beginning of the 18th century the case Tories were Jacobins who supported the Catholic Stuarts (Sack 1993, 4) and they were against the Whig government and the Hanoverian succession. In some cases, the Tories were even directly involved in plots working on consulting service getting the Stuarts back on the throne. Thesis! Besides the Jacobite Risings in 1715 and 1745, the dissertation consulting general Attenbury Plot was the most serious Jacobite and Tory attempt to the best american by robert, recapture the crown (lib.cam.ac.uk). General! Gradually, the thesis about Tories became supporters of ‘King and Church’ (Sack 1993, 4) and dissertation consulting general, represented the nobilities and the best american essays by robert atwan, the Ascendency in Ireland (O’Brien 1992, 52). The Tories had in general moved from being Jacobites into being Royalist and Protestants (Sack 1993, 4).
Edmund Burke was closely associated with the Rockingham Whigs and he actually formulated the ideology of the Rockingham Whigs (O’Brien 1992, xxxvi). Dissertation Consulting General! Only later as a new political climate arose because of the French Revolution (1789), the terms ‘Tory’ and “Whig” were defined in a ‘new’ and a2 english literature coursework, ‘old’ terminology, exemplified through Burke’s own writing Appeal from the New to dissertation, the Old Whigs (1791). Gradually, during the end of the 18th century, ‘old’ Whigs and Tories adjusted to the ‘new’ political vocabulary when the terms ‘liberal’ and ‘conservative’, ‘left-wing’ and a2 english coursework, ‘right-wing’, ‘radical’ and service general, ‘reactionary’ came into being through the a2 english coursework French Revolution (mason.gmu.edu §38/39). In other words, Burke developed his political thoughts simultaneously with the emergence of left and right (Levin 2014, 198) and consulting service, the party-system. This suggests that it is difficult to answer the question if Burke was a conservative or a liberal from the concepts alone or by comparing them to the terms ‘Whig’ and ‘Tory’. However, one can conclude that Burke was a Whig in the sense that he was a part of and even the creator of the literature coursework political formation labelled ‘Whig’ by formulating to consulting service, political agenda of the Rockingham government where he was also shortly appointed Paymaster of the Forces. The Irish question was very important in personal cultural the development of Burke’s political philosophy and early political opinions. In this paper, I will focus on Burke’s writings on the Penal Laws, yet one could also have investigated his later writings in which he argued for Irish free trade. Service! In particular, the cultural paper Penal Laws, which had been enacted mainly by the monarchs (King William III, Queen Anne, King George I and II) and passed by the Irish Parliament in the 17th and the 18th century, made a great influence on Burke’s early thinking.
The Penal Laws restricted the rights of the Catholic population (and Protestant dissenters) in Ireland severely and the purpose of the Penal Laws were to limit Catholic influence and force people to convert to Protestantism or the Anglican Church. It was the intention of the political establishment in Ireland and Britain after the Glorious Revolution (1688-89) to make the dissertation general entire colonized Ireland convert into Protestantism by the force of these laws. Furthermore, the Penal Laws supported the Protestant Ascendency’s right to maintain and enhance their economical possessions and political power in the colonized Ireland. The Penal Laws were gradually repealed during the late 18th century, beginning with George III’s dismantling of them in titles Burke’s lifetime (library.law.umn.edu). Consulting Service General! The Penal Laws discriminated against personal cultural paper Catholics (and Protestant dissenters) in Ireland on dissertation consulting service a variety of fields: Intermarriage of Protestants and Catholics was disallowed; Catholics could not take care of Protestant children from a mixed marriage; by converting to Protestantism, one could reclaim the land from single study one’s Catholic family as an inheritance. There were restrictions on rights to keep school and on the right to consulting service general, buy land; Catholics could not serve in the army, hold public offices or enter legal profession. A Catholic could not vote for or become an personal cultural paper, MP in Dublin or in London. It was even a felony to teach the Catholic religion, and general, treason as a capital offence to convert a Protestant to the Catholic faith (library.law.umn.edu/irishlaw).
Through all of his political career, Edmund Burke saw the consequences of the Penal Laws as devastating for the Catholic population in Ireland, as he said in a Letter to William Smith (1795), the remanufacturing Penal Laws were “a machine as well fitted for the oppression, impoverishment, and degradation of a people, and the debasement in them of dissertation consulting, human nature itself, as ever proceeded from the perverted ingenuity of case, man” (firstprinciplesjournal.com). The question of abolition of the Penal Laws was a cause of great concern to Burke, especially in consulting the beginning of his political career, as we will see in my analysis of his Tracts on the Popery Laws . Burke’s text T racts on the Popery Laws is a fragment consisting of four remaining chapters, as chapter one is missing or was never written. The Tracts are probably written during a period from 1761-1764 but were not published during Edmund Burke’s own lifetime and did therefore not have any direct political influence on the political agenda towards Ireland in his time. Yet the thesis Tracts might have been shown or prepared to dissertation service, be shown to people of influence, for example Burke’s employee William Gerard Hamilton, the Chief Secretary for Ireland. This explains why Burke was not too radical on the unfairness of the Penal Laws in his Tracts (O’Brien 1992, 41).
Also Burke was born in Dublin into personal assessment paper a well-to-do Irish family where his father was an attorney who had converted to Protestantism. Burke’s mother was a Catholic as a large part of his family. Consulting! Burke himself was a Protestant, yet his Irishness could be a burdensome inheritance when seeking a public career and it has been an ongoing debate if Edmund Burke actually concealed his Catholicism in order to remanufacturing thesis, achieve his position in society (O’Brien 1992, 44) and dissertation consulting service, that might also have restricted him from publishing. In the literature coursework Tracts , we find some of Burke’s earliest political assumptions which are not straightforward conservative, yet not straightforward liberal either. Eagleton’s thesis that “Modern-day conservatives […], should think twice before they light their candles at the shrine of Edmund Burke” (Eagleton 1997, 33) is an consulting general, interesting questioning of Burke’s contemporary legacy and tribute to his ambivalence, but a comparison between Modern and 18th century conservative standpoints is an almost impossible analytical undertaking because of the transformation of the historical context, which indirectly also might be Eagleton’s point.
Yet I will try to distil the discourses of the overpopulation essay different political and philosophical tendencies in his early thinking and dissertation consulting general, compare them to the discourse of conservatism understood as a set of general ideas. I will narrow down conservatism into study consisting of three philosophical discourses: a) As a discourse conservatism is associated with an ideology that is a counter-reaction to the universal ideas of the general Enlightenment (Aughey 1992, 41, 58) and as a discourse antithetical to the key-concepts of the study Enlightenment as for dissertation consulting, example natural rights, consent of the people, and cultural, the social contract-principle. In other words, conservatism is the political support of “monarchy and church” (Aughey 1992, 41, 58). b) In general, conservatism is associated with a political discourse which emphasizes law and order. Traditional institutions and practices are the foundations of society rather than the dissertation service radicalism of revolution (Aughey 1992, 13). Reforms in a2 english literature coursework society should preserve rather than destroy. Justice is fulfilled when law and order is maintained in dissertation consulting accordance with the traditions of institutions. In addition, conservatism is the american essays by robert atwan belief in consulting an organic development of about relationships, society and institutions through history and a belief in natural rights only if they are given by God or founded through institutional tradition (Aughey 1992, 35). c) Finally, conservatism is traditionally an ‘ideology’ arguing for property rights for the individual through tradition or inheritance (Aughey 1992, 55). In the following, I will analyze how these three discourses are displayed in dissertation general Burke’s Tracts on the Popery Laws and judge if they become hegemonic.
a. Enlightenment ideas. In his Tracts , Burke is thesis relationships clearly influenced by the liberal ideas of the dissertation consulting Enlightenment. Personal Assessment! He believes in reason, improvement, freedom of religion, and social reforms for the general population in dissertation service general Ireland. Burke’s argument is that law should always consider the happiness of the multitude. The duty of the legislators is to make laws that benefits the majority of the population, Burke states in pre-utilitarian sense. Laws are oppressive if they are not for the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people, which is not the case in overpopulation Ireland where the Catholic population suffers from the Penal Laws. “Now as a law directed against the mass of the dissertation consulting general nation has not the literature nature of a reasonable institution, so neither has it the authority: for in all forms of government the dissertation consulting service general people is the true legislator” (Tracts 2002, 62).
The underlying political principle in Burke’s argumentation seems to be the Enlightenment philosophy of the ‘consent of the people’ by Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and especially John Locke (1632-1704). Hobbes’ and mainly Locke’s idea of consent entitled the rulers to rule under certain specific conditions given by the people. This meant that society’s laws had to be an expression of the consent of the people (McClelland 1996, 241). The Tracts seem to unfold the idea that every individual in society has natural rights or a natural liberty which in turn made it possible for the individual or the people to consent by free will to the rulers of the state or to laws. The underlying discourse in Burke’s Tracts is that the “government of the people are the true legislators,” and laws and institutions in the best american edited society should be designed on the grounds of consent of the people. Furthermore, Burke also argues for the existence of natural rights in his rejection of the Penal Laws: “Everybody is dissertation consulting service general satisfied that a conservation and secure enjoyment of our natural rights is the great and ultimate purpose of civil society, and that therefore all forms whatsoever of government are only a2 english literature good as they are subservient to that purpose to general, which they are entirely subordinate liberty” (Tracts 2002, 73). A government is only valuable to it subjects in the sense that it is of any good to the people it governs and that it is able to secure their basic human rights.
In this passage, however, he uses the concept ‘conservation’ in a conservative way, although it is the natural rights which have to be conserved, and government is subordinate liberty. Burke is writing his Tracts in continuation of key-concepts from an Enlightenment discourse, yet with conservative hints. Burke is also influenced by the new Enlightenment ideas when advocating for a new approach to law and justice: “A law against study the majority of the people is in substance a law against the people itself” (Tracts 2002, 62). Dissertation Consulting! Laws are conventionally created by the consent of the people, meaning they can be changed if the circumstances of the case particular law have changed, although that is, of course, also in accordance with British tradition of Civil Law. Burke did not believe in any abstract rights. Interestingly, law is also founded on a more original justice, according to Burke: “All human laws are, properly speaking, only declaratory; they may alter the mode and dissertation general, application, but have no power over the substance of original justice” (Tracts 2002, 64-65). About Love! The original justice can be understood as natural rights given by God: “I mean the will of Him who gave us our nature, and in giving, impressed an invariable law upon it” (Tracts 2002, 63).
Burke might believe in an almost Ciceronian (Wallace 2013, 198) conception of natural rights but these rights are given by God. In that sense, Burke combines traditional conservative thinking with traditional liberal thinking: people might have natural rights, but they are given by God. According to Burke, the real purpose of repealing the Penal Laws is also to maintain peace and order and avoid revolution in Ireland. Burke is opposed to the prevalent argument of the political establishment for maintaining the Penal Laws: “The great prop of this whole system is not pretended to be its justice or its utility, but the supposed danger to the state, which gave rise to it originally, and which, they apprehend, would return if this system was overturned” (Tracts 2002, 90). Burke is indirectly referring to the consequences of the Glorious Revolution and the actions taken in order to secure power of the Protestant victors, yet he finds it an over-reaction to enact such harsh laws as the Penal Laws, as they will only consulting encourage revolution and rebellion among the Catholic population in Ireland: “it will show that an attempt to continue them in that state will rather be disadvantageous to the public peace than any kind of single case, security to it” (Tracts 2002, 92). In other words, in order to preserve order and peace in society, and avoid revolution, the Irish parliament should repeal the Penal Laws. As Burke emphasizes at consulting service general the very end of his Tracts: “nothing can be more absurd and dangerous than to study, tamper with the natural foundations of society, in hopes of keeping it up by certain contrivances” (Tracts 2002, 94). Finally, the dissertation consulting question of property is study significant in the Tracts . Although subversive to the political agenda of the Whigs (in Dublin) at the time, Burke argues in a conservative way on behalf of the property rights of the Irish Catholics. In fact, conservatism becomes subversive when Burke deals with the Irish question and the consequences of the Penal Laws, as Eagleton suggested in his article (Eagleton 1997, 32). The right to own your property is a fundamental conservative thought Burke expresses in his Tracts as the land of the Irish Catholic population has indeed been confiscated by the Protestant Ascendency. This could be interpreted as a Lockean emphasis on property, but Burke’s idea of property is also based on pragmatism and inheritance, while Locke’s ideas on property are based on property acquired through labor and the persona (Locke 2014, 740).
In that sense, Burke’s conservative values, pragmatism and consulting service, emphasis on inheritance work as the argument for the right of the Catholic population of Ireland to maintain their property. Overpopulation! “I must observe that although these penal laws do indeed inflict many hardships on those who are obnoxious to them, yet their chief, their most extensive and most certain operation is upon property […] For a law against property is a law against industry” (Tracts 2002, 88). Natural rights and history. In continuation of my analysis above, the question if Burke was conservative can be condensed into the question if Burke founded his philosophy on ‘natural rights’ or ‘history’. Indeed, in general his essay Eagleton admits that especially Burke’s reaction to a theory of natural rights was the main reason why Burke in a2 english coursework the first place could be interpreted as the founding father of conservative thought. Dissertation! Burke believes “in the doctrine that political rights are guaranteed by the passage of time itself” (Eagleton 1997, 32). This traditionally very conservative standpoint was of course against the liberal ideas of such radicals as Tom Paine and Mary Wollstonecraft who wanted to ground human rights on nature.
C.B. Macpherson states about single case Burke’s political philosophy: “the appeal is to history and observation, not to Natural Law” (Macpherson 1980, 24). Although ‘natural law’ and ‘natural rights’ are not exactly the same (Hobbes 2008, 86), O’Gotman holds that Burke’s definition of natural rights just had another definition than the traditional Enlightenment definition: “Burke’s natural rights amounted to the normal benefits of social living, those of order, security, justice and peaceful possession of property and labour” (O’Gorman 1973, 166). The American-German philosopher Leo Strauss argues in his monograph Natural Right and History (1953) that Burke did refer to natural rights. “[Burke] does not tire of speaking of natural right, which, as such, is consulting service anterior to the British constitution. But he also says that ‘our constitution is a prescriptive constitution; it is a constitution whose sole authority is that it has exited time out of mind’” (Strauss 1953, 319). Based on this quote, the British Constitution, as it has evolved through history, is the fundamental principle in Burke’s political philosophy, yet anteceded by natural rights. Furthermore, Yoval Levin writes in his recently published work The Great Debate (2014): “It is not hard to see why some readers would take such declarations as evidence that Burke sees an accessible natural law above the position law” (Levin 2014, 74). Indeed Burke is significantly ambivalent when it comes to natural rights, and one could argue that Burke’s conservatism is characterized by ambivalence. Burke did claim the label of ‘Whig’ for himself throughout most of his public career, though he did write in a letter that he did not greatly care if his principles were thought to be Whig or not. Paper! “If they are Tory principles, I should always wish to be thought a Tory” (Sack 1993, 66). One could also argue, as Eagleton, that Burke’s conservatism and belief in “prescription” had a subversive character, as his “appeal to dissertation service, tradition was in fact politically subversive” (Eagleton 1997, 32).
Burke was, as we saw above, subversive when he argued against remanufacturing the obviously unfair treatment of the Irish population according to consulting, property rights. He was against the Penal Laws and he saw the american edited by robert atwan great disadvantages of the economic inequality that the Ascendency bestowed upon the Irish society, yet he did that in order secure order and dissertation consulting general, peace in the British Empire to which he was always a loyal and literature, patriotic servant. Edmund Burke’s early political standpoints were hugely influenced by liberal and Enlightenment ideas of his time, still his overall political thinking was mainly part of a conservative discourse, as exemplified in his Tracts on the Popery Laws . Burke may have used Enlightenment liberal thinking in his argumentation against the Penal Laws, but these ideas were subdued a conservative hegemonic discourse with key-concepts as God, justice, property, and order. As such, this paper does not entirely agree with Eagleton’s attempt problematize the prevalent interpretation of Burke as a conservative or a Tory, but he is right, to a certain extent, in emphasizing the early Burke’s political ambivalence – Although it is dissertation consulting general very difficult to compare 18th century political ideology to single, contemporary political ideology because of the change of historical context and consulting service general, semantic transformations of political concepts. In the beginning of his article, Terry Eagleton asks the question: “How did an Irish Whig come to essay titles, be transformed into an English Tory?” My answer would be that Burke has become an inseparable part of conservative mythology through the consulting general genealogy of conservatism. The political terminology has gone through a semantic transformation in the course of history. In the 17th and 18th century, the terms ‘Whig’ and ‘Tory’ do not entirely match the terms ‘conservative’ and ‘liberal’. But through the evolvement of the political formations in Britain’s parliament, and the related semantic transformation of the terms ‘Whig’ and ‘Tory’, they became to signify ‘conservative’ and ‘liberal’.
Burke was closely associated with the Whigs as he was to become a minister in the Rockingham government, and he was one of the main contributors to the best american atwan, the Whig policy in the second half of the consulting 18th century, yet his thinking points towards later conservatism. (Work in progress) List of references. Burke, Edmund. Thesis! 2009 (1790). Reflections on the Revolution in dissertation service France. Oxford World’s Classics. Single! Oxford. Burke, Edmund. Tracts on the Popery Laws.
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2014. Service General! The Great Debate. Edmund Burke, Thomas Paine and the Birth of Right and overpopulation, Left. Basic Books. New York. Locke, John. 2014 (1690). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Wordsworth Classics of World Literature. London.
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The Foucault Reader. Penguin Books. London. Sack, James J. 1993. From Jacobite To Conservative. Reaction and orthodoxy in Britain c. Cultural Paper! 1760-1832. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Strauss, Leo. 1971 (1953).
Natural Right and History. 7th Impression. The University of dissertation consulting service general, Chicago Press. Chicago. Eagleton, Terry. “Saving Burke form the Tories.” In: New Statesman; Jul 4, pp. 32-33. Coursework! 1997. O’Brien, Conor Cruise. “Burke, Ireland, and America.” In: National Review, Sept. 15, pp. 35-40. 1997.
Wallace, Nathan. “Matthew Arnold, Edmund Burke, And The Irish Reconciliation”. In: Prose Studies, Vol. 34, No. 3. December 2012. Pp. 197-223. Routledge 2012. The Attenbury Plot. Cambridge University Library: Laws in Ireland for the Suppression of Popery.
Penal Law. University of dissertation service, Minnesota Law School Library: http://library.law.umn.edu/irishlaw/intro.html Accessed 31.03.2015. William F. Byrne, Edmund Burke and the Politics of about, Empire. First Principle Journal: Yaday, Alok.
Historical Outline of dissertation consulting general, Restoration and remanufacturing, 18th-Century British Literature. George Mason University: