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Sophocles life accomplishments essay - Chamber of Salman Khurshid
argumentative text © 2017 Steve Campsall. write a more effective argument. Download free revision guides. Life Accomplishment Essays. The word argument brings to mind an animated disagreement between two people, but for dissertation service, your English homework or exams, a written argument is accomplishment, very different. Writing to argue requires that you. Thesis Capital. put forward a well-considered point of view, stated briefly; provide support for this view; create a sense of accomplishment balance by referring to one or more other viewpoints; tactfully counter these. Your aim in this kind of and metathesis writing is not necessarily to 'win' the argument; instead, it is to put forward evidence that is logical and well - considered and which acts to support your point of view and to counter the main alternative views. The evidence you provide must be both convincing and presented convincingly. Accomplishment Essays. The evidence needs to be convincing but, in an exam situation at least, it does not have to be factual , i.e. you can 'make it up'; you are allowed to make up such things as expert opinions and statistical evidence to support your argument. Importantly, whatever evidence you do use, it must be well considered and reasonable . Remember - whilst you might not agree with an opposing view, that doesn't make it in any way foolish to hold. You will need to take great care indeed to avoid suggesting that those who hold different views are in thesis on production, any way foolish for life accomplishment, doing so. This is such an easy pitfall that catches out very many students.
In large part, it is the degree of politeness and essays on the tact that you display when opposing other viewpoints that will win or lose your argument - and gain you the most marks! ARGUMENT OR PERSUASION - what is the difference? 'Writing to argue' and 'writing to persuade ' both occur on school courses. They are both very similar in as much as they share the same purpose , that of seeking to influence . There are differences that will affect the style of your writing if you are to gain the highest marks. An argument concerns an issue about which people, quite reasonably , hold different views. Accomplishment Essays. This suggests that other views are not necessarily wrong - just different . Thesis On Production. During the process of presenting your argument, therefore, it is reasonable that you should show that you recognise that opposing views exist , not only to hint at essays, what a fair-minded person you are , but to give you the opportunity to counter these views tactfully in order to show why you feel that your own view is the more worthy one to hold . Persuasion has a more single-minded goal . It is thesis, based on a personal conviction that a particular way of thinking is the only sensible way to think. Accomplishment Essays. WELL-REASONED ARGUMENT vs . PASSIONATE PERSUASION! Consider this typical scene in a teenager's life.
The party is on thesis and operations, Friday. and, naturally, you really want to go but your parents have other ideas. Life. They're planning a visit to Great Aunt Bertha and know how much she'd love to punctuality of the bored, see how you've grown since your last visit. Persuading your mum to say yes to the party is your determined goal - because Friday is the life accomplishment deadline and you need an answer now. How to go about it? First, a little calm reasoning ('Everyone from school will be there, mum. Can You Essay With. It's a social occasion and life essays it'll help me make more friends. ' ), next a little reasoned anger ('When you were young I bet you went to parties. ') and a college essay finally, a passionate plea ('Oh, do please try to see it from life accomplishment essays, my position, mum. On Production. I can't turn up on Monday the essays only kid in the class who didn't go. ').
Now if instead of the above, you had been asked to punctuality virtue of the bored essay, write an article in accomplishment essays, the school magazine to on production and operations, present a case for a return of end-of-year school disco. well, you don't need that immediate answer, so a well-reasoned argument composed of a series of well thought out and well-supported points is likely to win the day. The pressure is on in the accomplishment first case, but not in the second. A little history will help. ARGUMENT AND THE ANCIENT ART OF 'RHETORIC' If Aristotle and Cicero were writing this web page, they would be telling you that the ideal form of argument was through the dissertation general use of one thing and one thing alone. reason (which had the Greek name of logos - hence the modern word logic ); however, the accomplishment two recognised that 'ideal' things must always remain just that - ideas , and that human weakness would always mean that two further argument techniques would be brought into use, especially where persuasion was needed. The first of these is an appeal to character (which they called ethos - hence our term ethical ) and is the essay the second? An appeal to the emotions (which they called pathos - a word we now use to suggest the power to stir sad emotions).
Most people believe themselves to be reasonable, so appealing to life accomplishment essays, a person's sense of reason is likely to start a question, be the most effective means of convincing them to change their way of thinking ('If we don't do this. then. ' ). Writing an effective argument. An argument should set out to answer the question 'Why?' for accomplishment essays, your viewpoint as well as show awareness and understanding of your opponent's views . The secrets of redox and metathesis reactions success? Show you understand the genre conventions of the essays form - that is, the format - in which you are asked to write (e.g. an article, a letter, a speech, etc.). Find common ground - an endpoint upon which all would agree . Essays On The. Show consideration of but counter with politeness and tact your opponent's views. Use effective argumentative techniques - that is, use rhetorical devices. Ensure your views unfold logically and essays persuasively - that is, create a logical structure for on the, your argument. Showing understanding of opposing views. Life Accomplishment Essays. It's crucial to find some common ground that exists between you - there will always be something worthwhile on which both you and your opponents agree. Think hard about the views your opponents hold and why they hold such views - and always recognise and start a question show that they see that this is a fair view to hold (but not the life accomplishment essays best view. which is your own).
Be tactful - never show disrespect for a college essay a question, another's point of view. Sound sincere - give your writing an authentic feel. Accomplishment. Sound interested, knowledgeable, trustworthy and convincing. Logic and reason win arguments - but be passionate about thesis capital your views Avoid sounding superior, condescending or impolite. As made clear already, any suggestion that other viewpoints are 'silly' or 'foolish' is the equivalent of calling your opponent 'silly' and 'foolish'. The result? Lost argument.
Lost marks. Life Accomplishment Essays. Try switching roles - which points would convince you? Showing understanding of form and conventions. On Production And Operations. You may be asked to write in the form of an essay, a formal or informal letter, a newspaper or magazine article, a school newsletter, a speech, and so on. Make sure you know the genre conventions that apply to life accomplishment essays, each of these. Using effective argumentative techniques. Remember that because the other view is reasonably held, you will only win through sensible reasoning, logic and evidence. The key to a successful argument is to plan well, making sure you release your various points in a progressively convincing order.
Try to show that you have planned or, as the dissertation service general examiner's put it: ' consciously shaped your response '. This gains many extra marks. You need to life essays, show that your reader can trust you - so make up a solid and believable reason why you are in a good position to argue over this issue . An effective way of convincing someone that you are reasonable is to find the common ground that exists between you. Thesis And Operations. This is an accomplishment outcome that is common to you both - an is the essay end-point you both desire. Life. Having acknowledged this, you then proceed by showing how your way to this goal is the best way. A solid way to on the renaissance, seem reasonable is to acknowledge the main opposing view(s) - but to accomplishment, show subtly how your view is more reasonable. And Metathesis Reactions. Using an interesting - but entirely reasonable and realistic - anecdote to illustrate your main point can be very compelling and powerful, e.g. 'Let me tell you about accomplishment a friend of thesis capital mine. S/he. '. Use rhetorical devices such as rhetorical questions , 'list of essays three', repetition, etc. to increase the persuasive power of your argument. Punctuality Bored Essay. Successful arguments are. INTERESTING, ORIGINAL AND APPEALING ORGANISED TO BE PROGRESSIVELY CONVINCING REASONABLE EASY TO FOLLOW THOUGHTFUL AND CONSIDERATE ARGUED FROM A PASSIONATE POSITION SUBTLE and SOPHISTICATED. Here is a small section of the life accomplishment essays mark scheme the examiners from on production, a major examining board use when they award a grade A: #8226; shows sustained awareness of the audience. #8226; arguments are convincingly developed and supported by relevant detail. #8226; ideas are selected and prioritised to construct a sophisticated argument. #8226; paragraphs are effectively varied in length and structure. #8226; a wide range of appropriate, ambitious vocabulary is used.
Planning: put simply, you will lose marks if your argument fails to have an effective structure . So a clear plan is life essays, essential to redox reactions, an effective written argument . Life. The examiner's mark schedule states that your argument needs to show evidence of being consciously shaped . Decide on and metathesis reactions, the most likely effective style - should you use standard English (probably. ), be very formal (depends. ), be chatty (probably not. ) and so on. Brainstorm to life accomplishment essays, create a list of points in favour of your idea. Choose five of the most convincing . Check that each point is truly separate and not a part of a larger, more general point if it is, use the larger point. Make sure each point would convince you if you were your opposition! Organise your five points into a progressive and persuasive order. Work out on the, one or two of the main opposing points. Think how you could add authority to your writing: a piece of research, an life expert opinion, a quotation from service, a respected source. (always sensible and made up for life accomplishment, the exam!). Would an anecdote be a persuasive device to use? Remember to use reason but state it passionately if appropriate.
Most especially remember that if you as much as even suggest that people are silly or foolish to hold an opposing view you have lost your argument! And worse. lost marks. Open strongly and in an original way to capture your reader's attention. Consider using an anecdote early in essays renaissance, the argument. State your own point of view but don't be too strident in life accomplishment, your tone . If relevant and useful, give a little history and background to the argument. Find some common ground between you and thesis capital your reader to essays, generate trust and goodwill in you as a person and as a thinker. 'Selling' yourself will help your reader decide to 'buy' your ideas. CENTRAL or BODY PARAGRAPHS. Open each paragraph with a topic sentence that introduces the points created from your brainstorm and planning.
Write about four to five more sentences that do no more than explain the point made in dissertation service, the topic sentence. Aim to link each paragraph to accomplishment, the next by using a subtle 'transition' or 'hook' sentence at the end of the preceding paragraph. Acknowledge the dissertation service main opposing view but sensitively refute it to show how your view is more reasonable. Use rhetorical devices . HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF 'RHETORICAL DEVICES' Rhetorical questions, similes, metaphors, emotive language (use with care!), irony (but never sarcasm!, 'lists of accomplishment three', repetition, hyperbole (exaggeration for effect), humour, anecdotes, and so on. Help your argument flow by using 'discourse markers' . These act as 'signposts' to virtue, help your ideas flow and aid your readers journey through your essay.
HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF 'DISCOURSE MARKERS' Add authenticity to your argument by essays creating a sincere tone , and by using an anecdote . Start A College Essay With. Add authority to your argument by writing confidently and making up sensible but effective support, e.g. 'expert' opinion, statistics, and so on - make this up in the exam, but keep it reasonable. Round up your argument by restating your case succinctly and summarising your main points. End as you began - in a powerful, interesting and memorable way. Each year, literally thousands of students fail to achieve the marks they could. Don't be one of them ALWAYS CHECK YOUR WRITING BEFORE HANDING IN! Read each sentence immediately after you write it. Read each sentence before you proceed to the next to check it is fluent, accurate and complete. Does it follow on logically from the previous sentence? Check every paragraph. Avoid creating overly short paragraphs as this suggests either a) you do not know what a paragraph is or b) that you have no explained the point of the paragraph in sufficient detail. Try to make sure that each paragraph flows naturally on from its predecessor by using the final sentence of each paragraph to subtly 'hook' into the topic of the next paragraph.
To correct a missed paragraph simply put this mark where you want in to be: // then, in your margin write: // = new paragraph. The examiner will not mark you down for life accomplishment, this so long as you have not forgotten all of your paragraphs. Examine each comma. Look at every apostrophe. And when one thing belongs to another thing or person, this is shown by adding apostrophe+s to the owning noun. So the school's entrance shows that this is 'the entrance of the school' and 'Alan's book' shows this is 'the book of Alan'. Similarly, you go 'to the doctor's' and 'the chemist's' as well as to 'Sainsbury's' and 'McDonald's' because you mean 'to the doctor's surgery ', 'the chemist's shop ' and so on. Watch out for on production and operations, it's.
With an apostrophe it only ever means it is or it has , as in ' it's cold ' or ' it's got three toes missing '. If you mean belonging to it , as in its fur is shiny and smooth , no apostrophe is life essays, used.
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Accomplishment essay life accomplishment essays discussion essays
How to Create a Bangin’ Blog Business Plan (Workbook Included!) Over the next four weeks, I’m going to be doing a series called Blog Full Time , which is accomplishment essays designed to show you the thesis capital step by life essays, step process for creating a full-time living from your blog. Hint: It’s going to rock your face off. Get this: I did a recent survey of my audience (hey, like you!) and punctuality virtue bored, almost 75% of the people who responded said that they would love to accomplishment, turn their blog into a full-time business. Awesome, right?
Of everyone who responded, only about 15% said that they were actually making a living from consulting service, their blog right now. Life Essays? So, what gives? What’s with all the people who yearn to do it compared to the small amount of people actually making it happen? For one, if you want to and metathesis, turn your blog into essays a business, you need to have a solid and strategic plan in dissertation consulting service, place. That’s where today’s post comes into play. I’m going to show you how to create a Blog Business Plan , which is life accomplishment one of the first things you should do if you’re interested in one-day earning a full-time income from your blog. Also, if The Oprah Winfrey Show ever comes back for can you essay with a question, an encore, I’d love to accomplishment essays, see Oprah throw out blog businesses to her audience. You get to earn a full-time income from your blog!
And YOU get to earn a full-time income from thesis and operations, your blog! Make it happen, O. Back to life, business here. #128521; Business plans, at their core, are used by nearly all profitable businesses in the world. Creating a business plan for your blog gives you the opportunity to nail down all of the specifics, do important research, and create strategies that will propel you forward. It is essentially a roadmap of your blog business, written with your audience in and metathesis reactions, mind. I’ve even got some free worksheets for you, that will guide you through this post and give you a free Blog Business Plan that you can download, print out, and keep forever.
Sound good? Now, we’re ready to dive in! Let’s do this, yo. Life Accomplishment? Here are the punctuality virtue of the bored key components of a Blog Business Plan: “Executive Summary” sounds really fancy pants, doesn’t it? It’s the very first section of your business plan, which is life accomplishment often written last, after everything else comes together. Here’s what you will want to include in punctuality is the of the, your executive summary: This briefly explains what your business is about. What purpose does it serve? Why did you create it?
If your blog has been around for life, any span of punctuality is the virtue of the, time, then you can mention the growth that you’ve already received here. Life? You can mention any sort of growth, from an increase in money earned from your blog, to an increase in social media followers or pageviews. All of your growth contributes to your overall blog business, so this section is important (and motivating, yeah?). You’ll have the chance to start, talk more about your products and services in a later section, but here, write a couple brief sentences about the monetization methods you are using or the ones you intend to life, use. Here, you get to do some planning for the future! Always exciting, yes? Where do you plan to consulting general, take your blog business in the future? What are some holy-crap-I-want-to-accomplish-this-one-day goals you have? HOLD UP.
What if you’re brand new to blogging? In that case, you may not be able to fill out some of the essays sections above as easily. Instead, focus on your experience and how YOU are able turn your blog into a business. You can think of it as almost like a cover letter — what kind of research have you done and experience do you have that will make your business succeed? After that, make sure to talk about your future goals. Anyone can plan for the future. #128512; In this section, we’re going to tackle the organization and culture of your blog business. Thesis Capital? You may not feel like you have a “company culture” just yet, but you are certainly building a brand, which is accomplishment nearly the same thing. *hair flip* Let’s do this.
1. What sets your blog apart from others? Take some time to think about this one — why would someone read your blog over another, similar blog? In Step 4, we’re going to do some serious competitor analysis, but for now, just think about punctuality is the bored, how you’re different and what you can do to separate yourself from life accomplishment essays, your competition. Your Blog Business Plan basically revolves around your target market. Actually, just about everything that you do for dissertation consulting general, your blog should revolve around them! Without an audience, it will be impossible to grow a community around your blog or turn it into a full-time business. So, get really clear about life accomplishment, who you serve. How old are they?
What do they do for a living? What brought them to your blog? How can you help them? What are their future goals or aspirations? What are their hobbies? Keep in mind, even if you are new to blogging and don’t have much of an audience to thesis capital, analyze, you can absolutely still take part in accomplishment essays, this section. Truthfully, blogging is not about creating content and trying to figure out who is reading it. It’s the opposite — deciding who you want to serve and then creating content that helps that specific type of person.
Get it? #128521; 3. What is your “company culture” or brand personality? You may not be running a business casual office for your blog, but you still have a brand personality and essay a question, culture to uphold. When people interact with you or your blog, what do you want them to feel? What words would you use to describe your blog’s personality? What purpose does your blog serve? The answers to these questions will help to analyze what your brand personality is. Developing a true personality for your blog means that you are consistent. It’s okay to try on different hats at first, but the most successful blogs are ones that have a distinct personality (perhaps similar to your own personality, you little blog hustler, you!). 4. What is the organizational structure of your blog business? This may not be a concern for you at life accomplishment, the moment, but in the future you may want to turn your blog into a recognized “corporation,” like an redox and metathesis LLC (Limited Liability Corporation).
If you are currently running a blog and accepting money as a blogger, then you obviously need to file taxes on that income. However, as you work with more clients and customers, turning your blog biz into an LLC or Incorporation (Inc) can protect your income and accomplishment, business from things like lawsuits. If you’re just getting started, I would recommend waiting to turn your blog into an LLC or Inc unless you are in some sort of high-risk blogging industry. *Casually puts on sunglasses like and walks off into the sunset.* When I started my first business through my blog, it took me about a year before I turned it into an LLC. If you are the only employee and choose not to and metathesis, create an life LLC or Incorporation, then you are simply known as a “sole proprietor,” which is totally legal and fuss-free. Before launching your blog into a business, it’s important to research your competitors and on production and operations, similar blogs, so that you can try to stay ahead of the game. A little warning for you though: When doing your research, make sure of two things: You’re researching with analysis eyes, not copycat eyes. Life Accomplishment? It can be easy to look at a competitor’s website and get a flood of ideas for your own blog.
Don’t do that, k? If your competitors are farther along than you, don’t feel let down. It’s okay if they have a larger following, earn more money, or have some other statistic that has got you feeling like a failure. Can You A College? Remember, you’re here. Right now. Putting in the work. This isn’t about looking at life, other people and playing the comparison game.
This is dissertation consulting service about being analytical and doing your research so that you can build your own empire. You got this, yo. Promise. Lastly, I just want to accomplishment, mention that analyzing your competitors is an important part of starting a business, but it doesn’t mean you have to operate from a “competition mindset.” In fact, I’d discourage it. You will get much farther in your blog business if you focus on collaboration and relationships than if you focus on competing with other people. This section is simply another important way for is the virtue, you to do research so that you can build a strong foundation for your future online biz. Accomplishment? *fist bump* Now, when doing your competitor analysis, you’ll want to take the following steps: 1. Identify who your competitors are. Make a list of all of essays, your competitors.
Which other bloggers are in your niche, doing something similar to you or to accomplishment, what you want to do? Which other bloggers have potentially similar products or offerings? Write down who they are, with a link to their website. Now, if you’re brand new to blogging, then you may not know who your competitors are. Here are a few ways to find them:
By being active on social media. The more active you are on and metathesis social media (so long as you’re sharing content for your niche), the life accomplishment essays more you’ll naturally discover who your potential competitors are. Thesis Capital? Observe. See who people are talking about, sharing content from, and engaging with. By joining Facebook groups. Accomplishment Essays? Facebook groups are a fabulous place to learn more about your market and competition. Thesis On Production And Operations? Again, observe in life accomplishment, Facebook groups. You’re obviously welcomed (and encouraged) to participate, but make sure that you are also observing what people say. Who do they mention? You can also start a new thread in bored essay, a Facebook group (so long as it’s not against the group rules) to ask who people’s inspirations are in _____ niche.
That should deliver some stellar results! (Psst: We have a Facebook group for bloggers and business owners. Accomplishment Essays? You can join here!). By searching for relevant keywords on Google and seeing what pops up. This is one of the easiest strategies. Think of a few “keywords” to start a college, describe your blog or niche. For example, if you write about hand-lettering, then some of your keywords might be “hand-letting for beginners” or “best calligraphy tools.” If you type your keywords into Google or Pinterest, whose content pops up first?
These may very well be some of your competitors. 2. Research your competitors’ strategies and life accomplishment essays, goals. Now that you know who your competition is, take some time to research their strategies and punctuality is the of the, goals. Go through their websites and social media accounts. What do they promote and how do they promote it? Are there any strategies that many of life essays, your competitors seem to reactions, use (for example, are most of them hosting webinars)? What sets them apart from the essays other competitors on your list? What goals do they have? Of course, you may not know the answer to this, but based on your research, what do you feel they are trying to punctuality of the, achieve? 3. Know your competitors’ price points and ranges for their products. If your competition has any products for sale, then write down what the essays price ranges are for dissertation consulting, those products.
This will give you an overview of how much is accomplishment essays typical for a product you may create one day and consulting service, what your target audience is essays used to paying. 4. Create a list of your competitors’ strengths and weaknesses. Finally, after reviewing their websites, strategies, and offerings, you’ll probably have a good idea about is the virtue bored essay, what exactly “exists” in your niche and accomplishment, how people are creating their businesses and blog communities. Now it’s time to dig a little deeper. Choose 3-5 of your competitors and dissertation general, make a list of some of their strengths and weaknesses. What do they excel at and what can they improve?
And how can you use that knowledge to craft your own, well-rounded strategy? Again, the competitor analysis is life essays a great way to get more tuned in to on the renaissance, the trends and strategies that are alive and life essays, kickin’ in your niche. After you’ve done your competitor analysis? Don’t visit your competitors’ sites again. Yup. Seriously serious. You will not reach your goals if you spend your time checking in on what everyone else is doing and trying to replicate it.
So, do your research, decide what works for you, and then create your own path. In Step 2, you identified who your target market is. Now, we’re going to dig in redox, a little further! 1. Research your audience by essays, doing a survey. Surveys are a killer way to understand more about your audience without having to guess. You can use free sites like SurveyMonkey or Typeform to thesis on production and operations, create your survey, and then you just need to share it with your peeps. I recommend sharing it with your email list, on essays your blog, and on social media multiple times during a 1-2 week span of consulting, time. What will you use to create your survey? What are three of the most important questions you can ask that will help you learn more about your audience? How will you deliver your survey to your audience and get people to take it? If your audience is small or currently non-existent, then rather than doing a survey, you can put on your observation glasses and pay attention on social media.
Again, things like Facebook groups and Twitter chats are amazing ways to gain more information about your target audience. Just make sure to life essays, join groups and redox, chats where your target market would be hangin’ out. 2. How can you help your audience specifically? Going back to life essays, the Brand Personality that we talked about in Step 2 and the Competitor Analysis that we did in Step 3, how can YOU help your audience? What sets your blog apart from others and redox and metathesis, allows you to help your peeps in a different way?
You don’t need to essays, reinvent the and metathesis reactions wheel here! You can use many of the same strategies that others do, but it’s just about adding your own flair and personality to the things you create. Before you launch a product through your blog, it’s essential to first grow your community and audience. If you want to grow a blog business, then you can buy all the accomplishment essays e-courses and books you’d like. Can You A College? But if they only give you strategies for creating and launching product, without strategies for essays, first building a strong audience and growing your traffic, then it’s just unlikely you’ll get the essay with a question same results. For a successful blog, you totally need both: a community and a product.
One of the best ways to build community is by harnessing the essays power of social media. Social media is a ridiculously helpful space for growing your tribe and increasing your traffic. Can You Start Essay With A Question? You can focus on life essays Pinterest for consulting service, traffic growth, and Twitter/Facebook/Instagram for finding your potential audience members and engaging with them. So, for your blog business plan, it’s important to create your social media strategy. On which platforms will you put the life most emphasis? Where does your target market hang out the most?
What strategies will you use on each platform in order to grow your audience and essays on the renaissance, community? How will you find your target audience on social media? In addition to partying on social media, you also want to life accomplishment, put a large focus on your email list. Thesis On Production And Operations? Not only life accomplishment essays, will your email list be essential for selling your products, but it will also be an incredible medium for connecting with your audience. Which strategies will you use to grow your email list? How often will you communicate with your list? Which types of things will you send your email list? What will you use for your email list’s lead magnet? If you’re going to build a true blog business and community, you have to “humanize your brand.” In other words, what steps will you take so that your audience feels connected to you and virtue of the bored essay, can relate to you? Remember, people don’t buy from faceless corporations; they buy from people. Woop woop!
It’s time to start planning your monetization strategies. Life? Exciting, right? Now’s your chance to decide how you will turn your blog into a biz. Will you launch services? Will you create an e-product? Here are some steps to get you started. What is a product or service that would help your target market or is something that you know they need (because you did a survey or observed them!)? Don’t be afraid to get a little detailed here.
Will it be an renaissance e-course? How many modules will it have? Which topics will it cover? How much do you plan to sell it for? When will you launch it? Will it be a set of services? What kind of service packages will you offer? 2. Life? How does your product or service benefit your peeps? Remember, your blog business plan is all about serving your audience . They are the people who can turn your blog into a community and redox reactions, a business, so we want to serve them! Think critically about the monetization method you chose in the previous step…how will that product or service impact the lives of your tribe members?
Why do they need or want it? 3. How is your product or service different from what your competitors are selling? Lastly, go back to your competitor research and accomplishment, take a look at what your competitors are selling and thesis capital, promoting. How is your offering different, or how can you make it different? Is there anything you could add to accomplishment, your offering that would make it feel even more valuable than whatever else is consulting service out there? Step 7: Marketing and Sales Strategy. Holy moly. Life Accomplishment Essays? You are such a trooper for making it this far. Who knew planning a business could be so much work? #128521; But really, you are putting in the effort right now and I am straight up impressed.
Finally, we’re going to thesis capital, talk about your marketing and sales strategy, because once you create your products or services, you actually need to promote them! Let’s get started. 1. How will you market your products, services, and accomplishment, blog? Take a moment to essay a question, write down the methods that you will use to market your products, services, and blog. Will you use Facebook ads, schedule tweets, create a robust Pinterest strategy? Write down all of the methods you’ll employ when promoting and marketing your content. 2. How long will you spend on marketing and promotion per day? We’re all busy, right? But turning your blog into accomplishment a business does take some time. Make sure you analyze how much time you’ll realistically be able to spend on marketing and promotion each day and can you, week.
You may need to make some sacrifices or move your schedule around, but it will be worth it when you sell your first e-product and realize you’ve got what it takes to accomplishment, create your own business. #128578; 3. If you haven’t started your blog, what strategies will you use to launch it? Now, if you’re a new blogger, you may need to start by on the renaissance, creating a “launch” strategy specifically for life accomplishment essays, your blog! How will your blog come into existence? What are some things you can do to launch your blog with a bang and punctuality is the virtue, get people excited about what you create and do? One simple technique is to launch your blog with 5-10 pre-published (and freakin’ awesome) posts. If you only life accomplishment, have one or two posts for your new visitors to browse during your launch, then they might not find anything that’s relevant to them.
Creating multiple pieces of thesis capital, content gives them the life essays chance to browse your site for a longer period of time, find something that interests them, and potentially subscribe and get hooked on your brand. 4. What is your growth strategy? In other words, what techniques will you use to continue growing your audience and income? Finally (finally!), you want to come up with some strategies that you can use to thesis capital, grow your brand. Imagine that your blog has been around for a few months or even years (maybe it has!) — what types of essays, marketing and promotion strategies will you use to keep your growth on consulting service general the up and life essays, up? Will you do monthly webinars? Biweekly guest posts on essays renaissance bigger sites? Hire an assistant? Launch a new course every quarter?
Think about life accomplishment, some things that you can add to a college with, your tool belt, which will keep your blog business growing and thriving. MAJOR high five to you, friend. I can tell that you’re here because you’re truly ready to take your blog to a new level by life, turning it into a community and launching your very own blog business. Doing the same for my own blog (this one you’re reading!), was one of the absolute best decisions of my life. What is something you struggle with in terms of and metathesis reactions, turning your blog into a community and launching your own products? Let’s chat down below! p.s. If you’re eager to turn your blog into a business, then I’ve got something BIG coming for you at the end of November.
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americaism+essays Disrupting the life accomplishment, Discourse of Conquest: The Suppression of Sepúlveda. First Impressions: Title Pages and First Contacts. (1) Theodor DeBry's late 16th century Columbus Landing in Indias depicts a propagandist vision of American Indians receiving their conquerors, one that is desperately in essays on the need of life essays a deconstructive reading. Foregrounded are shy but welcoming renditions of the noble savage, bearing sophisticated specimens of gifts attesting to an astounding degree of on the aboriginal metallurgy. Columbus swaggers forward to plant the accomplishment, staff of conquest, the snide expression on his face approaching lewdness as he appraises the scantily clad natives. But an even more telling narrative occurs on the margins, where one glimpses several diminutive native bodies in the throes of what looks like panic. Overwhelmed by punctuality is the bored essay, this invasion of loud and obtrusive machinery, they run in accomplishment essays circles, imploring the heavens for dissertation general deliverance. Accomplishment? Is this marginalized representation a nod to and operations the discourse of the Indian as a superstitious, unlettered barbarian, the accomplishment essays, pole that normally opposes the a college a question, noble savage myth among the warring factions of conquest justification?
Through the hindsight of the twenty-first century eye, the antics of these wild natives would appear to be a most appropriate reaction of truly forward-thinking, rational minds. Accomplishment? Truth be told, the real barbarians were at renaissance, the gates . . . . The Debate: Submissive Sheep or Fierce Barbarians (Not Much of a Choice) (2) The 1550 debate on Native American capacity and rights that took place at life essays, Valladolid, Spain, involved two principal participants: Bartolomé de las Casas and Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda. A well-known figure in thesis capital Spanish colonial discourse whose prolific body of work has been circulated and analyzed for the last five hundred years, Las Casas has been touted as The Apostle of the Indians, a lone voice crying out for Indian rights in a wilderness of Spanish brutality. Accomplishment? The second participant, Sepúlveda, is lesser known, perhaps justly so, when one considers his Aristotelian-derived argument on the natural slavery of the American Indian. Banned by the Spanish crown, seldom translated and underrepresented among historical and literary criticism of the discourse of the period, Sepúlveda's works have gathered dust in dissertation consulting service the crypt reserved for the outmoded, the heretical, and the threatening. (3) Ostensibly an argument over the justification of war in the conquest of the New World, the Valladolid debate hinges upon conflicting interpretations of New World inhabitants.
Las Casas, following in essays the tradition of the noble savage school founded by Columbus, whose journal Las Casas abstracted, draws a portrait of the Native American as non-threatening and ripe for thesis and operations Christian plucking: God created these simple people without evil and life, without guile. They are most obedient and faithful to their natural lords and to the Christians whom they serve. They are most submissive, patient, peaceful and virtuous. Nor are they quarrelsome, rancorous, querulous, or vengeful. Moreover they are more delicate than princes and die easily from work or illness. They neither possess nor desire to possess worldly wealth. Surely these people would be the most blessed in the world if only they worshipped the true God. (qtd. in Hanke, First Social Experiments 20) Sepúlveda, rather, follows the barbarian school of thought in assessing Native intelligence and capacity. Thesis On Production? Although concerned about reputed barbarity and crimes against life essays nature, Sepúlveda, too, diminishes the native threat by diminishing the native people but in a more blatantly offensive way: In prudence, talent, virtue, and humanity they are as inferior to and metathesis the Spaniards as children to adults, women to men, as the wild and cruel to the most meek, as the prodigiously intemperate to the continent and temperate, that I have almost said, as monkeys to men. (Sepúlveda, qtd. in Hanke, All Mankind 84) Sepúlveda's qualification here reflects the essays, prudence that causes him to leave this comment from Demócrates Segundo out punctuality of the, of the summary that will become his Apología ( Defense ), the text considered at Valladolid. Tellingly, the lack of parallelism that links natives, women, children, and animals with wildness and cruelty while positing adult men as meek and temperate conflates might, meekness, and virtue, providing an essential and essentializing piece of the faulty logic that underpins conquest justification.
While neither of the texts quoted above contributed specifically to the Valladolid debate, they are instructive in terms of establishing a conquest climate profoundly influenced by notions of Eurocentric superiority. In this sense, Sepúlveda's comments reflect dominant ideology more accurately and obviously and are therefore more threatening to the politics of justification. Forging Empire through Literature: Framing Texts of the Debate. (6) Beginning with the papal bull Romanus Pontifex , which established a benign European paternalism as the motivation for imperialist conquest, and Inter caetera , itself inspired by Columbus's noble savage school (Muldoon 40), the discourse of conquest has built its structure upon the rock of Christian superiority. Such was the basis for the founding of the Spanish colonial encomienda system, an embodi[ment of] the life essays, ironic thesis that in administering the pope's Petrine responsibility to save the can you start essay, Indians, the Spanish Crown had to enslave them (Williams 84). By placing Indians under the accomplishment, charge of Spanish masters in forced labor situations, the Spanish Crown hoped to quell both resistance and indifference to conversion tactics through a sort of mandatory quasi-assimilation. Native resistance and indifference, the sort of thesis and operations obstacles considered by Sepúlveda as a hindrance to life accomplishment essays conquest, become cogs on which to turn the wheel of justification discourse, as this excerpt from the Laws of Burgos attests: Should the natives attempt to oppose the settlement [of a colony], they shall be given to understand that the intention in forming it, is to teach them to know God and thesis on production, his holy law, by which they are to be saved; to preserve friendship with them, and teach them to live in a civilized state. . Life Essays? . . They shall be convinced of this by mild means, through the and metathesis, interference of religion and priests, . . . and essays, if, notwithstanding, they do withhold their consent, the settlers . . . shall proceed to make their settlement . On The? . . without doing them any greater damage than shall be necessary. (qtd. in Williams 87-88) Shortly after the enactment of the Burgos code, a charter of life conquest known as the dissertation, Requerimiento emerges as the most ironic example of the discursive clash between Old World theory and life, New World practice. Drafted in 1513 by Juan López de Palacios Rubios, this document embodies Eurocentrism writ large, in that it exhorts its uncomprehending auditors to surrender or die but does so through the guise of with Christian missionary zeal: [W]e ask and require that you [ . Life Essays? . Redox And Metathesis Reactions? . ] acknowledge the Church as the ruler and essays, superior of the whole world and the high priest called Pope and in his name the king and thesis capital, queen [ . . . ] our lords, in his place, as superiors and lords and kings of these islands and this mainland [ . . . ], and that you consent and permit that these religious fathers declare and preach to life accomplishment you. [. . . ] [I]f you do not do this or if you maliciously delay in doing it, I certify to you that with the help of can you start a college with a question God we shall forcefully enter into your country and essays, shall make war against you in and metathesis all ways and manners that we can, and shall submit you to the yoke and obedience of the Church and of their highnesses [ . . . ], and we shall take away your goods and shall do to you all the harm and damage that we can, [ . . . ] and we protest that the life accomplishment, deaths and losses that shall accrue from this are your fault . And Metathesis Reactions? . . . (Parry 288) The practice of reading this warning aloud exemplifies the travesty of attempting to justify conquest. As Lewis Hanke imagines in his evocative recreation of this practice, Captains muttered its theological phrases into their beard on the edge of sleeping Indian settlements, or even a league away before starting the formal attack, and at times some leather-lunged Spanish notary hurled its sonorous phrases after the Indians as they fled into the mountains. (qtd. in Williams 92) James Muldoon notes the perversion of Inter caetera in the Requerimiento's fusion of conversion and conquest: In effect, the Requerimiento enabled the Spanish to occupy the Americas by employing a legal ritual that allowed them to adhere to the letter of Innocent IV's opinion on infidel dominium while missing its spirit (27). Ironically, the suppressed discourse of Sepúlveda recognizes the futility of such practices, dismissing them as useless and inexpedient: to introduce this warning as necessary were nothing else than to basicly [sic] hinder the pious expedition, bringing salvation to the barbarians, and accomplishment, consequently to impede their conversion, which is the purpose of the war ( Defense 30-31).
In this way, a justifier who has never been to the New World forms a kinship with his colonizing brethren in terms of a practical dismissal of the niceties of justification. (7) As conquest discourse heats up in the years immediately preceding the Valladolid debate on Amerindian capacity, the thesis capital, yawning gulf between theory and practice gapes even wider. Francisco de Vitoria interprets the Law of Nations to mean that neither mortal sin in life essays general or [. . . ] the particular sin of unbelief justifies seizing dominium from the Native Americans (246). Additionally, Vitoria's arguments against renaissance princely and papal authority with regard to the subjection of infidels threaten to life accomplishment sever the thread of logic spun by that most strident champion of Spanish imperialism, Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda (Pagden 18). While the language of both the thesis and operations, papal bull Sublimus Deus and the New Laws of accomplishment 1542 paid lip service to a chimeric ideal of Indian dominium , such dominium was inherently rejected the moment the first colonizers set foot on what would become American soil. (8) The 16th century Spanish theologian and on production, royal historian Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda was educated at the University of Alcalá and established himself as a learned translator and commentator on Aristotle at the College of San Clemente in Bologna, later serving the papal court in Rome. Returning to Spain in 1536, Sepúlveda was appointed as an historian to the Spanish Crown. (9) The two most widely discussed pieces of Sepúlveda's written corpus in Spanish conquest scholarship are the life, books Demócrates Primus o De la conformidad de la milicia con la Religión Cristiana [ First Demócrates or On Militant Conformity with Christian Religion ] and Demócrates Segundo (also known as Demócrates Alter ) o De las Justas Causas de la Guerra contra los Indios [ Second Demócrates or On the Just Causes of War Against the Indians ]. Written as dialogues in which a character named Demócrates argues with a character named Leopoldo, the first of these attempts to justify Charles V's religious wars against reactions the Turks and the second aims to do the same with regard to the Spanish conquest of the New World.
The text representing Sepúlveda's side in the Valladolid debate, Defense of the life accomplishment essays, Book on the Just Causes of War, is Sepúlveda's summary of the ideas contained in Demócrates Segundo . (10) While Demócrates Segundo is available in Spanish, thanks to the scholarly efforts of 20th century translator and Sepúlveda specialist Angel Losada, the dearth of English translations of essays renaissance any of Sepúlveda's works attests to not only his marginalization as an unpopular thinker in accomplishment contemporary terms but also to punctuality active suppression of his works in the 16th and life essays, 17th centuries. In preliminary documents framing his Defense , Sepúlveda laments the condemnation of his book Demócrates Segundo by the Universities of Salamanca and Alcalá, pronouncing such disapproval not really a judgment from the University, but an artificial tampering by thesis capital, a few corrupters [ No se trató realmente de un juicio de la Universidad, sino de un artificio amañado por unos cuantos corruptores ] (Sepúlveda, Apología 58). Noting that there were discussions about life suppressing Sepúlveda's book prior to the Valladolid debate (179), Bernice Hamilton surmises that the University ban on on production Sepúlveda probably resulted from the widespread influence of accomplishment essays Vitoria, two of whose students held the chairs of St. Service General? Thomas at Alcalá in 1548 (175). (11) According to Hamilton, The only well-known work in our field which seems to have been totally suppressed in essays the period [the 16th century] was Sepúlveda's Democrates Alter [ Secundus ], which argued that the Indians of the New World were natural slaves, and was suppressed on grounds of a moral disapprobation which we might well share today (10). But rather than credit the moral sensibilities of 16th century Spanish thinkers, it makes more sense to surmise that they viewed this work as too potentially inflammatory, perhaps for its truthfulness in terms of conquest practice. (12) The suppression of essays Sepúlveda continues into the 17th century.
In his discussion of the 17th century Spanish justifier Juan de Solórzano y Pereira, James Muldoon adds the following: (13) Solórzano said that he himself did not possess a copy of Sepúlveda's book, because Philip II had banned its circulation. Accomplishment? The stated reason for thesis on production and operations this censorship, curious in that the author provided a strong defense of the conquest, was that the life essays, book had not been printed at the royal press. The real reason, according to Solórzano, was that Sepúlveda's work contained material that was not suitable for the general public to hear. Redox And Metathesis Reactions? (27) (14) What was deemed unsuitable for general consumption is the revelation of the contradiction at the heart of justification literature: the twisting of authoritative precedent through a Eurocentric, imperialist mentality, compounded in Sepúlveda's works by an appeal to life an expedient pragmatism that threatens to expose the hypocrisy of the thesis capital, theoretical discourse and thus blow down the life accomplishment essays, entire house of cards. (15) In his journey from Spanish encomendero to Apostle of the Indians, Bartolomé de las Casas experienced a conversion inspired by the bearing of horrific witness to Spanish atrocities upon Native Americans. Unlike Sepúlveda, Las Casas lived and worked among Indians in redox and metathesis reactions the New World, first as their subjugator and later as their would-be liberator. Deified in some scholarly circles and vilified in others for his promulgation of the Black Legend of the life accomplishment essays, barbarous Spanish conquistador, Las Casas's prolific body of work has been widely translated and discussed, due largely to its humanistic appeal, which is, indeed, more than considerable given its era and circumstances. However, seldom critiqued is the Eurocentric, Christian-centered superiority that manifests itself in Las Casas's main praise of Native Americans as docile and submissive, ripe for conversion. (16) Among the Las Casas works on Native Americans available in English translation are his History of the consulting, Indies and his Brief Account of the accomplishment essays, Devastation of the thesis capital, Indies , also known as The Spanish Cruelties. His response to Sepúlveda, entitled In Defense of the Indians , was translated to English by Stafford Poole in accomplishment essays 1974. Punctuality Is The Of The Essay? (17) As stated above, the essays, Sepúlveda text of the thesis capital, Valladolid debate is Sepúlveda's own summary of ideas contained in his book Demócrates Segundo . Sepúlveda's summary is entitled Defense of the Book on the Just Causes of War [ Apología del Libro de las Justas Causas de la Guerra ]. Las Casas's response to Sepúlveda's relatively short summary is a book-length treatise entitled In Defense of the life accomplishment essays, Indians . To confuse matters slightly, both texts are referred to thesis capital in Spanish as Apología , which translates as Defense . Not a debate in the traditional sense of the life essays, word, the proceedings at Valladolid consisted not of the two men arguing face-to-face but in the council's analyses of Sepúlveda's Apología [ Defense ] vs. Las Casas's Apología [ Defense ]. The Justifying Text: No Apology. (18) The structure of Sepúlveda's Defense is somewhat problematic in and operations terms of the linear flow of its organization. Sepúlveda begins with the seven arguments of his opponents, follows that with his own general argument, made in four main points, then returns to the seven opposing arguments to address them sequentially. The result is that the point-by-point response seems somewhat tacked on, less a developed argument than an exercise in semantics. Accomplishment Essays? But the overall tone that emerges from Sepúlveda's discourse is one of pragmatic expediency, a motivation that allows him to dismiss appeals to morality and ethics in much the same ways that the actual practice of conquest does.
Seven Objections of the Unjustifiers. (19) The seven objections to which Sepúlveda responds may be paraphrased as follows: 1) Wars are only justified if they avenge injuries, and in this case the essays renaissance, barbarians had afflicted the Christians with no injury (6). 2) War as a means of spreading Christianity is unjust. 3) This war is contrary to life accomplishment essays the example of Christ (7). 4) Conversion is better accomplished through proselytizing than by war. 5) No prior warning was issued. 6) One cannot do evil to achieve good. A College Essay A Question? 7) The Church and the Pope have no jurisdiction over infidels. (20) Sepúlveda's first argument appeals to the doctrines of St. Thomas Aquinas and to essays Aristotle's theory of thesis natural slavery to suggest that Native Americans are barbarians and therefore must submit to Spanish governance: “For those are frankly called barbarians,” as Thomas maintains, “who are lacking in rational power either on accomplishment account of an environment from dissertation consulting which dullness for the most part is found or due to some evil habit by accomplishment, which men become like brutes,” and furthermore races of this sort by right of nature ought to obey those who are more civilized, prudent, and outstanding so that they may be governed by better customs and usages. Redox Reactions? (9) Referring to the precedence of Roman rule, Sepúlveda suggests an inevitability to the process of conquest as a sort of ongoing natural law. (21) Sepúlveda's second point justifying war is the charge that these barbarians commit crimes against the law of nature, namely, idolatry and essays, human sacrifice.
Attempting to find some traction on the slippery slope of the argument that all mortal sins are contrary to the law of nature (15), since obviously members of the conquering race could not claim sinlessness, Sepúlveda here makes an interesting move: that nation is to be understood as not keeping the can you essay a question, law of life nature in which any mortal sin is not considered a shameful act, but rather publicly approved, such as the murder of innocent people who were sacrificed in start a college essay with many localities and prevalent idolatry, which is the accomplishment essays, most serious of virtue bored essay sins, is approved among these barbarians. (15) Thus Sepúlveda acknowledges a degree of autonomy of native customs and cultures which he uses against itself by suggesting that a society that sanctions a certain behavior can be held liable for infractions against accomplishment natural law, while a society that outlaws such practices complies with natural law, regardless of the infractions of that society's individuals (i.e., the Spaniards). Similarly, with regard to can you start a college essay with a question conquest discourse as a whole, the implication seems to be that a society can cover itself by adopting an official practice that qualifies conquest while allowing individuals to accomplishment operate in an unchecked fashion. Additionally, this second argument contradicts the first by acknowledging that these barbarians are subjected to their own institutional forms of culture. (22) In making his third point, that Spanish intervention will save thousands of potential victims of human sacrifice, Sepúlveda stresses a monstrosity so abhorrent that it leads upright men to doubt whether the natives can be converted (17). On Production? Yet throughout he maintains conversion as the single goal of conquest, a perfect illustration of the way in which conquest discourse pays lip service to high ideals, while conquest practice is driven by less lofty motivations and assumptions. (23) Sepúlveda develops his fourth point at great length, the controversial argument that the driving need to save Native souls even against their will justifies the use of force. It is here that Sepúlveda makes an appeal to life accomplishment expediency that aligns his argument more closely with conquest practice as opposed to conquest theory. Repeated references to the removal of thesis capital obstacles to the propagation of the faith take on ominous significance when one considers how often the obstacles removed were the accomplishment, individuals themselves. In this section Sepúlveda counters charges of is the his methods as being antithetical to essays Christ's example by appealing to a might-makes-right philosophy and the increased power of the Church and Christian princes. According to dissertation consulting service Sepúlveda, as practice has taught and life, continues to teach, force is the most expedient means to subdue people. (24) Although he does not refer to the Requerimiento specifically, Sepúlveda dismisses the requirement of providing prior warning as a useless hindrance to conquest. Correctly recognizing the travesty inherent in shouting legalities in Spanish at uncomprehending natives, and even acknowledging that no one is likely to redox and metathesis submit under such circumstances, Sepúlveda proposes eliminating the life, practice of prior warning, anticipating and reflecting actual conquest practice. Sepúlveda's Response to the Seven Objections. (25) In responding specifically to the seven arguments of his opponents, Sepúlveda recycles several of essays on the renaissance his previous assertions and adds some creatively flawed new ones.
To the first charge that no injury has been committed, Sepúlveda responds that God has been injured by native idolatrous practices, and that the Spanish have been injured by native resistance. In countering the second, third, fourth, and life accomplishment essays, fifth objections he simply reiterates his previous points about the removal of can you a college obstacles, might makes right, and expediency. His reasoning is most strikingly circular in life accomplishment his response to the sixth objection, that it is impossible to consulting service wage war without committing sin. Dismissing this as simply an anti-war statement that is therefore implicitly preposterous, Sepúlveda goes on to argue that since the benefits of life accomplishment conquest to the Natives outweigh its evils, it is those who argue against colonization who mistreat the on the renaissance, Indians: those who attempt to obstruct this expedition so the barbarians would not come to the Christians' terms do not humanely favor the barbarians as they themselves wish to seem but cruelly begrudge them most of the greatest goods (40). Sepúlveda sidesteps altogether the seventh objection questioning papal and life essays, princely authority over punctuality virtue of the essay, infidels, citing the lives and deaths of the Apostles to maintain that it is life essays, properly of the apostolic duty to give assistance to convert them to belief in Christ, preach the can you start a college with a question, gospel to them, and to try according to one's ability everything that is life, conducive to most suitably rendering this service (41). Ambiguous language like according to one's ability and most suitably provide practitioners of conquest with tons of leeway. Las Casas's Response: A Brief Account. (26) Las Casas's response to redox Sepúlveda is lengthy and intricate, but a brief discussion of a few of his points will suffice here to establish the tenor of the opposing argument. In countering Sepúlveda's first charge of Indian barbarism, Las Casas identifies four distinct types of barbarians, the first of which he defines by barbaric behavior: First, barbarian in the loose and broad sense of the word means any cruel, inhuman, wild, and merciless man acting against human reason out of anger or native disposition, so that, putting aside decency, meekness, and humane moderation, he becomes hard, severe, quarrelsome, unbearable, cruel, and plunges blindly into life crimes that only the essays renaissance, wildest beasts of the forest would commit ( In Defense 28-29). In an accomplishment essays, astute move, Las Casas turns the tables of discourse on the barbarian: Indeed, our Spaniards are not unacquainted with a number of these practices.
On the contrary, in punctuality virtue bored essay the absolutely inhuman things they have done to those nations they have surpassed all other barbarians (29). Life Accomplishment Essays? (27) In countering Sepúlveda's second charge regarding Indian crimes against natural law, Las Casas goes so far as to suggest that even cannibalism is redox and metathesis reactions, not intrinsically evil in cases of necessity and extreme hunger. Elsewhere, in his Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies , Las Casas tells the lurid tale of a human abattoir sanctioned by Spanish conquerors in which natives are forced to perform cannibalism. While as unverifiable as other charges of Native cannibalism, this account may serve as a metaphor for the way in which the life accomplishment, Native is figuratively made a cannibal by propagandist accounts of barbarianism. (28) Las Casas troubles the logic of Sepúlveda's third argument on conquest as the salvation of the consulting service general, innocent by considering its practical execution, noting that in an actual war it is impossible to separate the oppressed from the oppressors. Finally, the overarching premise of Las Casas's position is his opposition to Sepúlveda's most controversial position: that conversion can and should be effected by force. Arguing throughout his many treatises for a kinder, gentler conversion, Las Casas never once questions the Christianizing mission itself, thus paradoxically maintaining the very Eurocentrism that promotes forcible conquest. (29) I have posited Sepúlveda as the loser in the Valladolid debate due to the subsequent suppression of his work cited above. However, neither side can be said to have conceded. As Lewis Hanke relates, The judges at Valladolid, probably exhausted and confused by the sights and sounds of this mighty conflict, fell into argument with one another and reached no collective decision.
Las Casas later stated that the decision had been favorable to his viewpoint, although unfortunately for the Indians the measures decreed by the Council were not well executed, and Sepúlveda wrote to accomplishment a friend that the thesis capital, judges thought it right and lawful that the barbarians of the New World should be brought under the dominion of the essays, Christians, only one theologian dissenting ( All Mankind Is One 113). Thesis Capital? Although he does not concede, Las Casas here perhaps recognizes that Sepúlveda's views will win the life, day in the New World. Bolstering his argument by attacking Sepúlveda's attempts to legitimize his views through publication, Las Casas mentions that Sepúlveda offers as a confirmation of his contagious opinion, that is, a work on Indian affairs which its author, a certain Oviedo, calls A General History ( In Defense 343). Las Casas here properly recognizes the contagious nature of Sepúlveda's theory as epitomizing the tenets of actual conquest practice. Conclusion: Sepúlveda's Theory as Conquest Practice. (30) The reluctance on the part of the punctuality is the of the, Spanish Crown and universities to life accomplishment essays legitimate Sepúlveda's work by on the, approval or publication suggests the theorists' need to dissociate themselves from the dirty practice of accomplishment conquest, about which Sepúlveda's work is not only surprisingly accurate but strikingly non-apologetic. A brief quotation from the Oviedo work mentioned above will suffice to establish a link between Sepúlveda's derogatory opinion of Amerindians and that of a conquistador in dissertation service general the field. Eerily echoing Sepúlveda's offensive comparison of Natives, women, children, and life accomplishment essays, monkeys, Oviedo's prejudice bleeds through his words: [The Indians are] naturally lazy and vicious, melancholic, cowardly, and in with a question general a lying, shiftless people. Their marriages are not a sacrament but a sacrilege. They are idolatrous, libidinous and commit sodomy.
Their chief desire is to eat, drink, worship heathen idols, and commit bestial obscenities. What could one expect from a people whose skulls are so thick and hard that the Spaniards had to accomplishment take care in fighting not to strike on the head lest their swords be blunted? (qtd. in essays on the renaissance Hanke, The Spanish Struggle 11) Here Indian hard-headedness is literalized as an obstacle to conquest, echoing the rhetoric that appropriates resistance as justification. (31) A final account from the life accomplishment essays, field of conquest provided by Lewis Hanke illustrates another facet of the rhetorical bind that ensnares the Native American. Hanke writes, It was difficult to inculcate habits of honesty and sobriety, stated Juan de Ampies, because when Spaniards beat them [Indians] or cut off their ears as punishment, the guilty ones were not held in less repute by their fellows ( First Social Experiments 30). In its refusal to comprehend a culture unwilling to adopt Christian notions of shame and communal ostracism, the Eurocentric discourse perverts the solidarity of the Native Americans into redox and metathesis reactions a lack of accomplishment essays reason and virtue. Thus the real loser of the Valladolid debate on the justification of New World conquest was the Native American, forced to be identified as either noble (submissive) savage or fierce (resistant) barbarian, either a tabula rasa awaiting conversion or an obstacle to the propagation of the faith. Either choice meant annihilation, the one of culture, the other of existence. Hamilton, Bernice. Political Thought in Sixteenth-Century Spain: A Study of the Political Ideas of Vitoria, DeSoto, Suárez, and Molina . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963. Hanke, Lewis.
All Mankind Is One: A Study of the Disputation Between Bartolomé de Las Casas and punctuality, Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda in 1550 on life the Intellectual and Religious Capacity of the American Indians . DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP, 1974. Thesis On Production? ---. Aristotle and the American Indians: A Study in Race Prejudice in essays the Modern World . Thesis Capital? Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1959. ---. The First Social Experiments in America: A Study in the Development of Spanish Indian Policy in the Sixteenth Century . Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1935. ---. The Spanish Struggle for Justice in the Conquest of America . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1949. Las Casas, Bartolomé de.
In Defense of the Indians . Ed. Life Essays? Trans. Stafford Poole. DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP, 1974. ---. A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies . Ed. and trans. Nigel Griffin. New York: Penguin Books, 1992. Losada, Angel. Thesis On Production And Operations? Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda a través de su Epistolario y Nuevos Documentos . Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1949. Muldoon, James.
The Americas in the Spanish World Order: The Justification for Conquest in life essays the Seventeenth Century . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1994. Nader, Helen. Rights of Discovery: Christopher Columbus's Final Appeal to King Fernando: Facsimile, Transcription, Translation Critical Edition of the John Carter Brown Library's Spanish Codex I . Providence: John Carter Brown Library, 1992. Consulting Service General? Pagden, Anthony. Spanish Imperialism and the Political Imagination: Studies in European and Spanish-American Social and Political Theory 1513-1830 . New Haven: Yale UP, 1990. Parry, John H., and Robert G. Keith, eds. New Iberian World: A Documentary History of the accomplishment, Discovery and Settlement of Latin America to the Early 17th Century . New York: Times Books, 1984. Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de. Apology for the Book On the Just Causes of War . Trans. and Ed. Lewis D. Epstein. Can You Start A College With A Question? Bowdoin College, 1973. ---.
Demócrates Segundo o De Las Justas Causas de La Guerra Contra los Indios . Trans. Angel Losada. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto Francisco de Vitoria, 1951. Essays? Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de, and redox reactions, Bartolomé de Las Casas. Apología . [ Defense .] Trans. Angel Losada. Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1975. Vitoria, Francisco de.
Political Writings . Ed. Anthony Pagden and Jeremy Lawrance. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991. Williams, Robert A., Jr. The American Indian in Western Legal Thought: The Discourses of Conquest . Accomplishment Essays? New York: Oxford UP, 1990.
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History Department – Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to provide you with information about the skills of essay writing, including how and accomplishment essays when to use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and how to thesis capital, reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for life essays, instance) and with more general advice about planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to remember in working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the ability to communicate your ideas in thesis capital writing clearly and effectively. Life Accomplishment Essays? This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to summarise and on the paraphrase the work of accomplishment essays, other writers, the essay development of arguments and conclusions, and the effective use of evidence to support a case. Essay writing in History is particularly aimed at helping you progressively develop your skills in accomplishment research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of evidence, and writing strong, critical and clear arguments. In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of thesis capital, writing. Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the accomplishment content covered in particular subjects. Essays provide you with an opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in more depth. In general, the functions of an essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon the question or problem you choose to tackle; to develop and defend that argument or contention by discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by critically assessing the interpretations of other historians; and to thesis capital, propose conclusions.
The best essays have a clear line of argument, and accomplishment essays they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at thesis capital strong, clear conclusions. Life Accomplishment Essays? They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument. There are no simple instructions for good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The tutors assessment of reactions, your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of life accomplishment essays, essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and redox and metathesis reactions acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in life their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by showing where they fit into redox reactions, the current state of historical knowledge; and life accomplishment essays greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the philosophy and practice of thesis and operations, history. The desired outcomes of essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and life essays reflection into essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by other historians. The desired outcomes of essays in first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the thesis capital variety of life essays, representations of the past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors.
For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is a lot more complicated and a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and thesis capital form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. Accomplishment Essays? Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they don’t agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Writing is easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of something, a person who wants to know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and thesis on production convincing. 3. Choosing and comprehending the life question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and much more enjoyable to develop and defend a strong argument on something which interests and intrigues you than on something you find boring or simple. Writing is essays on the renaissance not the outcome or the finished product of learning: it is a vital part of learning. It is a way of sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out your ideas, and life accomplishment essays discovering new ways of thinking about an issue.
Think about the question or topic in these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the ‘angle’, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to redox and metathesis, the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the topic suggests? what ideas and issues can I explore by answering this question? is there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the question asking me to use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to look at the question and life ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is redox and metathesis reactions asking me to do? Have I interpreted the question correctly? If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the approach you are taking does address the question, talk to your tutor. Essay topics are designed to draw on life essays, the subject content developed in lectures and thesis capital tutorials, and on reading you have completed. Reading the works of life essays, other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on the importance or the meaning of events of redox reactions, evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to challenge and amend prior interpretations. They will take different approaches to the same question, and accomplishment essays suggest different ways of can you with, examining an issue, be it gender relations in essays medieval Europe or the essays on the renaissance reasons for the collapse of the life accomplishment Soviet Union or the impact of colonial rule in India. What you will see, however, is a college essay with a question that all of these writers state a position. They address a problem. They answer a real or implied question.
You should trace their strategies for life accomplishment, developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and can you with a question read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in relation to other writers, and your own response to a problem. Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to be new to life essays, be original, challenging, and convincing. Redox? You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the evidence and from your critical review of other historians work. You’ve read the books and articles recommended in the handbook or by your tutor. Life? You’ve come up with some ideas about how you might approach the question, and you’ve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the topic. You’ve collected some evidence from thesis capital a range of different sources and you’ve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. You’ve looked again at the major themes of the subject and thought about how you might address them in this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion.
Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of life, Mars? Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in dissertation consulting service general a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the 1960s, the majority of Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form. No, it is essays difficult to draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and viewed the environment very differently over time, and on the renaissance no clear trend is life essays visible even now. When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and research for the topic.
This sentence or two states your case. Punctuality Is The Of The Essay? Broadly, your essay is the exposition and accomplishment essays defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at dissertation consulting general those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is life accomplishment essays going to be, and dissertation consulting service then plan your essay to develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Life Accomplishment? Few writers are completely sure of redox and metathesis reactions, their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the task of accomplishment, writing down and defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and expand an emerging point. However, the basic thrust and can you start a college essay with content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting.
Perhaps the single best way of ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . The plan should lay out your argument, for instance in point form, and you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and supporting arguments. introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in life accomplishment essays a romanticised and idealised form explain the thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to show that respect for environment is always based on historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the and metathesis reactions natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of life accomplishment essays, idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and Jones) list and give examples of different idealisations of essays, natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and life essays Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into redox and metathesis reactions, conflict (use example of forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the essays garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is dissertation consulting respected in the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and accomplishment essays argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of on the renaissance, natural environments. In the short essays common in first year, your plan is likely to be less complex, and may only have four or five main points. As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a.
Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points. Accomplishment Essays? If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an argument is then developed towards its conclusion. Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and defended in turn, by showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by critically reviewing the work of other historians, and by renaissance, using example, case study and explanation. A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in accomplishment essays blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is introduced and described, and then its place in the whole structure is shown.
Block 1: stage of the argument. On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on thesis on production, Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to be protected from the threats posed by life, civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the argument.
The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of on the renaissance, mineral exploration and exploitation. Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised. Even mining sites appeared in nature paintings, and the work of Joseph Smith is accomplishment a good example of how even the most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and introducing the next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in 1883, to feel relaxed and essay a question comfortable about the past and life essays future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by humans never completely replaced the reactions older tradition of mourning the degradation of another form of ideal environment, the Martian garden. This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s.
The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by point. Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the argument. 6b. Life Accomplishment? Using different kinds of evidence. In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the kinds of sources you will refer to, and thesis capital the best ways to life, use them. Sources can generally be defined into thesis and operations, two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the collected speeches of accomplishment, Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of them by a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. An article in the Age of 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an article in the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the redox and metathesis reactions impact of the epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the subject of your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and interpreted the problem or issue at hand.
The distinction is not hard and life fast, and there will always be exceptions. For instance, if you are writing an essay about historians’ representations of redox and metathesis reactions, race in Britain, the secondary sources of the historians are in fact your primary documentary source. In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in this way. Life Accomplishment Essays? In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of on the renaissance, view, for accomplishment essays, the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Don’t take anything on trust: be a critical reader of start with, all kinds of sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in your essay. You also need to make decisions about life how to use evidence: in the form of quotation, or in the form of summarising. It is essays best to use quotation strategically and sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the life essays point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the start essay evidence you are using. If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the life stage of the argument you are advancing. Refer to the language, analyse the assumptions or strategies it reveals.
In other words, use quotation when the actual words are the single best way of providing the evidence and developing your case. If the quotation is less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in redox and metathesis this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is not very long. “You must always use quotation marks to life essays, indicate the redox and metathesis separation between your words and the words of accomplishment, someone else.” If it is longer than this, you should separate it from the text, and indent it: This is an example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the body of the essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is no need to indicate that by the use of such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources. It is better to a college with, say what you mean in your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to show precisely how that writer made their point in order to criticise, defend or develop it. In all other cases, it is best to summarise. Write reflective summaries of accomplishment, what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. You might find that the thesis capital example paragraphs on the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and direct quotation from different kinds of sources to develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points.
It is also possible to raise issues and problems in accomplishment essays your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the scope of your essay. You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the reactions broader implications of your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of history itself. Use your conclusion to argue for the significance of your argument and your interpretation. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on life accomplishment essays, the nature of the universe or the human condition is unlikely to be either effective or convincing. Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of complex questions. 7. Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and concrete language. Don’t use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the on production words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to use very complex language and syntax. Life Accomplishment? A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of expression. Thesis? As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and accomplishment essays lengths to add variety.
Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of thesis and operations, your draft is very important. It is life accomplishment essays also important to use accurate language, which is one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. For instance, the statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at that time. It is a reasonable and accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language. Essays On The? There are at least five effective ways of improving your writing. Always read your own work. what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader?
Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on accomplishment, your previous essays, and is the virtue of the bored essay work out whether this one repeats the strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of life, your previous work. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and ask them for thesis and operations, more guidance. Reading other writers. As you read, evaluate the styles of different writers. What makes them more or less effective? What is most important to you as a reader, and life essays what makes good writers better to read?
Practice. Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by can you a college with, yourself and by others. Read your own work out life, loud . You do not need to comprehend the redox reactions rules of grammar or the intricacies of syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and oomph to your language. If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is accomplishment essays particularly good to give your essay to redox reactions, someone who is not an expert in the area you are writing about. If it doesn’t make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to life accomplishment, read it, you might need to edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of other people who can give you feedback. Punctuality Is The Of The Bored Essay? Swap essays with fellow students.
Get the people you live with to read them. Distribute them on buses. 8. Referencing Instructions for Essays. Decisions about when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in essays theory, be able to punctuality is the virtue essay, retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging.
Therefore, you need to provide citations in the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from a number of sources; to point your readers to the source of life accomplishment essays, information; to translate words or phrase in on production and operations a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand. In general, you need to accomplishment, provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to know. Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and experience. If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the phrase or word already. There is no need to reactions, translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance. The use of citation to refer readers to accomplishment, the work of other writers is thesis occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to life, books, articles and other material you have used directly. Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to is the of the bored, use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. An example of how to accomplishment, do this is provided in the next section. You can also use citations to clarify specific points, or add a small amount of is the virtue of the essay, additional information or supporting evidence.
You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. If it is not important enough to put into life accomplishment essays, the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and redox placement of footnote and endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text.
Put these numbers at accomplishment essays the end of sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the essays line) or placing them in accomplishment brackets. If you use material from two different sources in thesis and operations the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the life essays two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to service, separate them. Usually, you will refer to information or material at particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the essays page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is located. This text produces the can you start essay following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the ‘beauty’ of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures.
If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’. 1 In her book Environmental Perception on Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to accomplishment, be kept separate from civilisation. 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of thesis capital, Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. Life Accomplishment Essays? 68. 2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is on the renaissance Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23.
8c. Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations. The absolute rule is to be consistent. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to essays, convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the Bible, the Koran and so on.
If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to on the, cite correctly. Please note: Some areas of accomplishment essays, history, especially those published by European and essay English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the life accomplishment conventions set out in on production the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to accomplishment essays, the above in consulting that it adds the publisher to the publication details, and is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. It is now common practice to use full stops only where the abbreviation of the word does not contain the last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Doctor is Dr, but Professor is Prof.. Life? Also, where an thesis capital, abbreviated title is life essays used very commonly, you do not need to put in full stops: for instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by start a question, another author. If you need to refer to a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide:
R. G. Accomplishment? Menzies, speech in the House of is the, Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Letter from Lewis Mumford to Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. Life Accomplishment? 148-9. The general rule is that if the original source is on the renaissance available, you should go to life accomplishment, and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer. Author of document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and date of publication, page or pages.
John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. And Metathesis Reactions? Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2. (Note: ‘trans.’ is the abbreviation for life accomplishment, ‘translated by’.) If your area of history follows the redox and metathesis reactions MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and life essays M.M. McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp.
251- 2. If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an article), use single inverted commas around the name of the document. If it was not published and has no title (a letter, for instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of capitalism’, in K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. 23-8.
Yves of Narbonne, letter to thesis capital, Gerald of Mallemort, c. 1241, in Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Essays? Evans (eds), Heresies of the High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp. 185-7. If you are going to be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and so on), you need only provide the name of the newspaper and on production and operations the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to a specific article, usually by life, an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the same format as for articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and essays on the date of life accomplishment, publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the on production information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on one of the life accomplishment essays first pages of the book (and usually on thesis capital, the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and life accomplishment essays the place of publication, and punctuality is the virtue of the bored give other information, most of which you don’t need to provide (though see the life essays note below). It is can you start essay with a question important to check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to follow your research trail.
If the book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the accomplishment title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and the challenge of modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp.
53-76. Again, for dissertation consulting, those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the publisher is included in the publication details. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is accomplishment always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent. Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, pages to which you are referring. Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. Consulting Service? 156. E. Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and patriot’, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and life essays Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8.
Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the and operations name of the life essays publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and thesis capital Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p. 153). (Here ‘pp. Essays? 141-55’ indicate the page span of Salisbury’s contribution to the volume, and the bracketed ‘(p.
153)’ indicates the specific page reference.) Articles in reactions journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of Law and Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275. Emily K. Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History , vol.
10, 1998, pp. 32-52, pp. 34-5. You will find information about volume number on the title page of life accomplishment essays, each journal. If there is both a volume and and metathesis reactions an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of Abbesses and life accomplishment Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and redox and metathesis Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of release.
Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996. Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of a series, the specific title of the program and the name of the series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003.
‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the document (if known), name of the document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on which you accessed the page. ‘Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France’, at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17france-soc.html, accessed 31 March 2003. ‘Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail291.html, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of life accomplishment essays, Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of essay, New York, in accomplishment essays 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and redox WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and careful in your use of WWW resources as in your use of life, any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the material on the web is not ‘screened’ in redox any way: it is not edited, reviewed by others, or subject to any control. This is its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the task of critically assessing and using sources even more important.
For the citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the full web site information. You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the page: because web pages are updated, the information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the life page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the information should it subsequently disappear from the punctuality of the bored essay web. Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles. Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and short titles to refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation.
1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the accomplishment essays Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp. 98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the thesis capital History of life accomplishment essays, Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. 4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9. 5 Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, p. 158.
In endnote 6, the information is contained on thesis capital, the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to repeat the page number. Again, keep in mind the principle of giving the reader the amount of information they would need to find the material for themselves. There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system. Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the life accomplishment norms of history referencing when writing history essays. Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of styles is service used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA. Students in the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to use all of essays, them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and reference them in footnotes. In the on the end, it is life a matter of communicating your understanding of your evidence in the style appropriate for essays renaissance, your discipline and task. Accomplishment Essays? Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure.
9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources. If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is helpful to put them into redox and metathesis, different sections: for life accomplishment essays, instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the same conventions described above with the exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to a college a question, allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section. Accomplishment Essays? However, you do not need to include the can you start a college essay a question page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography. Films, television and radio shows and documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at the front of the list and order them alphabetically by title.
Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to provide the life accomplishment dates. Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977. Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at can you start a college a question http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir.
Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and life Women Clients’, Journal of on production, Women’s History, vol. 10, 1998, pp. Life Accomplishment Essays? 32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and essays the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America, New York, 2001. All sources which you have used in order to assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is required in the unit. Essays? Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in developing your argument. A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample. Start A College Essay A Question? For instance:
Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996. Bourke’s argument about the accomplishment essays changing meaning of ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on is the essay, the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Life Accomplishment Essays? Her interpretation of what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the and metathesis most important skills in effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in accomplishment essays ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and organisation created by renaissance, good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the mind is an ineffective piece of accomplishment essays, communication. Some general guidelines: observe the word length, or at can you essay a question least a margin of error of about 10 per cent: one of the skills of writing is to write to a target, and to tailor your argument to suit the demands of that target. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is meant to life accomplishment, be a short essay, not a major thesis. Adapt your case, and the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the word length; include a word count with your essay. And Operations? type, print or handwrite the essay on one side of the paper only, using standard A4 paper, and number each page. Accomplishment Essays? For essays of dissertation consulting general, 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for accomplishment, your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is can you start a college with required, because it leaves more room for comments and corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on life, the right, again for comments and ease of reading.
Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of Historical Studies’ General Office, W604). Consulting Service? You must tick all the boxes on the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and collusion statement on the front of the life accomplishment essays sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by essay with a question, weight, so go easy on the staples).
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Essay Writing 101: Developing Ideas and the Basic Elements of an Essay (Part 1) Isn’t it tricky that you may feel disoriented or clueless when what you are just facing is a neat, blank paper? Filling it up with words is not as easy as jumping in a pool and everything that follows is fun and predictable. Writing has become a part of our daily lives, in our relationships, career, community works, and artistic expression. In fact, history is life accomplishment essays paralyzed without writing.
We would never understand ourselves and our surroundings without the recordings of and metathesis, our past. On the other hand, writing in the fields of science and business means experimenting with the future and laying out a roadmap of events and possibilities. Humans are innately inclined to discovering new things and seeking progress. For those who are in life advertising, journalism, or teaching, writing means livelihood. For novelists and poets, writing is who they are.
For the rest, writing is a requirement. Start A College With A Question! Everyone can write. Everyone has to write at one point in accomplishment essays their lives. Do not be overwhelmed. Jean Jacques Rousseau, an 18 th -century philosopher and writer, once said, “However great a person’s natural talent may be, the art of on the renaissance, writing cannot be learned all at once.” This Guide will serve as your introduction to a series of articles on writing, starting with its most basic form: essay writing. What is an Essay?
Definition Difference of Essay from Different Types of accomplishment, Paper. Steps of Writing an essays on the Essay. Determine Your Purpose Know Your Audience Brainstorming Techniques. Basic Structure of an Essay The Role of Research in Writing Writer’s Block and Where to Get Inspiration Stephen King, in his book On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft, wrote “The scariest moment is always just before you start. After that, things can only get better.” So now, let us begin making things better. What is An Essay? An essay is life accomplishment essays a piece of writing that focuses on one subject and redox and metathesis reactions, a particular purpose. In learning institutions, it is assigned to students to develop and test their writing skills, comprehension, and creativity. An essay is different from a Research Paper , which requires heavy research, strict methodology, and more formal structure, tone, and style. An Essay welcomes a more creative approach, is life essays sometimes composed of personal insights by the author, and requires only outlining and simple paragraph structure.
It is different from a Report , which according to Southampton Solent University , acts as the presentation and analysis of with a question, findings from accomplishment, practical research . It begins with an punctuality is the virtue of the bored essay aim (to investigate, to explore) and probably a hypothesis (a proposition that the life accomplishment research will test). On The Renaissance! Depending on the guidelines or purpose, a report may make recommendations .” Meanwhile, an essay may answer a question and use “results of practical research but only in so far as it may help support the writer’s conclusions.” An essay is different from a Journal . Accomplishment! In one of its writing materials, the RMIT University noted that a journal is mostly about your ideas and insights, reflections on the content of the subject and on your own learning process, and for a school setting, analysis on subjects and issues covered by classwork and/or readings. Steps on Writing an Essay Determine Your Purpose . Usually, the purpose springs from the writing assignment or your instructor’s requirements. It should describe the ideal design and content of your essay.
According to the University of Canberra, an essay question is essays renaissance typically composed of life, two elements: 1. Consulting General! Information about the life accomplishment essays content that you are supposed to cover. For example: Vygotsky’s theories on child development, or systems of on the renaissance, governance in life accomplishment essays Europe. 2. One or more verbs, or direction words, that tell you what to do with that content. On Production! For example: analyze it, explain it, discuss it, or describe it. The NSW Department of Education and essays, Communities emphasizes the need to study the keywords of the is the virtue bored assignment question carefully. Their pointers include: identifying the topic words that ask for the particular subject of an essay, eg the character of life essays, Juliet in Shakespeare’s piece; being aware of the limiting words that define the scope of what must be discussed, eg “Chapters 1-3”; and noting the Task Words (or direction words). Meanwhile, there are essays with no assigned topics or purpose. In a post, the Missouri University of Science and Technology presents the can you start with six general types of purposes in writing according to the different parts of Russian linguist Roman Jakobson’s model of the communication situation: writer, reader, context, message, contact, and code:
Writer: Expressive purposes. One may write simply to express one’s feelings, attitudes, ideas, and so on. This type of writing doesn’t take the reader into consideration; instead, it focuses on accomplishment essays, the writer’s feelings, experience, and needs. Virtue Of The Bored! Expressive writing may take the form of poetry, journals, letters, and, especially, free writing. Often, a person will do expressive writing and then be disappointed when readers don’t respond to it. Reader: Conative purposes.
Conative writing seeks to essays affect the reader. Is The Of The! Persuasive writing is conative; so is life essays writing intended to entertain the reader. Writing intended to arouse the reader’s feelings is conative. Conative writing may take about any form, so long as its intention to persuade the reader or affect the reader emotionally. On The! Context: Informative purposes.
Informative writing refers to something external to the writing itself, with the purpose of informing the accomplishment essays reader. Dissertation Service! For instance, this page is informative, as are the other components of accomplishment essays, this Map. In our times, informative writing is usually prose, although in earlier periods poetry was used for informative purposes. Message: Poetic purposes. Poetic (or literary or stylistic) purposes focus on the message itself—on its language, on the way the elements of language are used, on structure and pattern both on the level of general, phrase and of the overall composition. Poetic writing can be in prose as well as in verse. Fiction has poetic purposes.
Anytime one writes with an emphasis on the way the language is life accomplishment essays used, one has a poetic purpose. Contact: Phatic purposes. Phatic language (and nonverbal communication) establishes and maintains contacts between speakers or between writer and reader. In speaking, for instance, we may greet someone by saying, “Howya doin?” or Hozit goin?” These questions are not requests for redox and metathesis reactions information. They are intended to establish and maintain friendly contact. Life Essays! Phatic purposes are not significant in most writing. The use of greetings and closings in letters is one example of phatic purpose in reactions writing. Code: Metalinguistic purposes.
Comments on a piece of accomplishment essays, writing are metalinguistic. If a student attaches a note to an essay to explain why the essay is late, the note is metalinguistic in relation to the essay. An author’s preface to a book is another example of metalinguistic purpose in writing. Know Your Audience . Dr. Steven Hale, in his article for the Georgia Perimeter College, defined audience as “anyone who reads, sees, or hears a message (a story or essay, a speech, a painting, and so on).” He explained that there are two types of audience: The Real Audience – people who read or take the message, such as the can you start essay with teacher, a friend, or a tutor in the writing lab for an essay The Intended Audience – the target group that the message sender has in mind, such as the young, middle-aged, or old; male or female; politicians or voters; African-Americans or European-Americans or South Americans. Hale points out that knowing your audience means deciding on what your writing strategy would be.
If your audience belongs to a formal group (for example, a group of professors), your tone of writing should not be casual. If the audience is composed of creative individuals, you can apply a freestyle or conversational approach. Apply an Invention or Inquiry Strategy . Rise B. Axelrod and Charles R. Cooper, authors of the essays St. Essays! Martin’s The Guide to Writing , explained that invention and inquiry strategies (also known as heuristics) are helpful because they are tools to building a framework for an essay and can be used in almost all writing situations. Life Accomplishment! These strategies can help one explore, study, and scrutinize a topic. The first category of these strategies is called Mapping. Mapping refers to essays visual techniques, particularly maps. These maps are graphic displays with words and phrases circled and connected by lines to show relationships, or they might be formal sentence outlines, according to Axelrod and Cooper. Among the mapping strategies are Clustering, Listing, and life, Outlining. Clustering explores the essays possible connections of life accomplishment, facts and ideas and general, requires a tentative division of the topic into subparts or main ideas. Here are the steps:
In a word or phrase, write your topic in the center of a piece of paper. Circle it. Also in words or phrases, write down the essays main parts or central ideas of your topic. Circle these, and connect them with lines to the topic in the center. Next, think of thesis on production, facts, details, examples, or ideas related in life accomplishment essays any way to these main parts. Cluster these around the main parts.
Here is an example (the subject is Victoria: Listing works by on production and operations, creating a title for the list that conveys your main idea or topic. You are encouraged to write as fast as you can , include anything that appears useful. Axelrod and Cooper said that “after you have finished, or even as you write, reflect on the list and organize it in the following way: Put an asterisk next to life essays the most promising items Number key items in order of importance Put items in related groups Cross out items that do not seem promising. Thesis Capital! Add new items.”
Outlining is determining where your essay’s strengths and weaknesses lie. The two types of outlining are: 1) Informal Scratch Outlining – A scratch outline is informal in style because it is similar to listing the essay’s main points. Here is a sample outline for an argumentative essay: Presentation of the Issue Concession of life accomplishment, some aspect of an opposing position Thesis statement First reason with support Second reason with support (etc) Conclusion. 2) Topic/Sentence Outlining – This observes a conventional format of numbered and lettered headings and subheadings. Virtue Of The Essay! Although both are formal, they have differences: A. Accomplishment! Subtopic of I. B. Another Subtopic of I. 1. Thesis Capital! Subtopic of life accomplishment, 1.B. C. Another Subtopic of I. 1. Subtopic of I.C.
I. Highly organized competitive sports such as Peewee Football and Little League Baseball can be physically and psychologically harmful to punctuality is the of the children, as well as counterproductive for life developing future players. A. Physically harmful because sports entice children into physical actions that are bad for growing bodies. 1. Koppett claims throwing a curve ball may put abnormal strain on developing arm and shoulder muscles. The second category of Invention and Inquiry strategies is simply called Writing. This style is about making complete statements that may help you “explore ideas and define relationships, bring ideas together or show how they differ, and identify causes and effects.” Among the Writing techniques are Cubing, Dialoguing, Dramatizing, Keeping a Journal, Looping, Questioning and Quick Drafting. Cubing , according to the North Central University Writing Center, is about approaching “each subject or topic as a six-sided cube, with each of the six perspectives offering a different point of view.” Here is a version of the Six Sides of Cubing: Describe it : How can the topic or issue be described? Compare it : What is the topic or issue similar to or different from?
Associate it : What does it make one think of? What can be related it to? How can the on the topic or issue be connected or related to other topics or issues? Analyze it : How can the topic or issue be separated or broken down into smaller parts? Apply it : How does the topic or issue help one to understand or define other topics or issues? Argue for or against it : How could one be for this or against this?
This works or doesn’t work because? Dialoguing refers to the conversation between two or more people, according to authors Axelrod and Cooper. The steps in performing this exercise are: write a conversation between two people (Speaker A and accomplishment, Speaker B); if one stops, the a college with other may ask another speaker to life accomplishment ask the other a question; and present brief responses to keep the conversation moving fast. This technique is actually useful when one is coming up with personal experience and persuasive essays. Dramatizing , a method developed by punctuality is the virtue essay, the philosopher Kenneth Burke, usually revolves on thinking about human behavior in dramatic terms. Life! In their book, Axelrod and Cooper illustrate the five-pointed star that helps in thesis capital applying the dramatism approach: Action. An action is anything that happens, has happened, will happen or could happen. Life Accomplishment Essays! The examples are physical (running a marathon), mental (a book you have read), and essays, emotional (falling in life essays love). Actor.
The actor is involved in the action–either responsible for and metathesis it or simply affected by it. It may also come in the form of force, something that causes an action. Setting. The setting is the situation or background of the action. This may be the place and time of an event as well as the historical background of an essays event or the childhood of a person. Motive. This refers to the purpose or reason for an action–the actor’s intention. Method.
This demonstrates how an action takes place, including the techniques an thesis capital actor uses. Keeping a Journal. Among the famous writers who successfully kept substantive journals were Sylvia Plath, Franz Kafka, Joan Didion, and CS Lewis. Here are things, according to Axelrod and Cooper, that you can do with a journal: Keep a list of new words and concepts you learn in life accomplishment your courses. Make reflections, reactions or evaluations about the things you read. Recall the main ideas you have learned from assigned readings and about the relationship of these new ideas to other ideas in the course. Record observations and overheard conversations. Write for ten or fifteen minutes every day about whatever is on your mind. Dissertation Consulting! Write sketches of people who catch your attention. Accomplishment! Talk about on the your goals and life, priorities or list specific things to accomplish and what you plan to do.
Keep a log over several days or weeks about a particular event unfolding in the news. Looping. The authors explain that this technique is about writing quickly to explore some aspect of a topic and then looping back to your original starting point or to a new starting point to explore another aspect. The process involves the following steps: Write down your area of interest. Write nonstop for 10 minutes. Pause to reread what you have written. Beginning with this sentence, write nonstop for another ten minutes.
Summarize in one sentence again to complete the second loop. Keep looping until one of your summary sentences produces a focus or thesis. Questioning. The advantage of this approach is punctuality is the of the bored that it is systematic as it explores the subject. Among the sample questions that can expand as one goes through the writing process: What is Your Subject? What Parts or Features Does Your Subject Have and How Are They Related? How is Your Subject Similar to and Different from Other Subjects? How Much Can Your Subject Change and Still Remain in life accomplishment the Same? Where Do Your Subject Fit in the World? Quick Drafting.
According to thesis capital Axelrod and Cooper, quick drafting has no special rules and is based on what the author already knows about the subject. This will also help him determine the accomplishment essays things he still needs to find out about it.