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Law School Personal Statements Advice. There is no other component of your application that you can control as much as your law school personal statement. An excellent personal statement will separate you from the sea of candidates with similar academic qualifications. Analogous to an interview, a law school personal statement should introduce the attributes and accomplishments that make you an good essay individual. Do not write a summary of your resume or transcript, but instead utilize this opportunity to expand upon what is unique about you, your life experiences, and your goals. The following advice is intended to help you understand your audience, teach you how to craft a persuasive statement, suggest topics, and in a research paper, tell you the inside secrets you should know.
This advice is supplemented by personal statement samples with commentary at the end. This advice is divided into several sections: 1. Where to Begin: Motivate Yourself! 2. Ideas For Argumentative Essay! Write for Your Audience. 3. Anticipate the theme thesis Committee’s Cross-Examination. 4. The First Steps to an Exceptional Personal Statement. Argumentation and Persuasion. Structuring Your Statement.
How to Write a Strong Introduction. How to Write a Strong Conclusion. Appeal to Your Audience. 5. Topics for Law School Personal Statements. 6. Things to Remember Once You Begin. 7. Inside Secrets You Should Know. 10. Top 10 Personal Statement Mistakes. 11. Sample Personal Statements and good ideas for argumentative, Commentary. 1. Ask yourself if you want to go to law school.
If the answer is, “I want this!” then find a way to say it in a heartfelt, mature, determined, engaging way in your personal statement. 2. Thesis! Start writing now. Your personal statement is essential to gaining admission. Get serious. 3. You must demonstrate a strong, mature commitment to law: Inform yourself about ideas for argumentative essay, your chosen profession and the schools you would consider attending. Theme Essay Thesis! This research will take some time, and your serious competitors will put in this time. 4. The top law schools seem to ask very little of you in your application for potentially very high returns.
This is good, somewhat deceptive because many of the people you are competing against will invest enormous amounts of essay, time and good ideas, energy in crafting and honing their two- or three-page personal statements. Theme! They may even utilize a professional editing service. Invest time in your personal statement. This is not the two-page essay you whipped off in college the good night before and got an “A.” This is from, a difficult genre that requires several drafts. 5. When you begin writing, find a self-confident and mature tone, but don’t be afraid to let your personality and good for argumentative essay, enthusiasm come through. Accept responsibilities for yourself, your family, and what is a thesis in a paper, your community.
Show why you are among the best and brightest, and ideas essay, break stereotypes by being unique. 1. Admissions committees at top law schools usually consist of professional admissions officers, professors, and students. These are the people who will read your personal statement. 2. Your audience wants to enter into your thoughts and perspective, and they want specific details about you. 3. The ideal effect you want to achieve is personal transformation for the reader. The very best personal statements are the unforgettable handful that move the reader. 3. From To Essay! Anticipate the Committee’s Cross-Examination. Because very few law schools offer interviews, the personal statement functions in an introductory capacity. Thus a good personal statement should implicitly address the questions the committee will ask themselves about you if they had an opportunity.
A well-crafted personal statement will not answer the following questions directly, but it will embed the desired answers in the narrative: 1. Will you be a good lawyer? 2. Good For Argumentative! What was your tangible impact on an institution, an organization, or individuals? 3. Have you reached beyond the essay safety net of college into the real world? 4. Do you have a plan for your goals, or are you a dreamer? 5. Can you put yourself in another subject position in order to see all sides of an ideas for argumentative issue?
6. What will you bring to our law school? 7. Have you been a pro-active starter in the past? Did you raise money for what you started? Do you know how to organize? Do you follow through on what you began? 8. Have you demonstrated your ability both to work with a team and to delegate?
4. The First Steps to nature quotes, an Exceptional Personal Statement. Argumentation and Persuasion. You have three purposes in your personal statement that demand the art of persuasion: 1. To make your reader believe you should be admitted. 2. To clear away any doubts your reader might have about you. 3. To make your reader act on your behalf. You are writing a persuasive essay, but it should also have some of the elements of a persuasive speech.
That is why it is generally called a personal “statement,” instead of personal essay. The personal statement is a unique genre and very difficult to master, since at good essay, most people write one or two in their lives. Theme Thesis! Most importantly for this genre, you want to build a strong ethos. Good For Argumentative! That means your audience should like you and find you authoritative, competent, thoughtful, and book, honest. You want to demonstrate that you are a perceptive leader, who can communicate well with others, that you are open to for argumentative essay, new experiences and are enthusiastic. You do not want to come across as too formal, stuffy or too technical. You must give your audience evidence for your assertion that you should be admitted. Thesis Essay! The best essays will interpret the evidence provided by explaining how each piece of evidence contributes to good ideas for argumentative, supporting the assertion. The best essays will also be clear, concise, and graceful.
There are several types of evidence you may choose to use. Good personal statements use more than one type of evidence, and exceptional personal statements use them all. 1. Easy! Logos: Reason and logic, including facts, figures, expert testimony, and syllogism. Use logos to persuade with facts. 2. Pathos: Emotional appeals, including examples and narratives that build sympathy. Use pathos to good ideas for argumentative essay, persuade with feelings. Essay Thesis! Show you care passionately about.
Caution: Using too much pathos, including wretched descriptions, fear or. guilt, or even too many glowing adjectives can make your audience feel. manipulated, offended, or turned off. 3. Good Essay! Ethos: Credibility, including perceived competence, character, and likeability. Use ethos to persuade by from, authority. 4. Mythos: Belief and value patterns of an good essay audience, including traditional narratives, sayings, metaphors, and essay, symbols.
Use mythos to good essay, add power, subtle rhetorical control and wider significance to your argument. A persuasive personal statement will be an organic whole from beginning to end, not a collection of elements held together with a few flimsy pieces of tape you call “Why I should be admitted.” An exceptional law school personal statement will have themes running throughout like a functioning circulatory system, with these themes discussed and interpreted in greed bad essay the introduction and good ideas for argumentative essay, conclusion. Structuring Your Statement. You should be able to tell someone how your personal statement is structured, what the logical progression is, what each of the roughly six to ten paragraphs is about, and how each paragraph both interprets evidence for greed bad essay its specific claim and contributes to the overall effect of the essay. You should also try to have a unifying theme. This might organically develop from good essay, your attention-grabbing material at the beginning of the statement. For most people, this will be a story with a moral strong enough to be your motto: the “angle” from which you are presenting yourself. There are several standard structures for law school personal statements. You may use more than one: 1. Tell a personal narrative or story.
People remember stories. Have a clear ending to thesis statement for overpopulation, your story/stories as well as an ideas essay explicit lesson. This type of essay typically allows you to demonstrate aspects of your character and leadership skills. 2. Show how you have made chronological growth, including steps you will take in the future. It is generally better to avoid giving long narratives about some aspect of yourself before college. If you have a good reason for essay mentioning your childhood or adolescence (such as an good essay unusual history abroad or a specific obstacle you have overcome), then it is better to keep it to one short, vivid paragraph and refer to essay, it again later in the essay, if you are making it the unifying theme of your statement. Good Ideas! This structure relies on from paragraph to essay time to move it forward, but that is not enough: it also requires a theme you are tracing through time.
3. Present a problem and how you solved it or would solve it. Ideas For Argumentative Essay! This is called the problem-solution structure. For example, you might discuss what’s lacking in the legal system or society or demonstrate a need for change and then give evidence for what is a in a paper how you have begun to solve this problem. This type of essay showcases your analytic reasoning. 4. Use a metaphor or analogy to help your audience understand you. This demonstrates your rhetorical control and usually integrates mythos into good ideas essay your statement. 5. What Is A Thesis Paper! Pose rhetorical questions to your audience or use suspense. This structure showcases your skill in persuasion and argumentation. 6. Describe what you have learned from another lawyer or mentor. Also analyze what you would do differently. Ideas! This type of essay allows you to showcase your analytic reasoning.
7. Begin with a meaningful quote, which you explain and refer to throughout your statement. This is a difficult structure to master, but when it is done well, it can be satisfying for the reader. Do not randomly pick a quote from Bartlett’s. Do not pick a quote by some famous person whose work you have never read or barely encountered. Spend some time unpacking the various levels and resonances of the quote in relation to your life and goals.
8. List reasons you should be admitted. This structure, like the chronological structure, needs a unifying theme, or it is completely boring. Easy Review! It is best to avoid this structure. How to good essay, Write a Strong Introduction. 1. Attention-grabbing material: Hook them with a remarkable or a life-changing experience, an to essay anecdote, or a question that will be answered by your law school personal statement. 2. Benefits: Make your essay worth their time to read. 3. Credentials: Build ethos. 4. Direction: Tell them your thesis and structure. How to Write a Strong Conclusion.
1. Discover something new for your audience that you set up along the way. 2. The conclusion is the final chord of music resolved. It should pull together the different parts of the personal statement, rephrase main ideas, interpret the importance of the choice of topics, point towards the future, and give the cue for good ideas ending with a rhetorical flourish. 1. Using pathos will appeal to thesis statement essay, your audience’s feelings and emotions and ideas, make them more sympathetic to you. Several ways to use pathos include: writing your story as a quest narrative (which also adds mythos), asking the audience to think of a time when, using rhetorical questions, using suspense, describing a great disappointment with details but ending with a positive lesson learned, describing a great joy. 2. Your audience will be one of three types of learners: visual, auditory, or kinesthetic.
Try to appeal to all of these by working in visual descriptions for visual learners, discussing times in which you excelled in oral communication for auditory learners, and discussing specific ways in which you were active for kinesthetic learners (kinesthetic learners are those who learn by physically doing rather than reading or listening). Your audience will primarily self-select as visual learners, because these typically include people who are good at reading. The bottom line is statement for overpopulation, this: Vivid, active language is crucial. 3. Good Ideas Essay! Try to make the reader feel he or she has taken a short mental vacation. Whisk the reader away into your world. Make the reader smile.
4. Nature Essay Quotes! If you think the audience can’t relate to a specific piece of evidence you have given to back up your claim that you should be admitted, try to describe it so that the audience can feel connected imaginatively. This applies to describing your work in a different nation and culture, for example. 5. Your audience will perk up if you describe a campus visit you made and give specific details about which of their colleagues you met with and how that visit changed your perspective. 6. Appeal to universal human values, including success, freedom, honesty, and friendship, among others. 5. Topics for Law School Personal Statements. Your topic is related to, but separate from your structure. Your structure is the form of your personal statement, and the topic is the good ideas for argumentative content. You may start with the structure or the topic, depending on which appeals to you more. Review! Personalize your law school personal statement as much as possible by including concrete examples of your characteristics and specific details of good ideas for argumentative, your experiences. Show, rather than tell, the reader about yourself and your accomplishments.
1. Write about an event or issue of particular importance in your life. 2. Write what is unique about thesis research paper, you or what interests and excites you. 3. Write about good for argumentative, coursework, experiences, or research related to your law career or legal interest, such as completing a thesis, working with a professor, or volunteering for a legal aid or clinic. 4. Thesis! Write about why a particular law school or program fits your goals. Extensive knowledge about that law school or program is ideas for argumentative, essential for this to thesis essay, truly succeed. 5. Write about overcoming any difficulties or adversity in your life. This may include difficulties faced in your personal life, academic life, or in your local or college community. Be sure that you explain how this contributed to developing qualities that will make you a good candidate for law school. 6. Examine a tragedy in your life (loss of a parent or someone close, a severe accident) or a triumph (recognition for your outstanding performance, overcoming a disease, awards for for argumentative essay excellence). Discuss how you have grown from this experience, and again, be sure that you explain how this contributed to from paragraph, developing qualities that will make you a good candidate for law school. 7. Write about the most important course, professor, or event that happened to ideas essay, you in college.
8. Write about your passions, ideals, or favorite hobbies and how they are related to your choice to easy book, attend law school and good for argumentative essay, become a lawyer. If you are still unsure about what you should write or where to begin your personal statement, try some of the following activities. Essay Thesis! Expand one or more into a theme for your law school personal statement. 1. List your personal skills and consider how they will make you an asset to the law school or legal community. 2. Essay! Have a friend or colleague do a mock interview with you regarding why you are interested in applying to law school. Your answers to their questions may trigger new ideas. 3. Review all the pivotal or remarkable experiences that you have had throughout your life. Examine how these experiences have directed your life or your decision to theme essay thesis, apply to law school. 4. Have you ever volunteered or served a cause of good for argumentative essay, great importance to theme essay thesis, you? Write about that experience. 5. How has a mentor or experience, a particular book or quote, changed the direction of your life?
Write about that life-changing event. 6. Have you assumed a leadership role in any arena, such as a club, sports team, or work? Write about what goals or ideals led you to seek these leadership roles, or what you learned and good essay, accomplished as a leader. 7. Write several adjectives that characterize you, and then write a short paragraph explaining how these words describe you. 6. Things to Remember Once You Begin: 1. Essay! Write about for argumentative, aspects of yourself readers can’t get from the other parts of your application. 2. Personalize as much as possible with specific, meaningful stories and experiences. 3. Talk about yourself but also discuss how you influence others. 4. Be creative. Easy Review! Use metaphors and good for argumentative essay, analogies.
These make extra neurons fire as the mind plays with the levels of resonance. 5. If you are fluent in another language, mention it. This is nature emerson quotes, a strong card. Play it. 6. Essay! Discuss topics that build your credibility. Your reason for applying should not be that you have wanted to be a lawyer since you were five. Theme Thesis! What kind of credibility does a five-year-old have? 7. Try to for argumentative essay, show you have as many of the following qualities as possible: Intellectual ability, analytic ability, imagination, motivation, maturity, organization, teamwork, leadership, self-confidence, oral communication skills, written communication skills, and career potential. 8. Don’t depress your audience. Everyone loves a happy ending. 7. Inside Secrets You Should Know:
1. The law school professors will be reading your personal statement closely and will immediately be able to spot good writers, with polished ideas, elegant structure, and no errors. 2. Admissions committees have read hundreds of personal statements. They can spot a good one in about two seconds. 3. Use recent stories before older, personal experiences over academic, strongest arguments before weaker. End strong. 4. A strong introduction and review, conclusion are essential. 5. People can think faster than they can read, so they are able to for argumentative, think about other things when they read your personal statement. Ideally, your essay will grab their attention so that they focus solely on you.
6. Lawyers write professionally. You must demonstrate exceptional writing skills. 7. Lawyers are master orators. They must know the skills of persuasion. Greed Bad Essay! Your essay must be able to persuade your audience to admit you. Use your rhetorical choices to show you have considered the art form. 8. Community service is imperative for advantaged applicants and those interested in ideas for argumentative essay public service. 9. The admissions committee is looking for those who have had “cross-cultural” experience: those who have put themselves in another environment that is out of their comfort zone and excelled, enjoyed it, learned about another culture, and learned to fit in. 10. What you’ve done needs to be impressive and quotes, have impacted many people. 11.
The admissions committee is good ideas, looking for future leaders in the public and thesis in a, private sectors, and those who value social power. Ideas Essay! They are not looking for naïve idealists. 12. If the school were a store, you should go in knowing what you want, why you want it, and thesis, that you’re getting the best deal for your time and money. It is rare for an applicant to have taken the time to research the school, the program, and for argumentative essay, what he or she wants from it and why he or she wants that one experience. Present yourself strongly. Know what you want. Be clear about research, it, and simple, but smart.
13. Admissions committees are impressed when you can mention one of their school’s individual strengths and how that would benefit you. Showing that you would take advantage of the school’s strengths as a means to achieve your end shows the good ideas for argumentative essay committee you are motivated. 2. Read through thirty personal statement samples. You will quickly see how they all start to theme, sound the same. Now imagine your audience reading through thousands of law school personal statements. Try to essay, find a way to make your writing style and content stand out from the crowd. 3. Greed Bad Essay! Have a clear idea of what you want to convey before writing. Before starting your law school personal statement, use an outline to determine the structure of your statement.
Have a central theme or thesis that is used throughout your personal statement. Note that you can brainstorm and free write to good essay, generate topics for your personal statement, but before you begin writing anything close to your final draft you should have a clear and concise idea of what you are conveying in your personal statement. 4. To Essay! Show continuity. Conclude your personal statement by referring back to ideas for argumentative essay, the introductory paragraph and restate your main thesis in a slightly different way. 5. Use your law school personal statement as a means to nature quotes, market yourself.
Most top law schools receive thousands of for argumentative essay, applications. Theme Essay Thesis! Admissions committees seek to ideas for argumentative essay, weave together a class composed of unique individuals whose diverse views symbiotically complement each other. Consequently, admissions decisions are based upon subjective determinations, such as the personal statement, in greed bad essay addition to objective measurements such as one’s GPA and LSAT score. Good! Use this opportunity to show the admissions committee that you are more than a standardized test score and is a research, a cluster of grades; showcase your peerless and essay, intriguing personality. 6. Be “personal” in the law school personal statement. Cultivate a positive ethos. Be genuinely honest and try to focus on your most favorable characteristics. This will allow your personal statement to stand apart from the multitude of generic law school personal statements that merely reiterate a transcript or generally describe how law school will benefit the applicant’s life. 7. Write clearly and to book, the point. Good Essay! Effectively utilize the limited words allowed to convey what is unique about easy, yourself as well as why you are a suitable fit for law school or that particular program. Make sure every sentence is ideas essay, clear.
If you aren’t sure what you said, no one else can guess. 8. Adhere to the page or word limitations. Respect the pages limits! Most well-written personal statements should be no longer than two to three pages double-spaced. Length does not correlate with quality. Greed Bad Essay! Don’t make margins less than 1” around.
Use 12-point font. If you absolutely must, you can use 11-point font in Times. 9. Consider tailoring your personal statement to reflect the ideas for argumentative essay law schools to which you are applying. Making specific references to a particular law school or specialty will demonstrate your knowledge and commitment to a particular law school. Check if professors have retired or changed institutions. 10. Take your statement through several drafts. Show your statement to professors and greed bad essay, lawyers, and ideas essay, listen to their advice.
11. Edit your law school personal statement. Proofread the final draft of your personal statement several times, including at least once orally, for substance, style, and statement essay, grammatical and spelling errors. Have others edit your law school personal statement as well. Ideally, ask an academic advisor, professor, or someone familiar with the law school application process to edit your statement.
Pay attention to detail. For Argumentative! Two sentences joined by the conjunction “and” requires a comma before the greed bad essay “and.” Leaving out the good ideas essay comma is called a comma splice. A comma splice or two will send your file to the reject pile. 12. Do use specific details. If it’s a dull generality, or says something like, “This experience was very valuable,” cut it. If you can exchange the name of the school for others, take out that sentence or rewrite it with a detail specific to the law school. 13. Write about things that make you genuinely excited and enthusiastic.
Readers of your statement can tell when your enthusiasm takes over. Be optimistic. 1. Do not focus upon your weaknesses! Almost every applicant has some aspect of their application, such as a low LSAT score or GPA, which they view as a flaw. Discussing this weakness will only highlight it. Instead, write about the traits and greed bad essay, characteristics that define you as an individual and showcase what you will bring to that law school.
Your tone should be confident and positive. If you do have a weakness to address, such as a severe illness resulting in poor grades for a semester or a documented history of good, doing poorly on standardized tests with their not truly reflecting your potential, write about this in an addendum. 2. Do not “write like a lawyer.” Lawyers are fond of “legalese,” or using long and often redundant words. The best law school personal statements display clear and succinct writing that is well within the specified word limitations. 3. Do not solely discuss why you want to be a lawyer. The fact that you are going through the admissions process evidences your interest in the law. This topic is quotes, trite and ideas for argumentative, will not leave a lasting impression upon quotes the admissions committee. Instead, again, try to discuss what experiences led to your choice and what unique attributes you will bring to law school and the legal field. 4. Avoid a boring introduction that loses the reader’s attention. Admissions committees read thousands of law school personal statements, and a boring introduction will result in good ideas for argumentative essay the reader skimming over rather than fully considering your personal statement. 5. Do not use clichés, slang, or contractions.
The tone of the essay should convey the seriousness of the greed bad essay topic and the writer. Don’t be vague. 6. Avoid controversial issues. Steer away from topics such as religion, political doctrines, or contentious issues. While you may be an outspoken critic of affirmative action or organized religion, the good for argumentative admissions committee may be offended by your views. Don’t be inappropriate. 7. Thesis Statement Essay! Do not reiterate your academic accomplishments, unless they are not evident from your transcripts and test scores.
As an for argumentative essay example, a major family crisis or personal catharsis resulting in a drastic change in your grades is worth discussing, whereas your being on the Honor Roll most semesters is greed bad essay, not. Furthermore, your grades are already documented on your transcript, and you should take this opportunity to give the committee information they cannot find in other parts of your application. 8. Do not solely rely on the spell checker. It will not correct words that are improperly used such as “form” instead of “from” and good ideas for argumentative, “none” versus “one.” 9. Avoid using the passive voice. Greed Bad Essay! Extensive use of the passive voice will rob your personal statement of clarity, brevity and impact. Sentences written in the active voice are more powerful and succinct than those written in good ideas the passive voice.
The passive voice occurs when the subject receives the action of the verb and is acted upon by someone or something. Generally, passive voice uses a verb form of “to be.” An example of passive voice would be, “The fire is seen by Joe.” When using the active voice, the subject performs the action of the verb: “Joe sees the fire.” Trial lawyers may use passive voice as a rhetorical device to avoid attributing actions to a subject. However, the nature emerson quotes personal statement is not the place for passive voice. 10. Do not write about a romance. This is an example of an inappropriate topic. 11. Do not be too influenced by one person or idea. Good Ideas Essay! Show you can synthesize ideas and choose your own way. 12.
Do not sound arrogant. This will score you zero points for positive ethos. 13. Do not use the words, “And at theme essay, that moment I knew”. 10. Top 10 Personal Statement Mistakes. This list, culled from discussions with admissions directors, lists the ideas for argumentative essay ten biggest mistakes applicants often make on thesis for overpopulation their law school personal statements. Ideas Essay! Most of these were discussed above. 1. Spelling and grammatical errors. 2. Sending a personal statement to easy book review, school B meant for School A. Harvard Law School does not want to read about your desire to attend Yale Law School. 3. Merely summarizing your resume in essay form.
4. Staying too detached in your writing style and for argumentative, not letting your personality come through in your “personal” statement. 5. Focusing upon easy book review your weaknesses and not your strengths. 6. Using too many big words or “legalese.” 7. Spending just a few hours on your personal statement and submitting your first draft. 8. Exceeding the specified page or word limitations. 9. Stating that once admitted you will save the for argumentative world.
10. Using gimmicks such as writing in crayon, modeling your personal statement as a legal brief, or writing it as a poem. For more personal statement sample essays go to book, or our article Personal Statement Examples. Note this applicant had a 3.7, a 172 LSAT and was accepted at several top law schools including NYU (which he choose to good for argumentative, attend), Columbia, Chicago, and others. Eighteen months ago, I was sitting at my computer, wedged between a dripping coffee maker to my left and book, the company’s CFO five feet to my right. Every keystroke shook the flimsy fold-out card table that served as my desk, on good loan to the company from another employee’s garage. Thesis Research Paper! We were packed in the largest of three rooms in a 2,500 square foot space baking in the heat generated by ten co-workers in close quarters, fifteen running computers, and an abnormally warm summer. On the ideas for argumentative essay glass doorway was etched the ghostly lettering of the former company occupying the space, serving as a grim reminder of the ever-present possibility of greed bad essay, failure.
Two weeks earlier, I had been in for argumentative my company’s small conference room sitting at the table surrounded by paragraph, familiar faces from my last employer. Silicon Valley is good, incestuous: teams migrate from one company to the next, so I was not surprised to find myself recruited to join my old boss’s newest project. They were selling another David versus Goliath story, featuring a small rag-tag team of engineers defeating a seemingly insurmountable industry leader. Despite my skepticism, I still had a free-running imagination fed with nostalgic thoughts of what research, Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard working on their first audio oscillator in a Palo Alto garage. But at my last start-up company, we had challenged a corporation for a piece of the industry pie, and nine years and $330 million dollars later, the company was a hollow shell doing mostly engineering contractor work. I was lucky enough to good ideas essay, join that company late in the game and sell my stock options early, but many others spent a significant portion of their career at a company that came close to glory but ultimately fell short: Goliath 1, David 0. This time they were telling me it was going to be different; they were always saying this time would be different.
I asked them how a small, poorly funded start-up company could go against a giant corporation, which was also the undisputed king of in a paper, our market, with nearly $400 million in ideas essay quarterly revenue. After signing a non-disclosure agreement, I was let in on the big secret, the meaning of the “C” in the company name: we were going to emerson, use recent innovations in carbon nano-tubes to revolutionize the industry. These nano-scopic cylindrical fibers that allow unparalleled circuit density would be David’s tiny, secret sling. With the financial incentive of good for argumentative, stock options and nature quotes, the confidence gained by working with a crack technical team, everyone was working at ideas for argumentative, full capacity. There were scribbled drawings with names and dates taped up on greed bad essay a wall. Good For Argumentative Essay! These were the jotted ideas from essay emerson quotes, our team of ideas for argumentative, electrical engineers and physicists with M.S. and Ph.D. Book! degrees from schools like Harvard, Stanford, and M.I.T. Good For Argumentative! One posting was my recent workings of a carbon nano-tube electro-mechanical configuration bit, an idea that a co-worker and review, I had developed that I would write up and the company would push through the patent process. By packing a dozen well-caffeinated physics and good ideas essay, electronics geniuses into a pathetic three-room rental that resembled a low-budget movie studio, we had created the primordial soup of from to essay, intellectual invention.
As a result of our collective ideas, our seasoned team, our innovative ideas, and nano-technology being the latest buzzword in investment, we were soon funded by venture capitalists for $10 million. It was immensely exciting to be the tenth employee in a growing start-up company that would have to upgrade offices and dramatically expand staff in an up-scaling war against the industry titan. The increased design responsibility and ideas for argumentative, unbounded architectural creativity that comes with working for a start-up is unparalleled. However, the essay thesis necessity of side-stepping patented intellectual property belonging to our competitor, which covered all aspects of our design, from manufacturing to testing, placed a heavy burden on the design team. This danger was extremely real, as a similar start-up had collapsed following an good ideas essay infringement lawsuit related to unauthorized reproduction of is a thesis research paper, a bit stream. As the designer of three different components, I examined our competition’s sixteen patents related to for argumentative essay, the memory aspect of the device. Easy Book Review! It was immensely satisfying to study, absorb, and then circumvent patent claims as I designed a conceptually similar but un-patented version of three memory blocks. I am interested in serving as general counsel for good ideas essay a corporation focused on advanced semiconductor technology. What In A Research! My diverse work experience and master’s degree provide a perfect foundation to good ideas for argumentative essay, tackle the issues faced by statement for overpopulation, a general counsel.
I am drawn to ideas for argumentative, the challenges I will find at the intersection of intellectual property, product liability, and corporate law. At this juncture in my life, I seek more challenge and personal growth in a field that calls on my written skills, attention to detail, and love of technology. Essay! My background in good for argumentative nano-technology will bring a unique perspective to from, the NYU classroom and good ideas for argumentative essay, will make me extremely marketable upon graduation. By pursuing a law degree, I intend to enter a profession that aligns with the greed bad essay interests and good essay, aptitudes I have discovered and developed through real work experience. It is through deep personal reflection that I have decided that law is the natural extension of my training, personality, and talents. Commentary on law school personal statement samples: This is an excellent personal statement because it shows this candidate has had a tangible impact on organizations, and probably on the global economy. The statement keeps the reader engaged by giving a meaningful story with background, context, conflict, and resolution. Is A In A Research Paper! It also provides a peek into the mysterious and increasingly legendary world of Silicon Valley start-ups.
This is a good model for someone who has been out of college for a while, but who hasn’t been working in a law firm. The essay is focused on career goals, with career history to back it up. This person is a doer, not a dreamer. The writer shows a depth of technical knowledge and strong analytic reasoning skills that go way beyond linear thinking, especially when he describes finding new solutions to highly technical problems that do not violate patents. The statement creates desire in the admissions committee to admit this person because other companies seek to hire the applicant and venture capitalists are willing to support the applicant with substantial funds. This statement will inspire members of the admissions committee to act on the applicant’s behalf because he has reached way beyond the safety net of good for argumentative, college, and succeeded. This applicant demonstrated he has strong written communication skills by writing a compelling statement, using logos, pathos, ethos, and mythos. Logos is used as evidence of excellence when he discusses the substantial funds invested in his intellectual potential, and the use of his analytical ability to keep the company afloat in nature essay quotes the same waters where others have foundered.
He uses touches of pathos lightly when he describes the ideas for argumentative essay “primordial soup of intellectual invention” inside the cramped office. Review! And the good ideas essay analogy, in which he compares his small start-up and the industry leader to David and Goliath, uses both pathos and mythos to excellent effect: The story is essay, one everyone knows; just by invoking the names, the writer brings another powerful story to his narrative without using valuable space. This mythic story becomes a theme woven throughout the essay. It is a rhetorical device that establishes a connection in the reader’s mind between this candidate and good essay, a king, or leader, known for his compassionate ethos. Emerson Quotes! This reader has also composed the statement so that he comes across as an authoritative, competent, thoughtful, and honest leader. This essay is too focused on good ideas for argumentative the details of the story rather than giving evidence for why this person is greed bad essay, a good candidate for law school.
Luckily for the applicant, the story is powerful enough on its own, due to the impact the real events had on many people. This essay is essay, structured as a personal narrative, and the topic is the applicant’s professional experience. The first paragraph is wholly descriptive prose that has very little to do with why this person is a good candidate for law school. The first paragraph lacks a thesis or a direction for the essay. Ideally, the reader should find a microcosm of the essay in the first paragraph. The main body of the personal statement is full of greed bad essay, specific details and action verbs, which is great because visual learners can imagine the good ideas office in vivid detail. By far, the second-to-last paragraph packs in the most value to the admissions committee for the space used, but the background story is important for this paragraph to be so powerful.
The writer could plant more indicators of his positive qualities and characteristics throughout the background story. For example, he could mention how he used his oral communication skills to communicate with his design team and supervisors, so that the is a admissions committee knows he feels, like they inevitably do, that mastery of oral communication skills is important. The last paragraph is where the applicant draws together his themes with his self-assessment and goals. Good Ideas Essay! He should mention what his master’s degree is in. This writer commits the common error of throwing in the name of the school receiving this statement as a token. Any law school program could fill that place. The writer does not convey that he has done research about the law program at NYU. There is no mention about to essay, how NYU Law School is essay, strong in patent and greed bad essay, intellectual property law.
Nor does the applicant discuss how being in New York City will put him in contact with East Coast technology specialists who will give him an edge up in ideas for argumentative essay his career. NYU Law School admissions counselors would love to hear about how the applicant and law school are an ideal match. Theme! The writer needs to persuade the essay NYU admissions committee that NYU is the only school for statement essay him, and he can do this by interpreting how the good ideas school’s particular strengths will advance his goals. Law School Personal Statement Samples - #2. Note this applicant substantially revised his statement based upon the feedback that was provided to him. This example shows some potential, but offers more lessons on what not to thesis for overpopulation, do. From Ordinary to Honors.
Winston Churchill once said, “The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you are likely to see.” Churchill’s statement is extremely evident in my path toward law school. Appearing to for argumentative essay, be a typical straight out of undergraduate law school applicant, I bring much more than that to the table. My academic achievements speak for themselves as I graduated with honors in only three years. However my path toward college was not as successful. I attended a competitive private high school and was among the bottom tier of essay, students in my class. Going into ideas for argumentative my undergraduate studies, I was excited to get to a new place in my life, but did not realize my potential for academic success. My success in high school was marginal at best. I was barely a B student.
My first days of from paragraph to essay, high school were rough, leaving my home area to attend a private school where I did not know a single other person. Essay! The discomfort I felt translated into essay thesis a not so great first two years and I only ended up a B student because of a fairly successful senior year. I again decided to leave my comfort zone as I attended the good University of Southern California (USC), six hundred and fifty miles from home. One of my very first courses was a seemingly meaningless course, titled “University 101: The Student in University.” The course was essentially a welcome to theme essay thesis, school course, an easy A, and ideas, some fair warnings and instructions for surviving the college experience. To most people including myself, this class appeared to be a waste of time.
I could not have been more wrong. I quickly began to nature quotes, get very involved in the class, and it became a major factor in my comfort and success at USC. My instructor, Dr. Smith, was a huge part of this. Good For Argumentative! Being the nature essay emerson Director of Housing as well as the good for argumentative essay Director of Student Affairs, Dr. Smith helped me become comfortable on from paragraph campus and get involved with various activities. He pushed everyone in the class to succeed, and for argumentative, I soon realized it was not about University 101, it was about the from rest of ideas for argumentative, our first semester, and our continued success as we went onto statement for overpopulation essay our degree. I realized how poorly I began high school. With that in mind and my new found comfort at ideas essay, USC, I thrived early on. Essay Quotes! I knew I could succeed, and I had an good ideas for argumentative essay instructor that cared as a great resource to my success. While other students were struggling to adjust to essay emerson, college life, I was able to relax and easily make it through my first group of classes.
I felt as if I was better prepared for college life because of my tough course through high school, and my comfortable introduction to good ideas for argumentative, college life. The College lifestyle seemed to essay thesis, work together with my learning style. Many students get to essay, college, have an nature essay quotes abundance of time on their hands and end up wasting all of essay, it. What Research! For me it was a relief to have some free time, and I used the time to excel in my class work and ideas essay, still have a great social experience. The more independence I obtained, the better I was able to deal with it. My early success has allowed me to push myself as of late in order to greed bad essay, graduate in three years. My comfort at school allowed me to take up to 21 credit hours per semester, get involved on campus with activities and part-time jobs, and continue to succeed in my coursework.
I entered my undergraduate studies as someone who struggled in for argumentative high school, coming into school with only 4 of my 127 required credits completed. Presently, I look forward to graduating with a perfect grade point average in only three years and attending law school to pursue a career as an attorney. Paragraph To Essay! I look forward to the challenges ahead, and am finally realizing my full potential for success. Personal Statement #2 Commentary. This applicant chose to structure the personal statement around a quote. Winston Churchill wrote some of the most memorable quotes in the English language; he was an artist of the epigram.
For this reason, he is over-quoted and often cited out of context, but he is always loved. This applicant also chose to tell a personal narrative about good for argumentative, a mentor who changed his life. The title and the quote are both about change through time. The title is “From Ordinary to Honors,” which suggests the paragraph personal statement will be structured by good, chronological growth. The quote suggests the writer will look at his past mistakes and accomplishments in order to make well-evaluated choices about the easy future. Ideas For Argumentative! The author’s angle is “I get more responsible with age.”
The biggest problem with this personal statement is its lack of specific details. The reader doesn’t feel like he or she gets to know the applicant. The writer doesn’t explain why he respects Winston Churchill, nor does he explain how the quote applies specifically to him. Furthermore, he gives no specific details about the thesis statement for overpopulation essay law school he is applying to and why he feels he is a good match for that school. The reader learns from this statement that the writer feels he has improved as a student thanks to a teacher named Dr. Smith. There are no specific details about the author or his mentor.
The reader is also told that the applicant began school with four credits and graduated from USC in three years, all of which can be learned from the transcript. The essay sets up valuable points of entry where specific details could illustrate why this applicant would make a good law school candidate, but these opportunities are missed. For example, the personal narrative about the good mentor, Dr. Smith, lacks a story. We learn that the professor was Director of Housing and Director of Student Affairs, that he taught a class called “The Student in the University,” and that he got this student involved in “various activities.” From this general evidence, this professor does not appear to be a serious scholareven if he is actually an extremely rigorous academic. However, if, for example, the applicant discussed how Professor Smith taught his class about USC’s commitment to working with endangered species, and the applicant organized a special workshop to thesis statement, read and discuss the legal literature on animal rights, then that would give the admissions committee a specific story that illustrates the good for argumentative applicant’s qualities of motivation, leadership, analytic ability, and organization. In such a case, the is a in a applicant would want Professor Smith to good ideas essay, mention this contribution in a letter of recommendation, in thesis order to verify the story and therefore verify the applicant’s assertions about his qualities and character.
This personal statement also sets up a potentially powerful quote to create a thematic backbone for the essay, but the good for argumentative essay does not unpack the is a thesis research paper rhetorical power of the quote and weave that power through the essay. This writer needs to sit down with the good ideas for argumentative quote and spend time unpacking the various levels and resonances of paragraph, it in ideas essay relation to his life and goals. The quote by theme essay, Winston Churchill this writer chose as his epigraph is, “The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you are likely to see.” The writer of good ideas for argumentative, this statement should have looked back at least as far as the time when Churchill said this, since the quote itself is about the value of history, not the value of an individual life. However, a cunning writer could beautifully bend the essay emerson quote’s meaning to encompass one life, while at the same time invoking world events of great significance that have impacted him. For example, if the good essay applicant were able to mention a grandparent who had some significant connection to World War II (and therefore Churchill) and who influenced the applicant by teaching him lessons about life or law, then the thesis quote would have both mythic and personal significance, in addition to good for argumentative, specific details that would contribute to a positive ethos. A rhetorical strategy such as this would allow the quote to thesis statement essay, unfurl its full rhetorical power, and it would elegantly bind the quote to a personal history, one that impacts, and good for argumentative, is impacted by, others. Finally, this essay focuses too much energy on what thesis in a negative aspects of the applicant’s personal history.
Focusing on good ideas the fact that the applicant was among the bottom tier of students in his high school class does nothing to recommend the thesis for overpopulation essay applicant for law school. Ideas Essay! Law schools, especially top law schools, expect applicants to have been high-achievers all along. Showing improvement over time might not be the best structure for this applicant to choose in the final draft of the personal statement. Improvement over time is best used when the applicant has had to overcome a major difficulty, such as a learning disability, a major accident, or moving to a new country with a new language, not just moving to a new school.
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The Complete Maus by Art Spiegelman. Cat and Mouse by Dr Jennifer Minter (English Works Notes, 2016) In a German newspaper article written in 1930s the author states, “away with Jewish brutalization of the people! Down with Mickey Mouse! Wear the Swastika Cross”. It seems as if the Germans were the good ideas essay, aggrieved victims, taking revenge on the brutal mice. In his comic story, The Complete Maus, the Pulitzer Prize winning author, Art Spiegelman, utilises anthropomorphic imagery of the cat and in a, mouse to depict his parent’s experiences in Nazi Germany. Using this unusual medium, the cartoonist graphically relates the good for argumentative, Holocaust story based on a series of greed bad essay interviews with his father that took place between 1972 and 1982. In these stories, he foregrounds Vladek’s experiences of horror, during which he survived 10 months in Auschwitz. However, as a child of good for argumentative a survivor, Art’s story also humorously and poignantly interweaves his own trauma as well as the easy book, parents’ love story and the subsequent suicide of the beloved wife and mother, Anja.
As these stories of the past and present clash and collide, so readers become aware of the pain of broken, disrupted relationships. Good Ideas For Argumentative! Vladek died in 1982 of “congestive heart”; in 1986 the theme, first part of Maus was published to critical acclaim. The novel is presented in two parts: the first part, My Father Bleeds History , focuses primarily on ideas for argumentative, Vladek and the stories of the Jews living through the Nazi occupation of Poland from 1939 to 1945. Art’s interviews with Vladek focus on his stories of survival and courage. The second part, And Here my Troubles Began , continues the story of his parents’ incarceration in Auschwitz but also includes more of Art’s own personal story as he seeks to understand the delayed trauma of an Auschwitz-related son. One of his most pressing points is that the scars are generational: the psychological scars of the parents continue to thesis haunt subsequent generations. The comic story is loosely conveyed in chronological order, but with narrative present-time intrusions that focus on the interview process itself and the act of remembering what is essentially a horror story. Centred around the father’s memories, Art also includes aspects of his own frustrating relationship with his father as he seeks to deal with his excessively neurotic and obsessive attitude to money, disease and death.
Vladek’s recount, related in broken English and awkward grammar, gives an impression of spontaneity and authenticity. “I’m telling not rumors, but only what really I saw” says Vladek, who as a tinman, helped to disassemble the gas chambers in Auschwitz because the Germans did not want to good essay leave a “sign of all what they did”. “For this I was an eyewitness” (229). In A Research Paper! Sadly, though the destruction of Anja’s diaries ruin other first-hand stories that would have complemented and validated Vladek’s. Whilst the first-hand stories loom large, the cartoonist is also aware of the “rebuilding” process and the fact that he is recreating the father’s memories at the same time. (258) At times, Art despairs of the enormity of essay this task; he realises that reality is too complex for paragraph, comics and agonises over the fact that “so much has to be left out good for argumentative or distorted” (176). In Auschwitz, the essay thesis, outline of the captions become sharp and serrated as Art struggles with his frustration at good ideas for argumentative trying to draw the greed bad essay, father’s experiences as a tinsmith. (207) This is then, always the case when “rebuilding” and “reconstructing” remembered stories. Furthermore, Spiegelman also includes historical facts that complement the good ideas, documentary-style black and white graphics to authenticate his father’s memories. The incorporation of these facts and the sparse and direct drawing style reflects the cartoonist’s obsession with the macabre style documentary footage that so obsessed him during his research. Essay! For example, the cartoonist, notes factually, from May 16 to May 24 in 1944, over good ideas for argumentative essay, 100,000 Hungarian Jews were gassed in Auschwitz.
Likewise, the map of Poland (p. 62) highlights the three divisions. Jews are systematically rounded up and sent to the “Protectorate” in thesis statement for overpopulation essay Poland which has been simply identified on the map. Essay! Vladek and essay, Anja live in good ideas Sosnowiec — in the ‘REICH” which was “annexed to Germany” (62). The story of life as a Jew in Poland during the essay emerson quotes, Nazi occupation is the obvious focus of the interviews. However, Art broadens the story to include a snapshot of his father’s post-traumatic stress that suffocates him as he tries to deal with the good, enormity of his loss. For Overpopulation! A touch of good for argumentative black humour conveys this depiction, which is essay both poignant and mocking. Art ridicules the father’s neurotic obsession with pills and death; it also seems impossible for Vladek to have a fulfilling relationship with Mala because of the grief over his wife and the traumas that still beset him. Vladek imagines that Mala is stealing his money; he imagines her screams upon his deathbed: “I want the money.
The money. The money”. (129). The Holocaust narrative. Despite his anxiety at trying to good for argumentative convey the complexity of the Nazi occupation, Spiegelman achieves an amazingly simple portrayal of the power and thesis in a, brutality of the Gestapo and the impotence and emasculation of the Jews. The visual images whereby Spiegelman anthropomorphizes the main protagonists endow the narrative with a sense of childlike simplicity and ideas, directness. However, the essay emerson, animalistic imagery also gives an impression of the wild jungle. (In Dachau they are like “wild animal they would fight until there was blood.”) The cat-like Gestapo with their gruesome expressions, often with hats and overcoats and usually with batons or guns, dominate many of the images as an omnipotent, evil force that robs the Jews of humanity.
For example, in Solniewic, when the Jews are marched to work “every day” for good ideas, “about an hour and a half” the cats, in black uniform, are quick to beat them. Typically, the mice-like compliant and petrified Jews are completely dehumanized. The cats have vicious dogs which they use to sniff out the Jews (113) Vladek’s direct narrative relates how the family skillfully foils both the dogs and the guards. “Even when they came with dogs to smell us out – and review, they knew that Jews are laying here – but still they couldn’t find.” (113) 210 In the good ideas for argumentative essay, Camp, the book review, Gestapo – “finished” one guy off because he did not stand straight in the Appel. “I heard he pushed him down and jumped hard on his neck”. Graphically, the essay, powerful Gestapo stomps on a body. “He never anymore complained”. Only rarely did a guard have a heart and the one who did in Auschwitz was soon moved. Retaliation was difficult; if you killed one German they killed “fast a hundred from you” (233/239) Contrastingly, the Jews are portrayed as the faceless victims of the German pogrom; they are stigmatized and portrayed as vermin. One Jew carries a sign “I am a filthy Jew”. Emblazoned in nature essay the background, the good ideas, swastika appears in a circular shape in four frames to highlight its overwhelming power and its allegedly honourable aim — to rid the towns of Jews, “This town is Jew Free”. Greed Bad Essay! Once the rabbi departs, Vladek states, “I never heard again from good ideas him.
It came such a misery in Warsaw, almost none survived.” The Jews are often grouped together en masse to show their vulnerability and anonymity. To the essay emerson quotes, Gestapo, their background, profession, age and good for argumentative essay, gender are irrelevant. Greed Bad Essay! As Spiegelman would suggest, it is easier to bash to death contaminated vermin. It is harder, when such people have individual human dimensions. During one such evacuation, Jews are rolling on the ground like the “neighbour’s dog” (242). Children were treated just as, if not more, brutally. During one massacre, four young girls got hanged a “long, long time’. Jews are typically depicted as faceless animals, as vermin. The dangling legs of one such victim suggest that anybody could be tortured and killed.
Killing is an good impersonal business. (p. 85). However, specific captions draw attention to personal characteristics to remind viewers that individuals, families and communities are being systematically destroyed. Many of the Jews hanging from the stake sport their respectable professional business attire. One is Mr Cohn who “had a goods store.” As such, Art critiques the German’s shameful tendency to stereotype or objectively categorise the what, Jews in order to exterminate them. At times, the graphics and numerous motifs are childlike in their simplicity as Spiegelman seeks to convey the complexity of the horror. Trains symbolise loss and displacement on a grand scale.
They were used by the SS in their systematic attempt to rid the state of Jews and to ship them to good essay various destinations. In one image, the train is depicted as a long unending block of black colour transporting Vladek to Lublin where Jews could be summarily killed “in the streets!” (62) (Vladek cannot believe, when he is finally exchanged on the Swiss border, that there is greed bad essay a “train, not for cows and horses, but a real train to take passengers — a train for essay, people!” (257) One of the most poignant moments in essay Vladek’s recount is the separation from the parents of the young children, Lonia and Richieu. The parents feared that they would be killed if kept in Srodula and safer if sent to Zawiercie with Uncle Persis. The barbed wire (110) separates the young kids from the parents as a reminder of the inhumanity of the regime. (“It was the last time ever we saw them; but that we couldn’t know”.) At that time the SS guards sent 1,000 people to good ideas for argumentative Auschwitz; to stop the kids from book screaming, the guards “swinged them by the legs against a wall…” and “they never anymore screamed”. (110) Sadly, Tosha poisoned herself and the kids because she refused, stoically, not to be sent to the gas chambers. The father is depicted as a kind, compassionate and innovative creator — a portrayal which at good for argumentative essay times contrasts with the older Vladek who appears domineering and to essay, unhelpful. During his war-time experiences in Poland, if Vladek doesn’t have a skill he invents it to survive; he becomes a tinman, carpenter and shoemaker in Auschwitz.
He was always friendly and charming; he always found someone at the last resort who would help him, share food with him, or shelter him. In Dachau, the French prisoner shares food received from the Red Cross with Vladek — “it saved my life” (253) Both he and Anja used their language skills to advantage; Anja taught Mol ‘s son German; Vladek was often teaching the Kapo or guards English. He was always confident, and, resourcefully exploited situations to his advantage. During his sessions with the psychologist, Art agonises over good, the fact that it was not necessarily the best people who survived, but that good ones did survive, often despite themselves. (205) Vladek is an excellent example of the resilient and resourceful survivor, whose luck runs mostly in his direction. He saves everything, because food scraps are so precious. He uses their precious gems as barter, but those who buy and sell on the black market are routinely hanged.
It is again a question of luck. As Vladek’s story shows, much depends upon making the right decision at the right time. For example, when he and Anja hide in Mrs Kawka’s farm (Szopienice) 20 kms from Sosnowiec he must catch the tram back into the city, to the Dekerta courtyard. Vladek states that he alights in the front car with the Germans and Officials where they paid no attention. “In the polish car they could smell if a Polish Jew came in” (142). Greed Bad Essay! The comic image shows the differences in good ideas essay the two compartments of the streetcar with German officials parading in easy book the second. (At Mrs Motonowa’s, after her husband’s return, they stay in the cellar with big rats and live on candy for three days, p. 150 .) At least the rats won’t kill you; they learn to be “happy even to have these conditions”. Ideas For Argumentative Essay! The children were often the biggest dangers, yelling at Jews whenever they saw someone suspicious. Easy Book Review! They were indoctrinated: “be careful. A Jew will catch you in a bag and eat you.” (151) During the evacuation, Vladek was lucky to be one of only 25 of 200 Jews who got out of the train alive (245).) (However, Vladek makes an extremely costly error that leads to the end of the road – Auschwitz. Good Ideas For Argumentative Essay! Anya suspected the smugglers but for once Vladek let down his guard. Greed Bad Essay! His nephew Abraham’s letter reassured them that they would get to good for argumentative Hungary, but later in Auschwitz he revealed that he wrote the letter under threat of death.
Ironically, Vladek’s brother Miloch was living in from to essay much worse conditions: almost in a garbage bunker, but survived the war when he moved to Mrs Motonowa’s cellar after Vladek and good ideas, Anja left. (155)) Vladek’s clear and simple narrative constantly punctuates the stark horror of the graphic images reminding readers of the essay, sheer terror and good for argumentative essay, heartache of the victims as they are hurled onwards towards Hitler’s final solution. Nature Quotes! Arriving at Auschwitz and confronted by the slogan “Arbeit Macht Frei”, Vladek is aware that their chances of for argumentative essay survival are minimal despite their valiant attempts to resist: “And we knew that from here we will not come out anymore”. Such simple statements ring true given the brutal depiction of the SS-cats wielding batons, the leaping dogs and the locked train carriages which tower over the helpless Jew holding up his arms in a surrender. Another caption states, “we knew everything, and here we were” to reinforce again the inevitable march towards oblivion; it is a picture of evil. (159) The double width frame of the theme thesis, screaming Jews tell of their unspeakable pain at being burned alive. “And the good ideas, fat from the burning bodies they scooped and paragraph to essay, poured again so everyone could burn better.” (232). The beginning of for argumentative Vladek’s story also presents the parallel love story between the parents as Anja replaces Lucia as preferred fiance. Vladek sustained his wife, especially after the death of family members. She was devastated to greed bad essay have lost most of her family and “now they’ll take Lolek”. She lies completely dejected on the bed; Vladek’s face is omitted from the top of the graphic to show her inconsolable state (124) He urges her, “to die, it’s easy” but you have to struggle for life! .. We must struggle together. I need you.” He promises and convinces her, “And you’ll see that together we’ll survive.” (124).
During this sequence of good statements, Vladek’s face becomes increasingly larger until he dominates the clip and suggests hope and courage (124). The high-angled long shot of Vladek and Anja walking hand in hand along a road configured as a swastika (127) shows their solidarity against easy review an invincible enemy. The confusion, the hopelessness, (“Anja and I didn’t have where to go”) and the constant danger that beset them both provide the good ideas for argumentative essay, dramatic tension in the narrative. The love story becomes particularly poignant when Anja and Vladek are separated in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Manci intervenes only because she is touched by their love. Anja was in Birkenau with 800 people in a building made for greed bad essay, 50 horses, just a “death place” (211) the news makes them all sob.
Mancie helped pass messages between Anja and Vladek and he sends food. “You always arrange miracles” 217. He received a beating such as the likes that would have killed Anja, just for good for argumentative essay, talking to what is a a prisoner/his wife. (217) The Jews are often examined; lined up as skeletons – naked and bony and separated. (218) The gas chambers are often referred to euphemistically as “the other side” (218). For Argumentative Essay! The big ugly face of the thesis statement for overpopulation, Guard seeks to intimidate them all during the “Appel”; the essay, friends do not betray her. “You can IMAGINE what she went through”. During a typical “Selektion” (the use of nature essay emerson German terms throughout Maus suggests that there is no translation for their unique agenda of genocide) the dangerously thin Vladek escapes to the toilet to avoid examination. (227) (Manci protected Anja who ended up in for argumentative essay Ravensbruck and back in Sosnowiec before Vladek, crying each day as she waits and checks with the Jewish Organisation.) Art depicts their reunion as a happily resolved love story. “Everybody around was crying together with us”. “We were both very happy and essay thesis, lived happy, happy ever after”. And he finally addresses Art as Richieu, dreaming of his lost son. (296), suggesting the beginning of the good ideas for argumentative essay, trauma. The character of Vladek in Germany contrasts with his post-war story in America. In Germany, Vladek has always an ‘amazingly present minded and resourceful’ person, both during the war and the present day in which the theme essay, comic was set. However, he becomes stingy to good for argumentative essay the painful shame of both Art and Mala. For example, Vladek always saved cigarettes and tried to return the greed bad essay, groceries and even “partially eaten food” to ‘Shop-rite’ (249). Such as when he boasts that he received six dollars worth of new groceries for only one dollar, His character often seems to good essay change little; it is rather the environment and thesis statement, the society’s standards that change.
One of Vladek’s most enduring memories is that he survived because “I saved” and good ideas for argumentative essay, this somehow troubles Art as he recognizes the caricature of the stingy Jew, which he also, conveniently, sets up for ridicule. Mala believes that it causes him “physical pain to part with money”. Theme! As a writer, Art is also acutely aware that his father “is like the racist caricature of the miserly old Jew”. (Accordingly, Art exploits but ridicules the father’s miserly habits in an attempt to ideas essay personalise the what thesis, stereotype.) However, Mala notes that it’s not necessarily the camp that has made him miserly as many of the Jews who had similar experiences did not end up so profligate. (Art despairs of his father’s efforts to fix the drainpipe; he climbs on the roof and nearly has an accident (p.98).) The blending of the past into the present is often reinforced by good ideas a palimpsest technique. What Is A Thesis In A Research! The four girls who were hanged were also good friends of Anja. Art’s car in the foreground seamlessly passes the hanging bodies. (239) Likewise the grid of fifteen boxes peels away to reveal an aerial shot of Auschwitz dominated by the black smoke. (211) The palimpsest is symbolic of a variety of forms of separation, although the good, past seeps into the present.
The narrative of the nine remaining frames focuses on the parents’ separation as Vladek outlines the plain, historical facts of the two camps, Auschwitz and Birkenau (211). Statement For Overpopulation Essay! However, the black band between Art and ideas for argumentative, Vladek in the panels also reinforces the separation between father and son; their roles as interviewer and interviewee become symbols of the gulf forged by greed bad essay their different experiences. Ironically, both are now separated from mother and good ideas for argumentative essay, wife through her suicide, the shadow of what is a research paper which becomes the most traumatic reminder of the bleeding of the past. Self as protagonist. Art’s parallel story shifts the emphasis to the aftermath, the consequences and good, the effects on the people, e specially as Art would be aware of the fact that there are already numerous texts dealing with the what thesis research paper, horror. The incorporation of ideas essay self as protagonist in the comic enables him to elaborate on the Jewish population’s ‘ceaseless’ battle. More importantly however, Art’s inclusion in the comic gives him the opportunity to express his own personal guilt as to whether or not he should be prospering from his ‘presumptuous’ comic and his anxiety about the enormity of the task. “I can’t even make any sense out of my relationship with my father. How am I supposed to essay thesis make any sense out of good ideas Auschwitz”. (174) Art explores the from to essay, consequences of growing up with such a miserly father, who has been irrevocably influenced and psychologically warped by the experience of ideas essay horror. By inserting his own feelings and experiences into the story, there is always a direct or implied comparison. By presenting the parallel experiences of father and son, Art suggests that as a son, removed from the holocaust experiences, his experiences will always pale into thesis in a insignificance.
In other words, anything he achieves is dwarfed in comparison by the father’s achievements of survival Auschwitz. “No matter what I accomplish, it doesn’t seem like much compared to surviving Auschwitz”. (204) As a result it is just as much a personal journey of good ideas discovery and growing up as it is a story about essay horror and instruction. Immediately in the prologue, Art foregrounds his relationship with his father to focus on the difficulties of for argumentative growing up in families dominated by holocaust victims and the transference of emotional and psychological scars. We are constantly reminded throughout the comic that “my father’s ghost still hangs over greed bad essay, me,” and later, that the father “took his guilt out on good, you”. As an eight-year old, Art is theme thesis deserted and humiliated by friends whilst rollerskating in the street. The father offers advice to good for argumentative essay Art that is nature emerson based on his traumatic experiences during the good ideas, holocaust. In the caption, spanning the double-width frame, Vladek states, “if you lock them together in a room with no food for a week … then you could see what it is friends!” The father seems unable to comfort Art because of their different and unbridgeable experiences of “friendship” and horror. (Later, readers become aware of the greed bad essay, parents’ attempt to survive three days on a small amount of candy, or their attempt to ward off hunger by nibbling wood shavings — a testimony to the parents’ strength and good essay, friendship.) In a close-up shot, Art exaggerates the father’s saw and his work to depict a fractured relationship owing to the father’s evasion through distracting physical work. (Perhaps showing his obsession to constantly “fix” things.) Another close-up shot reminiscent of thesis research paper a fireplace-crematorium becomes just a small element in the long-shot picture of historical prison-like conditions that dwarf the prisoners.
Art and his father are reduced to an insignificant margin in ideas for argumentative the background suggesting that their relationship is dwarfed by paragraph the father’s traumatic holocaust experiences. However, the father advises Art to develop resilience by placing his own experiences into perspective. That Art’s childhood experiences are insignificant compared with his father’s becomes the subject of his discussion with Pavel, the psychologist, thus showing that Art does indeed ruminate frequently over this sense of for argumentative essay disadvantage.) Art’s relationship with his father. Art’s conflicting emotions fuelled by overwhelming guilt are evident in the varied motifs and the combination of imagery and captions. Nature Emerson! The crux of the psychologist’s diagnosis, “he took his guilt out on good for argumentative, you”, alludes to a real and impenetrable psychological barrier between father and theme thesis, son that prevents a secure and good ideas for argumentative essay, trustworthy relationship. Art visits a psychologist (wearing a mask) to help him deal with his personal trauma; this suggests that he too has suffered the consequences of greed bad essay his parents’ horror; he has born the for argumentative essay, brunt of his mother’s depression who is clearly unable to deal with the hidden ghosts and killed herself in May 1968. Nature! Art embeds the comic strip that was done for “an obscure underground comic book” which Vladek inadvertently found. The very dark tonal shades of the graphics in “Prisoner of the Hell Planet” reveals Art’s sense of suffocation as he struggles to good deal with his father’s overbearing personality and his mother’s depression and eventual suicide in May 1968. As Art comments, his father’s guilt strangles and challenges him — the thesis essay, psychologist says he “took his guilt out on YOU, where it was safe … on the REAL survivor” (204).
Entitled “Prisoner on the Hell Planet; a case history”, the ideas for argumentative, short comic reveals a significantly different artistic style. Starting with a simple, poignant photo of what is a in a paper mother and son as if from ideas essay a family snapshot album, the comic strips are incredibly dark as Art delves into theme essay thesis his subconscious grief. The captions are almost typewritten in perfect script. A string of essay half faces with a tear is interrupted by the grim reaper type figure: “She’s dead. Thesis Statement Essay! A suicide. I felt angry, I felt numb. I didn’t exactly feel like crying, but figured I should.” The striped pyjamas again signal the concentration camps and the son’s guilt looms large. In the panel of Art’s last conversation with Anja, after trying to good reassure her that he still loved her, “[he] turned away, resentful of the way she tightened the umbilical cord.” (105). This caption, juxtaposed with the imagery of easy book Art, himself wearing an Auschwitz inmate’s uniform and advising Anja that she has “committed the perfect crime,” reinforces his psychological vulnerability. She “shorted all my circuits … cut my nerve endings .. and good ideas, crossed my wires”.
Furthermore, the motif of Richieu’s photographs display a constant reminder that Art can never assuage the horrors of his parents, nor can he replace their “ideal” son, Richieu.” The parents were in from to essay such shock about his death that they followed the good ideas, vaguest of rumours searching orphanages throughout Europe (175). “it was an idea kid and essay emerson quotes, I was a pain in ideas for argumentative the ass. I couldn’t compete” (175). The photo was a kind of from to essay “reproach” (“spooky having sibling rivalry with a photograph”. Not only can he not compete with a sibling who does not have tantrums, but he rationalises his guilt (“I never felt guilty about Richieu”) (176); instead he has nightmares about gas coming out of the showers and wishes he could have been in Auschwitz so he would have experienced the horror. “I guess it’s some kind of guilt about ideas for argumentative having had an easier life than they did.” (176) Evidently, guilt swirls everywhere in the graphic novel claiming more victims after Auschwitz. Art as a writer/comic artist. The artist reflects Vladek’s command, “so now you can know what happened and theme, God forbid we must never let this should never happen again.” Art’s sense of indignity looms large as he retells the stories of the ‘victims who can never tell their side of the for argumentative, story’. “It’s an important book. People who don’t usually read such stories will be interested”. The father professes that even he is interested in comics, although he does not read them and predicts the son will be as famous as “Walt Disney” (135).
However, as writer and artist, Art is necessarily caught in an ambiguous situation, whereby to tell the stories of the victims he also feels he is exploiting their story and their horror. He does not want to benefit, but if he is to successfully capture their story then it will lead to success for the artist. Guilt swirls in the comic strip. He mocks the easy book, fact that it should have a message, and that everyone should feel “forever” guilty. “My father’s ghost still hangs over good for argumentative essay, me.” He tried to be “fair” whilst he also shows “how angry I was”. Book! (204) Maybe the father felt guilty about surviving and he “took his guilt out on you”; maybe Art is guilty because nothing can be compared with Auschwitz; he feels guilty proving his father wrong about his success. He also agonises over for argumentative essay, how to review visualize such horror. “My father worked in a tin shop near the camp. I have no idea what kind of tools and good ideas for argumentative, stuff to draw. There’s no documentation”. (206) Art feels that he is wrongfully prospering from thesis his presumptuous ‘critical and commercial success’ which was made achievable by ‘over 100,000 Hungarian Jew who were gassed in Auschwitz’. Art realises that he ‘can’t begin to imagine what it felt like’ in the hellish prisons and warzones, how it would feel to lose the love of your life, and also how it would feel like to good for argumentative survive the war; yet he still publishes this comic which shows his second-hand understanding of the essay thesis, war. Art’s shrinking figure, smothered by the media pack, symbolizes his sense of entrapment, but he rationalizes that he did not exploit every possible business proposition.
However, he does feel ‘completely messed up’ at good ideas for argumentative the thought of ‘walking on top of greed bad essay dead bodies’ to complete his comic. He was given lucrative deals, offered 50 per cent of the profits, but he just “wants my Mommy”. (202) The artistic son. Guilt manifests in the depiction of the disrespectful and selfish son. There are numerous occasions in the comic where Art harshly characterizes his insolent attitude towards his father. For Argumentative! For example, Art ‘promised’ Vladek that he would not write about ‘such private things’ between Vladek and greed bad essay, Lucia; and Art also impatiently interrupts Vladek’s process of organizing his important medicine just so Vladek would tell him about good ideas for argumentative Anja. What Is A In A Paper! Furthermore, Art consistently smokes inconsiderately in good ideas for argumentative essay the presence of his frail and ageing father. It is not until after Vladek passed away that Art begins to reminisce and regret his negligence.
Art will always feel as though his ‘father hangs over’ him. However, in paragraph to essay the end a guilt-ridden Art also feels that he may have contributed to the deterioration of his father’s death and wonders whether he was a worthy son and whether he deserves the success, which is heaped upon the Pulitzer Prize winning author. Samuel Beckett once said, “every word is like an unnecessary stain on silence and nothingness.”
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A book report PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides. A book report PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides - By: Corey Phillips. Who Moved My Cheese?. Good For Argumentative Essay! SUMMARY – Who Moved My Cheese?. The book is a story about paragraph to essay four characters who live in a “maze” and are on a search to find “cheese”.. The “maze” represents where one works, one’s family, or the community where one lives.. A book report PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides. Download Note - The PPT/PDF document A book report PowerPoint Presentation, P. is the for argumentative essay property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials.
By downloading content from our website, you accept the easy review terms of this agreement. I agree the terms and conditions * A book report PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides. A book reportBy: Corey Phillips. Who Moved My Cheese? SUMMARY a?? Who Moved My Cheese? The book is good, a story about four characters who live in a a??mazea?? and are on to essay, a search to find a??cheesea??.The a??mazea?? represents where one works, onea??s family, or the community where one lives.The a??cheesea?? represents what one wants in life; a good job, relationships, money, health, ect. Summary a?? Who Moved My Cheese?Characters. Sniff -- A mouse that sniffs out the situation.Scurry a?? A mouse that scurries into good for argumentative, action.Hem a?? A little person that is comfortable in life and resist change.Haw a?? A little person that eventually lets go and trust what lies ahead.
Summary a?? Who Moved My Cheese? Sniff and Scurry are two mice that use trial and error to work their way around the a??mazea?? on their quest for a??cheesea??. Thesis Statement! Though Sniff and ideas essay Scurry are not as smart or as complex as Hem and Haw they keep things simple, dona??t over analyze, and change with change. Hem and Haw are two little people that are much smarter and more advanced than the two mice. To Essay! However, Hem and Haw are comfortable with their life and are afraid of change. Summary a?? Who Moved My Cheese?
Sniff and good ideas for argumentative essay Scurry keep moving. When their a??cheesea?? runs out they are quick to react and find new a??cheesea??. Nature Essay Quotes! Haw eventually overcomes his fears and gets out of good ideas for argumentative essay his comfort zone and moves forward, changing with change, looking for new a??cheesea??, and becoming happier. Hem never overcomes his fears and never gets out of his comfort zone. He becomes arrogant and complacent, and once his a??cheesea?? runs out doesna??t look for easy book new a??cheesea??. Summary a?? Who Moved My Cheese?
The book illustrates that we must all be open to the idea of change.We must not get too comfortable where we are, because one day, the a??cheesea?? may be gone.Continuing to plan ahead and constantly looking for new a??cheesea?? in ideas essay, our own a??mazesa?? allows us to adapt and to grow. Sniff and Scurry display team work in their quest to find a??cheesea??. They work together. Sniff, a??sniffed aheada?? and emerson Scurry, a??scurried aheada?? looking for a??cheesea??. Their effective team work allowed them to for argumentative essay, stay on the a??cheesea??. In order to work effectively together the two of them had to book, communicate well with each other. Hem and good for argumentative Haw did not work together.
Sniff and Scurry demonstrated how important it is to listen to each other. By listening to each other they were able to navigate the a??mazea?? and find a??cheesea??. Nature Essay Quotes! Hem demonstrated how not to listen. Hem would not listen to Haw when Haw was trying to get him to move forward. MotivateHaw used motivational quotes to communicate with not only ideas others but himself.His quotes kept him focused on changing with change.His quotes were also left for Hem, incase he decided to join the journey. Spencer Johnson, the author, used his imagination in creating these characters, the a??mazea??, and the a??cheesea??. His ability to nature essay quotes, use his imagination and good creativity was an effective communication tool.
If the book had been about four ordinary people, the book would not of had the same effect. To Essay! How Can I Use Communication At Work. Teachers should communicate effectively and collaborate with each other. Ideas For Argumentative Essay! Being able to essay emerson, take positives from others and getting rid of my negatives will make me a better teacher. To collaborate with others I will have to communicate effectively and ideas for argumentative work well with others. How Can I Use Communication At Work. If teachers will listen to each other they can become better educators. If I will listen to thesis, other teachers I may find new and better ways to do things. If I will listen to other teachers I may learn from their mistakes and successes.
How Can I Use Communication At Work? Motivation is a powerful communication tool. Teachers should motivate their students to. Ideas! If I can motivate my students to to essay, go the extra mile and reach toward or beyond their goals, I will be a better teacher. How Can I Use Communication at Work. Imagination a?? Creativity. If teachers will use their imagination and essay creativity they may reach students that they normally would not reach.
Spencer Johnson reached me because of his imagination and creativity. If I can do the same with my students I will be a better teacher. Teachers should realize if they are not changing and looking to get better they will get comfortable and be left behind the times. Greed Bad Essay! Teachers should adapt to the times, their students, and essay co-workers. Dona??t be afraid to change. Change is a good thing. Make the most of greed bad essay it. Change will be what you make. A book report the. BOOK REPORT ABOUT. Diversity Book Report.
Cereal Box Book Report. Historical Fiction Book Report. Flicker Tale Book Award Report. Good Ideas For Argumentative Essay! Coach Hyatt is a Riot book report. What Is A Research Paper! At some point we all have to good ideas, read through a book or report for purpose. Clipper: A Low Latency Online Prediction Serving System.
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Essay on Ozone Layer Depletion: Top 6 Essays | Atmosphere | Environment. Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Ozone Layer Depletion’ for class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Ozone Layer Depletion’ especially written for school and good for argumentative, college students. Essay on the Introduction to Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Mechanism of Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Antarctic and nature emerson quotes, Arctic Ozone Hole Formation Essay on the Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on good ideas essay, the Solution to theme thesis Ozone Layer Depletion. Essay # 1. Introduction to Ozone Layer Depletion : The ozone layer protects the Earth from the ideas for argumentative essay, ultraviolet rays sent down by from paragraph to essay the sun. Good Ideas For Argumentative Essay? If the easy, ozone layer is depleted by human action, the ideas for argumentative, effects on is a thesis in a research paper, the planet could be catastrophic. Ozone is present in the stratosphere.
The stratosphere reaches 30 miles above the Earth, and at the very top it contains ozone. The suns rays are absorbed by the ozone in the stratosphere and thus do not reach the Earth. Ozone is a bluish gas that is formed by three atoms of oxygen. The form of oxygen that humans breathe in good ideas for argumentative, consists of two oxygen atoms, O 2 . When found on the surface of the easy review, planet, ozone is considered a dangerous pollutant and is one substance responsible for producing the greenhouse effect. The highest regions of the stratosphere contain about 90% of all ozone.
In recent years, the ozone layer has been the subject of much discussion. And rightly so, because the ozone layer protects both plant and animal life on good ideas essay, the planet. The fact that the ozone layer was being depleted was discovered in the mid-1980s. The main cause of this is the release of CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons. Antarctica was an early victim of ozone destruction. A massive hole in from to essay, the ozone layer right above Antarctica now threatens not only that continent, but many others that could be the victims of Antarctica’s melting icecaps. In the future, the essay, ozone problem will have to be solved so that the protective layer can be conserved. Essay # 2. Causes of theme thesis, Ozone Layer Depletion: Only a few factors combine to create the ideas for argumentative essay, problem of greed bad essay, ozone layer depletion. The production and emission of CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons, is by far the good ideas for argumentative, leading cause. Many countries have called for the end of CFC production because only a few produce the chemical.
However, those industries that do use CFCs do not want to statement for overpopulation discontinue usage of this highly valuable industrial chemical. CFCs are used in industry in a variety of ways and have been amazingly useful in essay, many products. Discovered in the 1930s by American chemist Thomas Midgley, CFCs came to be used in refrigerators, home insulation, plastic foam, and throwaway food containers. Only later did people realize the disaster CFCs caused in the stratosphere. There, the chlorine atom is removed from the greed bad essay, CFC and attracts one of the three oxygen atoms in good essay, the ozone molecule. The process continues, and a single chlorine atom can destroy over 100,000 molecules of ozone. In 1974, Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina followed the path of essay thesis, CFCs. Their research proved that CFCs were entering the atmosphere, and they concluded that 99% of all CFC molecules would end up in the stratosphere.
Only in 1984, when the ozone layer hole was discovered over Antarctica, was the ideas for argumentative essay, proof truly conclusive. At that point, it was hard to question the destructive capabilities of book review, CFCs. Even if CFCs were banned, problems would remain. Good For Argumentative Essay? There would still be no way to remove the easy book review, CFCs that are now present in the environment. Clearly though, something must be done to limit this international problem in for argumentative essay, the future. Essay # 3. Mechanism of Ozone Layer Depletion: It includes, 1. The natural process. Thesis? 2. The anthropogenic process. Atmospheric oxygen absorbs ultraviolet radiation shorter than 240 nm and photo-dissociates into two oxygen atoms. These unite with other O 2 molecules to form ozone.
During the process surplus energy of nascent O 3 is ideas, often transferred to the nearby molecules as kinetic energy which slightly raises the surrounding atmospheric temperature. Ozone too is greed bad essay, effective in good ideas for argumentative, absorbing particular short wavelength UV radiation in the range 230-320 nm, releasing atomic oxygen. This natural mechanism, however, does not necessarily upset the ozone equilibrium because the loss of ozone caused by natural process is compensated by essay thesis the creation of ozone through atmospheric circulation. Thus a dynamic equilibrium existing between the production and decomposition of ozone molecules constitutes one of the most important mechanism. The heat generated during the reaction causes a rise in temperature of the stratosphere. Secondly, the essay, photochemical process absorbs most of the harmful solar ultraviolet radiations of wavelength from 2000 A to 3500 A. Hence the atmosphere is heated because of this absorption and the earth’s biosphere is shielded from these radiations. Without it, life on the earth would be completely destroyed. Thesis Research Paper? The atmospheric layer of ozone surrounding us acts like a blanket, protecting or shielding us from the harmful UV radiations from the good ideas essay, sun. So the ozone screen acts as our protective cover in cutting of the fatal UV radiations from the solar system. Ozone acts as a powerful oxidant because of its ability to remove electrons from from, other molecules.
It occurs as a natural component of air. It is also formed in ambient air by photochemical reactions of primary pollutants. Its higher concentration is generally found in large urban areas of the world, which are characterized by automobile—dependent transportation and petroleum dependent energy production etc. Surface ozone is produced as a result of chemical reactions in the atmosphere driven by the action of UV radiation in the sunlight, involving both nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic matter (VOM). While both NO x and VOMs are emitted in good ideas essay, large amount by vehicles, other important sources of VOMs are solvents used in industrial and chemical processes. According to British scientists, this surface ozone is responsible for the substantial reduction in the yields of major crops like wheat and rice. The surface ozone, a secondary pollutant, can spread in high concentrations over for overpopulation essay rural areas. There are the other sources of ozone in the environment, such as gamma radiation used in food preservation plants, commercial UV lamps used for sterilization, high voltage electric equipments, dermatological phototherapy equipments and even in photocopying machines. Ozone also occurs in air and water purification plants and oil wax, textiles and good ideas for argumentative, inorganic synthetic industries. We know that there are natural chemical and photochemical processes which lead to the continuous formation and destruction of ozone in the stratosphere.
The balance between these processes would result in a steady condition with a well-defined and stable ozone layer. However only oxygen chemistry cannot adequately explain the present situations. Other chemical species also play a role in determining the actual concentrations and can lead to enhanced ozone destruction. Some of these species occur naturally, while others are of recent industrial origin. The amount of some of the natural species moving into the stratosphere has been augmented in recent years by a number of human activities. Many of the processes, which are responsible for greed bad essay, the depletion of ozone layer, share a general mechanism of the type, Here X is the reacting species. The most common of these species have been identified to be free radicals, such as HO x (• H, • OH, HOO •), NO x (• NO, • NO 2 ) and ClO x (• CI, • CIO). Ideas For Argumentative Essay? Each of these species is capable of destroying the ozone layer in thesis, varying degrees, depending on altitude and good ideas essay, the mixing ratio. For example, near the stratosphere the HO x radicals are responsible for nature quotes, about 70% of the total mechanism of good ideas, ozone destruction, including the oxygen only process. Lower in the atmosphere around 30 km, the NO x catalytic decomposition process dominates the ozone destruction mechanism.
The NO x cycle in the region just above the greed bad essay, troposphere has been found to be responsible for about 70% of the ozone destruction, but recent studies show that this figure may be even more. The HO x radicals are generated by either of the ideas for argumentative, following two photochemical reactions: where O is excited state oxygen. These reactive free radical species (• H or • OH) decompose ozone in the following manner: Production of • OH radical is largely due to the natural processes and their relative importance increases with increasing altitude. The hydrogen radical decomposes the ozone in the following way: The nitric oxide cycle contributes in a significant way in the natural destruction of stratospheric ozone in the lower region of the stratosphere: In the upper atmosphere, NO is paragraph to essay, produced by reactions involving atomic and ionic species of nitrogen and oxygen. These species are produced by good essay the highly energetic radiation that penetrates that part of the atmosphere. Photodecomposition of greed bad essay, N 2 is possible at altitude much greater than 30 km, producing both an electronically excited N( 2 D) and a ground state N( 4 S) atom.
The ground state nitrogen subsequently reacts with O 2 , producing another natural source of NO: At altitudes of less than 30 km, additional NO is also generated via a reaction: Where O( 1 D) is excited state oxygen. The principal source of nitrous oxide is the process of essay, denitrification in soils having high concentration of nitrate ion: The increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2 O) mixing rations is paragraph to essay, due (to some extent) to enhanced rates of denitrification resulting from greater use of nitrogenous fertilizers worldwide.
Although the mixing ratio of nitrous oxide in essay, the troposphere is steadily increasing, the production of stratospheric nitric oxide through various processes can, in a large part, be attributed to natural causes. Nature? Nitrogenous fertilizers are also responsible for much of the increase. The nitric oxide that has been generated by combustion near ground level, or even at altitudes where subsonic aircrafts fly, is not considered to be major contributor to the stratosphere, because it has a very short (about 4 days) tropospheric residence time. The CFCs and ideas for argumentative essay, halons are entirely manmade with wide applications in air conditioning, refrigeration, aerosols, electric and greed bad essay, metal clearing, foam blowing and ideas for argumentative essay, modern firefighting. They act as a catalyst in for overpopulation essay, the destruction of good ideas, ozone layer in the stratosphere.
The rate of destruction of theme thesis, ozone is further enhanced by the oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) released from the exhausts of good ideas for argumentative, large fleet of supersonic aircrafts (SST). A wide range of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are known, but widely used are CFCl 3 and CF 2 Cl 2 , which are in use since 1930. CFCs and halons remain inactive in the troposphere and it takes about 20-40 years for these chemicals to travel and reach the stratosphere, but after that their intermediate product (chlorine radical) retrains active for more than 100 years. The travelling time for paragraph, CFCs and halons to reach to stratosphere may range from good essay, 20 to 40 years, that is, CFCs generated in the troposphere today may take 20 to 40 years to reach the stratosphere. Once these CFCs and halons reach to stratosphere, the chlorine and bromine atoms present in these chemicals are released as a result of for overpopulation essay, interaction with UV radiations in the stratosphere. In spite of the fact that CFC molecules are much heavier than those of air, they tend to be well mixed and homogeneously distributed throughout the troposphere in the gas phase because of strong convective mixing. We know that CFCs are almost completely inert both biologically as well as chemically in good ideas essay, the earth’s environment, including in the troposphere. Because they do not react, they circulate through the troposphere until they leak or escape into the stratosphere. At higher altitudes they are capable of undergoing UV photolytic decomposition, as a result of thesis essay, being exposed to the intense flux of energetic UV radiation— CFCI3 + hv (? 290 nm) > • CFCl 2 + • CI.
The released chlorine radical is capable of ideas for argumentative, taking part in the catalytic decomposition of ozone as follows: A second and perhaps third chlorine radical could also be produced by further decomposition of • CFCl 2 radical, generating additional • CI radical responsible for ozone depletion— Chlorine atoms catalyse the destruction of ozone. At 30 km, the natural contributions to ozone destruction by chlorine accounts for about 10% of the essay, total. A significant natural precursor of atomic chlorine is CH 3 Cl, which is produced biogenically from the oceans, from the burning of ideas, vegetation and from volcanic emissions. Once in the atmosphere, CH 3 Cl undergoes photochemical reaction, Other natural sources of chlorine are various forms of chlorine. Such sources as HCl released by volcanoes or CI – ions released from sea-salt spray are short-lived in the troposphere and most of them are washed out through the rainfall before they reach the stratosphere. There are other catalytic cycles also involving chlorine. For example,
Bromine (from, say halons) can also replace chlorine in the cycle and theme essay thesis, together these reactions account for about 60% of the routes by which ozone is destroyed by halogens. It should be noted that natural sources produce small amounts of atomic chlorine in the stratosphere, but there is a significant destruction of essay, ozone by chlorine derived from the anthropogenically produced CFCs. Taking into consideration the ozone depleting CFCs and halons, scientists are trying to modify the easy review, relative amounts of fluorine, chlorine and hydrogen in new compounds. Thus a common approach is to incorporate hydrogen in the structure, as in hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) or replace chlorine and produce hydrofluorocarbons(HFCs). Increasing the good ideas essay, content of hydrogen reduces the inertness of the essay, compound and in this way the lifetime of the compound in troposphere may be made short. The presence of hydrogen means that the compounds are more reactive and flammable. But the higher reactivity is a disadvantage in good for argumentative essay, many applications. If the proportion of from paragraph to essay, fluorine is for argumentative essay, increased at thesis essay, the expense of chlorine, then a highly stable compound will be formed because the bond energy of C-F bond is larger than C-Cl bond. This will reduce stratospheric photolysis to a very significant extent. Moreover, such compounds are excellent and persistent greenhouse gases. Ideas For Argumentative? For compounds containing no chlorine, obviously no CI atoms can be released, so there is no potential to easy book review deplete ozone.
Increasing the good ideas, chlorine content is undesirable, because the ability to destroy ozone will be higher and because compounds containing chlorine and hydrogen tend to be more toxic. From a combined industrial and environmental point of view, HFC-134a (CF 3 CH 2 F) is more promising. This HFC has intermediate stability and greed bad essay, it is oxidised by the • OH radical in the troposphere and has residence time of 18 years. It is neither very flammable nor have chlorine. So it is not expected to have ozone depleting potential. HCFC-123 (CF 3 CHCl 2 ) is ideas, another replacement for CFC. It contains chlorine, but has only about one tenth ozone depleting potential of CFC—11 (CFCl 3 ), largely due to from to essay its relatively short tropospheric life time. Halons, the bromine analogues of CFCs have widely been used in fire extinguishers because of the following important reasons: (a) Their high density, due to which they settle over and smother a fire at ground level.
(b) Bromine atom terminates the good ideas essay, radical chain reactions which propagate the combustion process. Methyl bromide, used as soil fumigant, is also a potent ozone depleting substance. Emerson? In fact, chemicals containing bromine are much more reactive than the chlorine analogues in terms of depletion of ozone. Because of good for argumentative, this, ODP values for bromine compounds are very high. For example, ODP values of the halons bromochlorodifluoromethane, CF 2 ClBr (H-1211), bromotrifluoromethane, CF 3 Br (H-1301) and dibromotetrafluoroethane, CBrF 2 CBrF 2 (H-2402) are 3.0, 10.0 and 6.0 respectively. Essay # 4. Thesis? Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Hole Formation: The ozone hole is actually an area of thinner normal ozone. Temperature is a key factor in ozone loss, along with chlorine and bromine chemicals. In 2001, the Antarctic ozone hole reached a maximum size of more than 26.5 million sq.km – larger than the entire area of ideas, North America, including the US, Canada and Mexico combined. In the year 2000, it briefly approached 11.30 million sq. km.
In 2002, ozone hole over Antarctica was not only much smaller than what it was in thesis for overpopulation, 2000 and 2001, but it has split into two. It was measured at 15.6 million sq. Good Ideas For Argumentative Essay? km. In September 2002, a figure well below the more than 24 million sq. km spread seen consecutively during the last six years. The hole’s total column ozone was measured below 220 dobson units. Ozone depletion is an annual phenomenon over the South Pole during August and easy, September when coldest temperatures are prevalent.
Thin clouds form in these cold conditions and chemical reactions on cloud particles help chlorine and bromine gases to essay rapidly destroy ozone. By early October, temperatures typically start to warm and to essay, the ozone layer starts to recover. The size and the duration of the hole depend on natural year to ideas year variability of atmospheric conditions. In the Antarctic (and Arctic) conditions exist where spring time ozone depleting events may occur, resulting in a major loss of statement essay, ozone over a relatively short time. The conditions include a complex combination of climate factors as well as accumulation of reservoir species which react vigorously to bring about a major loss of ozone, especially at the onset of the first day light of the polar spring. During the long dark winter in the Antarctic, a stream of air is drawn towards the good for argumentative essay, South Pole, creating a giant vortex because of intense cold and greed bad essay, the Earth’s rotation.
The area within the vortex acts like a self-contained chemical reactor in which unique chemical processes take place. For one thing, inside the reactor, stratospheric clouds form because of exceptionally low temperatures which exist in the absence of light. The clouds are classified into two types: (a) The polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) are formed at about 193 K and consist of about 1 µm diameter particles of HNO 3 and H 2 O in the ratio of 1: 3. (b) The polar stratospheric clouds, which are formed when the temperature decreases to 187 K. These clouds are made up of relatively pure particles of water-ice upto 10 µm in for argumentative, size. The accumulated gases— reservoir chlorine and nitrogen containing species (mainly hydrochloric acid, hypochlorous acid and chlorine nitrate) are also present in the vortex. During the winter, these species take part in heterogeneous reaction on the surface of PSCs and consequently release chlorine molecules and HOCl: The relatively stable situation remains until after the onset of sunlight. Essay? At that time solar radiation provides energy for the photolysis of chlorine and HOCl to produce the chlorine radical species.
The chlorine radicals so formed are then available for ozone depletion by catalytic cycles or according to following reactions: Depletion of ozone occurs rapidly so that even in some days, ozone levels decrease dramatically to half or even less of their winter value. This situation persists until the air temperature rises, causing the vortex to break up and good for argumentative essay, the PSCs to disappear. This occurs in mid to late spring, when chlorine radicals again become tied up by the formation of hydrochloric acid and chlorine nitrate, and the ozone begins to recover to pre-hole levels. In the Arctic atmosphere, as a result of the eruption of book review, Mt Pinatubo in ideas for argumentative, the Philippines during 1991, sulphate was found to be present at higher concentrations than usual. Stratospheric sulphate is easy review, usually in the form of an ideas for argumentative aerosol and acts as a catalyst for for overpopulation essay, the removal of N 2 O 5 by forming nitric acid. This reaction is a means by which NO x species are removed from the polar stratosphere, thus eliminating one of the species which is associated with holding cycles that tie up chlorine monoxide radicals (• CIO + • NO 2 + M > ClONO 2 + M). Good Ideas? As a result, higher concentrations of from paragraph, reactive chlorine species are present, thus leading to more rapid ozone depletion. In addition, this reaction could occur to a large extent throughout the for argumentative, stratosphere (not just at the poles), decrease of the worldwide ozone concentration.
Essay # 5. Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion: Even minor problems of ozone depletion can have major effects. Every time even a small amount of the ozone layer is lost, more ultraviolet light from the sun can reach the Earth. Every time 1% of the theme essay, ozone layer is depleted, 2% more UV-B is able to reach the surface of the for argumentative essay, planet. UV-B increase is one of the most harmful consequences of ozone depletion because it can cause skin cancer. The increased cancer levels caused by exposure to this ultraviolet light could be enormous. The EPA estimates that 60 million Americans born by the year 2075 will get skin cancer because of ozone depletion. About one million of these people will die. In addition to cancer, some research shows that a decreased ozone layer will increase rates of malaria and other infectious diseases. According to review the EPA, 17 million more cases of good ideas, cataracts can also be expected.
The environment will also be negatively affected by ozone depletion. Thesis For Overpopulation Essay? The life cycles of plants will change, disrupting the food chain. Effects on animals will also be severe, and good ideas, are very difficult to foresee. Oceans will be hit hard as well. The most basic microscopic organisms such as plankton may not be able to survive. If that happened, it would mean that all of the paragraph to essay, other animals that are above plankton in the food chain would also die out. Ideas? Other ecosystems such as forests and essay thesis, deserts will also be harmed. The planet’s climate could also be affected by good ideas for argumentative essay depletion of the ozone layer. Wind patterns could change, resulting in greed bad essay, climatic changes throughout the world. Essay # 6. Solution to Ozone Layer Depletion : The discovery of the ozone depletion problem came as a great surprise. Now, action must be taken to ensure that the ozone layer is not destroyed.
Because CFCs are so widespread and used in good essay, such a great variety of theme thesis, products, limiting their use is hard. Also, since many products already contain components that use CFCs, it would be difficult if not impossible to eliminate those CFCs already in existence. The CFC problem may be hard to solve because there are already great quantities of ideas for argumentative essay, CFCs in the environment. CFCs would remain in to essay, the stratosphere for another 100 years even if none were ever produced again. Despite the ideas for argumentative essay, difficulties, international action has been taken to limit CFCs.
In the Montreal Protocol, 30 nations worldwide agreed to reduce usage of CFCs and encouraged other countries to do so as well. However, many environmentalists felt the treaty did “too little, too late”, as the statement essay, Natural Resources Defense Council put it. The treaty asked for CFC makers to only eliminate half of their CFC production, making some people feel it was inadequate. By the year 2000, the US and twelve nations in Europe have agreed to good ideas essay ban all use and production of CFCs. This will be highly significant, because these countries produce three quarters of the CFCs in for overpopulation, the world. Many other countries have signed treaties and written laws restricting the ideas, use of CFCs.
Companies are finding substitutes for from to essay, CFCs, and people in general are becoming more aware of the dangers of ozone depletion.