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anthropology essay Social and cultural anthropology. These subject guidelines should be read in conjunction with the Assessment Criteria. An extended essay in social and on martin, cultural anthropology provides students with an opportunity to develop an awareness of what constitutes a distinctively anthropological approach to the organization of convention collective prothesiste dentaire 2012, human life in society and culture. Thesis On Martin Luther. Extended essays should be based on published ethnographic research. Students are expected to demonstrate, in the presentation of the research, their knowledge and understanding of the methods and aims of social and cultural anthropology. Choice of college statement, topic. Social and cultural anthropology is not a residual category for essays that do not fit into any other extended essay subject. Students must choose topicsthat lend themselves to anthropological investigation, and must carefully consider their choice of topic in terms of the assessment criteria. An extended essay in social and cultural anthropology should analyse a topic from a theoretical or comparative perspective, based on the student's own original analysis and on a solid understanding of the on martin theoretical issues concerned.
Students who intend to tackle comparative projects must be aware that research strategies involving two or more societies may call for greater narrowing of the research focus than a study in a single society. For example, a comparative analysis of Mexican and US views of death cannot be conducted successfully in the context of an dissertation writers wanted for work home position extended essay because the topic is too broad. The research would have to be narrowed down by focusing, for example, on specific sub-groups of each society, as well as on a few well-chosen contrasting points, from whichthe student would identify underlying patterns and causes. Extended essays that address issues in thesis luther subfields of anthropology other than sociocultural anthropology, such as archeology, primatology or the study of human evolution, are not appropriate. Thesis Capital. Extended essays in linguistic anthropology are acceptable, provided that they demonstrate the on martin luther student's ability to analyse language in its sociocultural context. Students interested in conducting a research project in linguistic anthropology should be warned that such research frequently presumes a background in both sociocultural anthropology and linguistics. Inherit Prompts. Extended essays that seek to thesis, find solutions to excellence, social problems in thesis an abstract fashion, that consist of polemic arguments for a particular position, or that present value judgments, are not appropriate. Inherit Prompts. For example, the research question Abortion: can one make a decision concerning the life of another human being? cannot be analysed from the perspective of statement on martin, social and cultural anthropology. Students must be aware that an thesis capital emotional or experiential commitment to a particular issue can blunt their analysis of the topic.
Personal commitment must be reinforced with intellectual and academic work, including explicit reference to what anthropologists have had to say about an issue. For instance, anthropologists have written a great deal about the role of women in Islam, so an essay that addresses the issue from thesis statement king, a theological interpretation of sacred texts, or from journalistic accounts, will be marked down unless it frames the discussion within the context of anthropological research on religion and/or gender in specific societies. The title of the extended essay must indicate a specific focus and problem, usually with reference to nvq level, a specific group. Essaytitles that are too general almost inevitably lead to a discussion that is inappropriately descriptive and superficial. In contrast, more tightly focused essay titles encourage dear expositions of ethnographic research conducted among specific groups, with an attention to theoretical implications. The following examples of titles for thesis on martin social and cultural anthropology extended essays are intended as guidance only.
The pairings illustrate that focused topics (indicated bythe first title) should be encouraged rather than broad topics (indicated by the second title). The Sioux sweat lodge: ethnic revival and New Age appropriations is better than Native American culture. Transnationalism and the labour market: South Asian workers in the Kuwaiti service industry is better than South Asians in the Middle East. Youth subculture, style and teenage rebellion: the politics of skateboarding in a French working-class suburb is better than Skateboarding as a hobby. Moreover, it may help if the student further defines the topic chosen for study in the form of the wind prompts, a research question, followed by a statement of intent that indicates which broad process is going to be used in answering the question.in this way,the approach to the topic chosen may be even further clarified. Some examples of this could be as follows. Topic A comparative analysis of the Inupiat and Gwich'in indigenous peoples of Alaska and their contrasting attitudes towards drilling in the Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge.
Research question What are the cultural, economic and political factors that explain why one indigenous group supports drilling while another opposes it? A comparison is made using published primary and secondary data to assess the claims and counterclaims made by the two indigenous groups. Thesis Statement. The study not only analyses what is writers wanted home position, stated by the indigenous peoples, but also assesses their statements in relation to statement, their differing levels of acculturation and modernization. Topic Agency and structure: how women are heard through the veil in Lila Abu-Lughod' s Veiled Sentiments and William C Young's The Reshamule Bedouin. Research question Do the theoretical concepts of inherit prompts, agency and structure suffice to on martin, explain veiling among Muslim women in the two chosen ethnographies? Approach A comparison is inherit the wind, made of on martin king, two ethnographies dealing with the veiling of women. The comparison is theoretically developed by applying the thesis capital concepts of structure and agency to understand the thesis luther functions of veiling. Convention Collective 2012. The argument is then further refined with a counter to the structure and agency approach to veiling by applying a feminist approach to the understanding of veiling as revealed in the chosen ethnographies.
Treatment of the topic. Students must clearly understand that social and cultural anthropology is thesis, a discipline with its own goals, methods and ways of posing questions, and that common sense is no substitute for thesis capital a background in the subject. Students must make explicit reference to anthropological concepts and theory, and to luther king, their application in the investigation. Students should not attempt to prepare an extended essay in social and convention collective prothesiste dentaire, cultural anthropology if they have not studied the subject formally. Reading a textbook or consulting an encyclopedia while writing the extended essay will not compensate for a lack of background knowledge in the subject. On Martin Luther. Schools where social and cultural anthropology is not taught must be aware that students who submit extended essays in social and cultural anthropology with no formal exposure to the subject risk earning very low marks. The presentation of anthropological materials must: go beyond a superficial description to analyse underlying patterns and causesit must not merely summarize others' research findings analyse all selected ethnographic data in their social, cultural, political and historical contexts demonstrate a recognition of the methodological problems involved in the collection, evaluation and presentation of prompts, ethnographic data make explicit reference to statement on martin luther, the ethical issues appropriate to the investigation. For Work Position. Frequent reference to thesis statement on martin luther, the assessment criteria by both the supervisor and the student will help keep a sharper focus on the project. Interpreting the assessment criteria.
Criterion A: research question. The research question must be appropriate to the particular subject in which the essay is submitted. In social and cultural anthropology, this means that it must focus on writers wanted for work position, a question that can be analysed using the theoretical underpinnings, analytical tools and methods of the discipline. Although the aim of the luther king essay can best be defined in the form of a question, it may also be presented as a statement or proposition for discussion. The introduction should relate the research question to existing subject knowledge: the student's personal experience or particular opinion is rarely relevant here.
The investigation may focus on ethnographic materials selected by thesis capital the student and placed in a comparative and theoretical context. Students may choose to analyse a topic from a theoretical or comparative perspective, drawing on published sources, both primary and secondary. Thesis Statement On Martin. Whatever the focus of the investigation, the student must provide an explicit description of the ethnographic context of the data. This should include a specific description of the group studied, location, time, social and political context, and the social and political positions of thesis capital, persons as revealed through their ethnographic accounts. The essay must place all data in a critical context that will demonstrate awareness of their relationship to thesis statement luther king, other data that could have been gathered in the same context, and of the extent to which the observer's position helped to dissertation wanted for work position, shape the thesis statement king data. Students are expected to demonstrate an understanding of the localglobal dynamics relevant to the ethnographic material they analyse, and of the ethical dimensions of ethnographic fieldwork. Criterion D: knowledge and understanding of the topic studied. The essay should integrate into the discussion clear and explicit evidence of specific and nvq level coursework, relevant anthropological reading.
It should demonstrate a sound knowledge of thesis luther king, anthropological concepts and theory relevant to the research question that is applied to the materials with a critical perspective. The essay should explicitly discuss methodological issues related to the collection, analysis and presentation of the ethnographic data. Criterion E: reasoned argument. Dissertation Writers From Home Position. Students should be aware of the need to give their essays the backbone of a developing argument. Personal views should not simply be stated but need to be supported by reasoned argument to persuade the reader of their validity. Straightforward descriptive or narrative accounts that lack analysis do not usually advance an argument and should be avoided.
Criterion F: application of analytical and thesis statement on martin king, evaluative skills appropriate to the subject. The student should move beyond mere description, and offer anthropologically sound generalizations and explanations for the data. The essay should include a clear discussion of underlying patterns and thesis capital, causes of an king anthropological nature, and of their relationship to the data. Criterion G: use of collective prothesiste dentaire, language appropriate to statement, the subject. Students should be aware of terminology specific to college, the discipline and be able to statement, use this effectively. The knowledge that some terms are contested or may change their meaning over time should be incorporated into the essay where relevant. Consistent is the thesis capital key word here: the conclusion should develop out of the argument and thesis statement king, not introduce new or extraneous matter. It should not repeat the nvq level coursework material of the introduction; rather, it should present a new synthesis in light of the discussion. Criterion I: formal presentation. This criterion relates to the extent to which the statement on martin essay conforms to academic standards about the way in which research papers should be presented. Convention Collective Prothesiste 2012. The presentation of on martin luther, essays that omit a bibliography or that do not give references for quotations is deemed unacceptable (level 0).
Essays that omit one of the required elementstitle page, table of contents, page numbersare deemed no better than satisfactory (maximum level 2), while essays that omit two of them are deemed poor at best (maximum level 1). Students must provide a section and sub-section structure to their essays, with appropriate informative headings. Tables and charts should appear in dissertation writers from home the body of the essay, as close as possible to their first reference. Any material that is not original must be carefully acknowledged, with specific attention paid to the acknowledgment and referencing of quotes. Criterion J: abstract. Statement On Martin King. The abstract is judged on the clarity with which it presents an overview of the research and the essay, not on the quality of the research question itself, nor on the quality of the argument or the conclusions. Criterion K: holistic judgment. Qualities that are rewarded under this criterion include intellectual initiative, insight and thesis capital, depth of understanding.
Ways of demonstrating intellectual initiative in social and cultural anthropology include: judiciously choosing an appropriate topic and research question locating relevant resources devising an ethnographic, topic-based comparative or theoretical research project that demonstrates the rich possibilities of anthropological methods applying anthropological imagination to the analysis of the ethnographic material providing a layered account of the data that takes into consideration its social, political, economic, cultural, national and transnational dimensions approaching the research in a reflexive manner that identifies its strengths, shortcomings and ethical dimensions.
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Harlot: A Revealing Look at the Arts of Persuasion. Harlot is an interactive digital magazine dedicated to exploring rhetoric in everyday life. Thesis On Martin King? We invite relevant and engaging contributions from diverse perspectives and in multiple media. Some rights reserved. By providing a history and context for excellence, emojis, this essay argues that they are more a means of creative graphic expression than a threat to alphabetic literacy, and that their study contributes to statement on martin king a re-materilaizing of dissertation from literacy. The essay acknowledges that in some instances emojis do help to clarify the thesis statement on martin luther intent or tone of alphabetic writing, but emojis, like alphabetic writing, are culturally and contextually bound. Emojis expand expression and in doing so open themselves to re-appropriation, interpretation and even misinterpretation, along with the affirming possibilities of artistic creation. We were just nerds, goofing around (Fahlman qtd. in Garber). So goes Scott Fahlman's explanation for the birth of the emoticon, the simple combination of punctuation that signals the intentions behind a writer's words. In 1982, a group of coursework Carnegie Mellon researchers were using an online bulletin board to trade quips about what might happen if their building's elevator cable were cut, when they realized that an outsider to on martin luther king the conversation might take them seriously (Garber).
They developed the iconic :) to thesis capital make sure everyone else was in on the joke. And the rest, as the saying goes, was history. Or were the emoticons word-devil spawn? Did they constitute an attack on language, yet another instance of the erasure of language (MacDonald) what James Billington, the Librarian of Congress, described as the statement on martin king slow destruction of the basic unit of human thought — the sentence (qtd. in Dillon)? While emoticons and emoji, their more elaborate cousins (Wortham), might be evidence of an apparent [generational] decline in young people's vocabulary (Wilson and Gove 265), I'd like to demonstrate that they share more with traditional writing than an collective prothesiste 2012, alphabet-phile might assume, including origins rooted in the visual and the mercantile, as well as an ancient struggle with communicative unctuousness. Emojis are not so much destroying linguistic traditions as they are stretching them, opening a gateway to a non-discursive language of new possibility and even responding to John Trimbur's call for a rematerializing of literacy (263), by reminding us that writing always had and always will have a visual component mediated by a material world. The narratives of emojis, then, are the narratives of writing itself.
Scholars have called out the myth of alphabetic literacy's transparency as a denial of writing's materiality and the role played by larger systems of production (Trimbur), as well as an assertion of Western superiority (Miller and on martin, Lupton). In response to this need to materialize writing, I wish to convention collective prothesiste dentaire 2012 provide context for emojis, complicating these tiny stamps of luther humanity and unpacking some of the alphabetic resistances to them so as to position them as an emerging visual language of play, whose study will help us to think more visually and materially about writing and encourage us to experiment with the thesis capital ludic potentiality of a non-discursive form. Almost a decade after the Carnegie Mellon invention of emoticons, emojis (translated as picture characters) emerged in Japan, consisting of both more fleshed-out versions of emoticons (#9786; instead of :) for example), as well as a pantheon of objects, activities, and events ranging from cactuses to cash. In this respect, emoji resemble petroglyphs, petrographs and pictographs—precursors to writing systems, whose meanings and purposes are debated to this day. Emoji origins in teen and commercial culture are indisputable. In an effort to increase his mobile phone company's teenage market share, DoCoMo employee Shigetaka Kurita collaborated with others to develop emoji characters based on manga art and Japanese Kanji characters. But senders and recipients had to use the same network in thesis king, order for the characters to display properly (Marsden). Dissertation Wanted Home Position? Faced with the material constraints of the cell phone and their interest in having the networks communicate with one another, Japanese programmers reached consensus on computer codes for the emoji, which are now part of all mobile web and mail services in Japan. In the mid-2000's, as Google and Apple realized the broad appeal of the playful icons, they brought them to thesis their Unicode Consortium ( Hitchhikers Guide fans! Think: real-life Babel fish) which establishes standards for the global display of symbols, and in 2010 standardized the codes for 722 emoji.
This move to standardize resembled the efforts of Louis the XIV to standardize typographic forms through the commissioning of the roman du roi typeface, which relied on an Academy of prompts Sciences committee to thesis statement king map the typeface onto a grid, as opposed to previous typefaces which had evolved over time and which were hand cut. Convention Collective Prothesiste Dentaire 2012? Trimbur sees the Sun King's commissioning of the on martin king committee as an attempt to embody the authority of the excellence scientific method and bureaucratic power (266). Individual engravers would no longer have an influence on the emerging shapes and thesis on martin luther, the sameness of every printed letter would be guaranteed through its adherence to a mathematically reproducible template. Similarly the move to Unicode embodies and secures technological control and commercial power. On the college essay statement one hand the use of a uniform code ensures that what senders send is statement on martin luther what recipients see, but senders and users must both have the hardware (usually a smartphone, though emojis can be displayed on email) as well as access to an emoji keyboard if they wish to send. Moreover, individuals interested in having an emoji added to Unicode must write a petition that the wanted from home Consortium reviews. Petitioners must demonstrate that there is a need for a particular emoji.
According to Mark Davis, president of the Unicode Consortium, the thesis statement king emoji must be in the wild already (qtd. in Brownlee) before it can be accepted into the domesticating control of the Consortium, which will translate it so that it can be read across devices and delivery systems. King Louis's project was doomed to fail, as anyone who has ever sat toying with dozens of typeface choices can attest, and in a somewhat simlar way, the Consortium's standardizing capacity has its limits: emojis, too, have fonts and do not display in exactly the same way across devices. Dissertation For Work From? Moreover, emojis continue to thesis on martin luther king thrive in the wild, with users sending a variety of images that are not necessarily Unicode-approved. Despite their unabashedly whimsical sides and adolescent appeal, emojis were designed from a pragmatic, efficacious commercial perspective. Emojis allowed users to coursework continue sending pictorial representations (whose use had been on the rise prior to emojis) without increasing message size. Bandwidth did not need to increase and thesis luther king, speed was maintained as each emoji counted as only a single character. Fueled largely by the constraints of texting, emojis supplant alphabetic language, allowing dexterous users greater speed and ease than alphabetic text and encouraging those who think aphoristically of a picture's worth. In this replacing of dissertation writers from text, emojis may be perceived as participating in the protracted struggle between the thesis statement luther pictorial and inherit the wind essay prompts, the linguistic that T.J. Mitchell observed, the relationship of subversion, in which language or imagery looks into its own heart and finds lurking there its opposite thesis luther number (43). Nvq Level? At their least poetic, most commercial edges, emojis represent an expedient compression of thesis on martin king space and time driven by a desire to 3 childcare coursework save money.
They were born of a need to conserve space, which translated into time, both of which were expressed in terms of material value. In occupying fewer bytes, emojis made communication faster and cheaper for purveyor and consumer alike. And for this they got a bad rap. Cheeky though they appear, emojis did not initiate this movement toward faster, more efficient communication. Cuneiform, the first writing, is thesis commonly attributed to accounting systems designed by the Sumerians, in what is inherit the wind essay prompts now modern Iraq, to track business transactions. We can imagine ancient poets and priests, even before Plato's famous Phaedrus invective against the memory-dissolving threat of writing, turning away in disdain from early cuneiform and its mercenary mission and thesis statement luther king, what Craig Stroupe describes as a presumed rhetorical instrumentalism (629).
In the modern era, industry routinely races for faster communication—consider technologies such as the excellence telegraph or the many shorthand systems, which, BTW, is how emojis often are described. All communications—visual and alphabetic—serves multiple purposes, which are sometimes derailed purposefully, through re-appropriation and thesis king, re-design and re-imagination, and sometimes derailed by accident, happenstance and the emergence of new forms. Few of us now would recognize Sir Isaac Pitman's shorthand notation system of 1837: In their heydays, Pitman's approach and other shorthand systems such as Gregg's were understood by a small subset of essay statement professionals who had the thesis on martin luther king proper training in them. They sped up the work of business communication while also relegating that efficient knowledge to a small subset of individuals formally educated in the discourse. Emojis are more broadly intellectually accessible than shorthand systems and are typically acquired in a post-Fordist fashion, through informal networks rather than systematic training.
Only readers trained in Pitman notation would recognize the system's lines and squiggles; by contrast, readers without formal emoji training would recognize #9786;. I will return to this issue of recognition and iconicity momentarily. I don't wish to overstate the universality of emojis, which, like any communication, is both materially and thesis capital, culturally bound. Though emoji discourse is learned casually through use, only those who have access to the technologies that reproduce them (smart phones, for the most part) can use them. In this regard, emojis heighten our awareness of what Trimbur refers to statement as the materiality of excellence literacy, a recognition that the production of writing is not a disembodied activity of thesis king pure cognitive processes but is instead a physical activity that produces a physical product of visual material considerations including page (or screen) size and dimension, font style and size, space and other rhetorical considerations of visual design. Trimbur emphasizes the convention collective prothesiste role of typography in reifying this materiality and thesis on martin luther king, links it to rhetoric's fifth canon, delivery (263). As with a consideration of typography, a consideration of emoji encourages us to re-visualize writing and to think about how it is circulated, how it performs work in a world of class, race, gender, cultural and nvq level, age relations. Most recently, the absence of racially diverse emojis( sparked debates on Twitter and Instagram and a Do Something petition to Apple to add more racially diverse characters. The Apple keyboard, as the BBC reported, had numerous white faces and only two that appeared to be Asian and none that were black (Kelion). Thesis On Martin? The call for more diverse emoji was dismissed by essay, some in the blogosphere, particularly when Miley Cyrus attempted a Twitter campaign to increase emoji diversity, but at thesis statement on martin, the core of the excellence debate was the construction of thesis statement on martin luther race by one of the fastest-growing modes of communication.
White again was being represented as a universal, non-raced race. Excellence? Oxford University Research Fellow Bernie Hogan observed that Emoji exist first and foremost as a way to augment texts with clear expressive power. If they restrict the sort of people who are used in the images it restricts users' expressive power (qtd. in Kelion). The Apple keyboard, in other words, was limiting the available means of luther expression, forcing its rhetors into a bleached discourse that threatens rhetorical agency. Material invisibility—even in—especially in—a seemingly playful arena—diminishes everyone. 3 Childcare? Whether they were persuaded by the racial ethos of the petition or more inspired by thesis on martin luther king, the fact that 92% of African Americans own a cell phone and 56#37; own a smart phone (Smith), (constituting a powerful consumer base), is impossible to say, but Apple management has pledged to racially diversify its emoji options. It may also be recognizing that other purveyors are providing diverse representations and acknowledging a more complete racial reality. Oju, an African company aimed at liberating Africans from digital exclusion has developed an ojus app for Google, using the tagline everyone smiles in the same language and thesis capital, featuring brown-toned faces (Ouja Africa). So while emoji may be coming to on martin reflect a fuller racial discourse, Apple's initial contentment with its limited representations, as well as the dismissals of the calls to diversify its glyphs, suggest that racialized discourse continues and demands perpetual challenge in excellence, every arena of exchange.
Who and what we represent and recognize reflects and luther, creates our values and lived realities. Small though they may be, emojis resonate with populist power: Over 300 million images are shared daily by Facebook users; 45 million are posted through Instagram (Rock). For some individuals, emojis provide a necessary corrective to the potential clumsiness forced by technological delivery. Japanese author Motoko Tamamuro explains that the Japanese tend to imply things instead of statement explicitly expressing them, so reading the situation and thesis on martin king, sensing the mood are very important. Excellence? We take extra care to consider other people's feelings when writing correspondence, and that's why emoji became so useful in email and text to introduce more feeling into statement, a brevitised form of convention collective 2012 communication (qtd. in statement luther king, Marsden). Tamamuro's concerns are similar to those early English-language adopters of emoticons—wary of language's missteps and nvq level, interested in thesis statement king, closing as many gaps between intended and essay prompts, received communication. Emojis, like the earlier emoticons, sometimes are aimed at helping readers to interpret all the kinds of language that linguist John Haiman categorizes as un-plain speaking, including sarcasm, simple politeness, hints, understatements, euphemisms, code, sententiousness, gobbledygook, posturing, bantering jocularity, affectation and thesis on martin king, ritual or phatic language.
Emojis are an attempt to insure that the message we intend is the message that is received, that we can shore up the fissures, the lacuna, the gaps, disconnects, discordances and college essay statement, plain old misunderstandings that inevitably emerge when one brain tries to externalize its thoughts for another through words. Emojis inherit a long tradition of enlisting visuality to do so. In the late 1800's Alcanter de Brahm proposed that writers use a point d'ironie which would look like a backwards question mark. I sent this trivia to thesis statement on martin luther king a colleague in the French department, who noted, with his own ironic and somewhat repulsed tone, The whole point of irony is that it is thesis capital not pointed out. His comment made me realize that some of the contentions about emoji are disagreements over thesis statement on martin luther, where we stand with this phenomenon of nvq level unplain language. On the statement on martin king one hand, there are writers, readers and contexts that call for plain language, which, according to Haiman is the direction that American language is moving towards.
Emoji could work in service of such a move, removing guesswork from what it is that the writer intended. As a researcher reading a transcript, I might very well appreciate understanding that the Carnegie Mellon engineers were joking about a cable failure. In a different context, though, emojis could be at best annoying or even confusing. If I am in a crowded theater when a fire erupts, I do not wish to statement look up and see a sign that says, EXIT #9786; or even EXIT #9785;. I feel the same way about the happy and sad smile faces that adorned my Rhode Island tax return, though I imagine the person who composed it assumed taxpayers might be charmed to see #9785; after you owe this amount. Or perhaps designers felt that the faces would visually reinforce what filers needed to do; numeric and alphabetic explanations were insufficient.
When I filed and saw the thesis statement king #9785; telling me that I owed money, the nvq level coursework glyph neither clarified nor charmed; it simply sat as unappreciated adornment whose sad face served up a visual poke in the eye. Like most readers, I inhabit multiple interpretive contexts. If I'm about to swallow Advil, I want to know, with certainty, whether I should take it with food or not, and king, how long I should wait before taking more. If I'm reading a poem about someone who fell in 2012, love with an engineer, though, I am more interested in experiencing language and seeing where it might lead my heart, mind and memory. I take my emojis the same way. Emojis occupy a both/and position. Thesis Statement? It is most likely that emojis—as with all attempts to stabilize—result in thesis capital, some magnanimous efforts producing both magnificent failures and stunning successes. So while some composers use emojis to clarify, others use them to mystify and neither necessarily succeeds all the time, because, at the end of the day, humans are what they are: wonderfully complex, connected and individuated creatures, forever striving to reach one another. Unlike the more abstract shorthand systems, emoji images are more recognizable and so would seem to be a more democratic form of shorthand.
But communication is never that simple. Even if we were able to thesis statement luther remove emojis from inherit prompts their material constraints—which we cannot—we would still encounter emojis as the smiling, frowning, winking poster children of Of Grammatology , challenging both the phonocentrism and logocentrism of de Saussure because they exemplify non-phonetic writing while signifying both absence and presence. To receive a text with an emoji is to have the sense of presence, made more immediate, more palpable because of our technological understanding that the writer has just sent a message. Emojis, like alphabetic words, always point somewhere else. But—and here is where we might part company with Derrida—like alphabetic language, they are useful in expressing something other than or beyond metacommentary nevertheless. Letters get received, rescued from their purloined places, and emojis, too, hit their marks, but in broad clouds, like electrons hovering around a nucleus of meaning. More of our dear readers recognize #9786; as a smileyface than readers would have recognized Pitman’s shorthand · as the, probably even in thesis statement on martin luther king, Pitman’s day. These readers, however, do not necessarily agree on its signification. The apparent iconicity of the #9786; is debatable. #9786; does not represent a word. It represents a range of possible sentiments, including I like what you just said; I like you; I am happy, etc. Moreover, smiling itself is culturally dependent.
The emoji is not insulated from the nvq level coursework maddening or, some would say delightful soap-bar quality of all communication. Emoji Cro-Magnon might have intended the statement on martin smiley first, foremost and ONLY to clarify the tone of convention prothesiste 2012 a previous expression so that readers understood that the expression was not to be taken seriously, as in I'm joking here, yet it has since been used to express a range of other sentiments, and may or may not be used to clarify the tone of a previous expression. The emoji #9786; may point us in the direction of lightheartedness, but even among speakers from similar cultures, irony and sarcasm are always possibilities. Statement On Martin King? As ever, context is king. In their desire to shore up the linguistic fissures, emoji users find themselves sharing a lament of writers across time and cultures. Nvq Level Coursework? We might recall T. S. Eliot bemoaning the shabby equipment, always deteriorating available to the poet in East Coker, or Italo Calvino observing that The struggle of literature is in fact a struggle to escape from the confines of language; it stretches out from the utmost limits of what can be said; what stirs literature is the call and attraction of thesis statement on martin king what is dissertation wanted not in the dictionary (qtd. in Gabriele 59). Thesis Statement On Martin Luther? We can juxtapose these frustrations with those of Shyam Sundar who finds inadequacy in language: [t]ext as a medium is particularly dull when it comes to expressing emotions (qtd. in Wortham). While Sundar's observation is expressed neither as a poem nor as a deep meditation on art, at its core, it joins with Eliot and thesis capital, Calvino in its exasperation with the statement limitations of the alphabetic language. But Sundar is coursework neither poet nor novelist. He is co-director of the thesis on martin king Media Effects Research Laboratory at excellence, Pennsylvania State University and his solution for escaping the language prison is neither poetry nor prose. Instead, he offers that Emoticons open the door a little, but emoji opens it even further (qtd. in Wortham).
Admittedly, Sundar's reference to thesis statement luther dull text might be enough to make a humanist or any lover of literature Anyone who has ever wept or laughed or been stirred to action after reading would surely want scare quotes around dull. Prompts? For our entire lives, texts have been anything but dull. (Well, maybe a few.) But to be fair to thesis statement luther Sundar, he's referring not so much to Shakespeare as he is to the quotidian texts sent by phone, the excellence dozens or hundreds or thousands of messages sent every day by individuals when they are walking or waiting at the dentist or sitting in class or driving down the statement on martin Interstate, often in front of me. Coursework? He is, in a sense, seeking to thesis statement king liven the language of the everyday. Sundar is dissertation writers wanted for work home reflecting on quotidian language that does not fly in the rarified air of the published poem or squat on a marble museum pedestal. He wants to thesis statement on martin king change the register of the daily exchange of Every Texter.
If we accept his solution to the dreariness of the everyday communication, then the register with which we read emoji changes. For a brief Derridean moment, a friend’s emoji-graced message, texted in the middle of the day, constitutes an inherit the wind essay, always-in place meditation on words’ shortcomings, a challenge to statement luther the limits of what we think is fundamental. That is, from the earliest age we are taught that to know the ABC’s of X, Y or Z is to possess a foundational knowledge. We hail the letter as both the heart and the beginning of all understanding. Placed in this context, the sending of a , in its very presence, suggests “the ABC’s of the matter are and always will be unfit for the task of communicating what I have to say to you.” There is more to emoji than meets the glance. At the moment, these airy icons may prevent such a heavy interpretation. But it may be worth bearing in mind both that the sender of an emoji we cannot quite fathom is indeed attempting to thesis capital express the inexpressible, to thesis statement on martin say that there is something he or she thinks or feels that is beyond the smooth gloss of excellence letters. And if we can at least sense that sentiment coming from someone who is trying to reach us, we can move a bit closer to them—whether they are family or friends or students or even administrators.
The convenience aspect of emojis may prevent them from being embraced as expressions of care. We cannot deny the speed that emoji usage affords. It is on martin king much easier, for Nimble and Chubby Thumb alike, to press than to use a cellular phone to type out all of the words, including a capital letter, in My airplane is essay arriving. Indeed, the debut of this airplane arrival emoji, one of 270 emoji newly approved by the Unicode Consortium, prompted New Yorker writer Ian Crouch to observe, only slightly tongue in cheek: it's difficult to thesis statement on martin luther imagine how we lived without [certain emoji characters] for so long. Within specific contexts, emojis offer instantaneous connection. But this assumed instantaneousness, which we will complicate momentarily, creates another liability for the maligned emoji. Because of emoji ease, receivers of emoji text may take offense at receiving instead of a note, sharing the sentiment of President Obama who expressed relief that his daughter had chosen an alphabetic path to his affection: Malia, to excellence her credit, wrote a letter to me for Father's Day, which was obviously much more important to me than if she had texted an emoji, or whatever those things are (qtd. in Walker). So the thesis luther king ease and speed of emojis have caused them to be rejected as acceptable conveyers of excellence heart-felt affection. Evaluated outside of an efficiency-driven context, moved from the catching of planes to the capturing of thesis statement on martin luther king hearts, emojis would seem to occupy shakier ground, their purposes less certain, their motives less pure.
The daughter who casually pastes instead of reflecting, drafting and revising a heart-felt letter to her father in a callous quest for Beloved Child Points surely does not deserve the badge. But then neither does an absent-minded I love you or a letter cribbed from a Lifetime Channel movie. Excellence? Words, in other words, do not guarantee reflection or care or authenticity. And I say this begrudgingly, as someone who, in the event of a fire, would save her trunkful of letters before dashing back in to rescue Great Grandmother’s cut glass candy dish. But I say this also as someone who has dashed off a lazy that's great. Statement Luther? (3 . indicating more effort than a lackadaisical!) in dentaire, response to a friend's happy news.
The medium is not necessarily the statement on martin king message; context counts. Without truly knowing the sender's abilities and proclivities, it is difficult to judge the sentiment behind the purpose. Perhaps one day composition students will add another element to their rhetorical analyses of audience, purpose and message; perhaps one day, as they zoom about space on air-powered vespas they will puzzle the time a composer spent on task as well. But until thenno, even after then, we might do well to essay examine what emojis do offer, in the here and admittedly very now. Despite the very contemporary, post-Fordist zeitgeist into which the thesis luther emoji has popped, it nonetheless links us to our earliest efforts at expressionpictograms, petroglyphs and petrographs. John Berger acknowledges the both/and quality of images as the earliest symbols, predecessors to the symbolisms of alphabetic language: What distinguished man from animals was the human capacity for symbolic thought, the capacity which was inseparable from the development of the wind language in which words were not mere signals, but signifiers of something other than themselves.
Yet the first symbols were animals. What distinguished men from animals was born of their relationship with them (9). Emojis reiterate this cleaving/joining movement of symbol-making, but they do it in a slightly different way. The earliest emoji symbolsexpressive faceswere most directly representational (or, as a linguist would note, iconic), in much the same way that early cave paintings featured animals. In this way, emojis participate in one of humanity's most fundamental processes: [N]o human society has ever existed without the creative externalization of luther internal images (Burnett 53). Emojis tap those roots, attempting to link us across time and cultures to all others who would communicate. Convention Dentaire? A monolingual speaker of English is thesis on martin luther king more likely to understand a Finnish friend’s than kolkkous. The Wind? Emojis operate at the level of the non-discursive, potentially filling a gap that separates even speakers of the same language. King? They inhabit a niche that is beyond the excellence reach of alphabetic text and push us to engage our visual faculties. Mitchell Stephens has noted that In interpreting the [alphabetic] code we make little use of our natural ability to thesis on martin king observe: letters don't smile warmly or look intently (63).
For Shyam Sundar, emojis fulfill a human need for non-discursive expression: They play the role that nonverbal communication, like hand gestures, does in conversation but on a cellphone (qtd. in Wortham). Rather than having alphabetic text fly solo in essay, conveying a message, emojis expand the possibilities of what might be expressed. Thesis On Martin Luther King? Since their inception, emojis have been swept up by users with bigger ambitions for collective prothesiste, them, and in doing so have made the leap from being users to being rhetors, joining a classic tradition that dates back to thesis statement luther king Ancient Greece and Rome. Catherine Hobbs explores a history of rhetoric tied to visualization, explaining that Greco-Roman law cases often depended on both the presentation of actual objects as well as orators’ abilities to use visual imagery in persuading their audiences (a scar, a wound, a bloody weapon or a toga) , a practice that continues in contemporary courtrooms, admittedly for better and for worse. Prothesiste Dentaire? The desire to argue effectively, to reach an audience through images and words, has a long and revered history that emojis have joined. The rhetorical tradition, so rightly revered among alphabetic purists, has a visual component. Granted such imageswhether it is the statement luther bloodied toga or the tear-streaked cheek, may be instances of Marshall McLuhan's massage, instances of what he described as work[ing] us over (26). But they may also be ways of making a message more accessible, in much the same way that McLuhan himself used the visual imagery in The Medium Is the Massage as a gateway to his own The Medium Is the Message . Some will question how much time is actually saved by using these pinky-nail pictures, and some will also point out that the speed of exchange depends on all parties speaking emoji. If Nimble Thumb punches out , but her friend doesn't understand and spends most of the morning puzzling out the possibilities that might mean, the collective prothesiste dentaire message is luther king purloined, composed but never received, the plane arriving but forever unmet.
No time has been saved; if anything, from an efficiency rather than an exploratory, meditative perspective, time has been wasted. We are again faced with the importance of context and of discourse. Inherit The Wind Prompts? Emoji efficacy works only if all parties speak the same emoji. On Martin? Indeed, the creators of emoji's emoticon ancestors shared something with those who find them so threatening: an admirable, if unattainable, desire to stabilize meaning. Moreover, those who use emojis, like writers everywhere, face the bane and delight of trying to dissertation writers wanted for work position ensure that their intended message is received. Emojis are still in their language cradle. Like all discursive and non-discursive language, they too, are culturally and contextually bound. Many American bloggers have puzzled over kadomatsu , an emoji pine decoration, which is more familiar to Japanese writers, who would have seen them placed in homes to welcome a new year. In instances of thesis cultural disconnect, those unfamiliar with the tradition have sent the kadomatsu as a sign of disrespect, mistaking it for a middle finger icon. Thesis Capital? While some images cross cultural borders, not all do.
There is always more to an imageeven one as seemingly simple as an emojithan meets the eye. In some instances emojis clarify a writer's intended tone or communicate a simple nugget of king information, but mostly they are more useful at thesis capital, contributing to an exploration of expressive possibility that experiences the same kinds of thesis on martin twists, turns and misses of all communication. Consider Fred Benenson's rewritten version of Moby Dick : Benenson's crowd-sourced, Kick-Starter-funded rewritten version of Moby Dick , Emoji Dick , was accepted into the Library of Congress in excellence, February 2013. As with any translation, Benenson's act was creative and subjective. (I still read that opening line as phone, mustache face, sailboat, whale, ok.) Indeed, in statement luther king, an interview Benenson himself acknowledged the many interpretive choices he had to make during the translation: I fully admit that there are large portions of the book that don't make any sense, and there are a number of reasons for that (qtd. in Goldmark). We could view Benenson's efforts as an act of literary apostasy, but we could also see it as a work of art in its own right, a brave foray into challenging and unexplored literary waters in search of an writers from home, elusive and statement on martin, formidable goal. Dissertation Writers Wanted For Work From Home? While at least one Emoji Dick commentator predicted that the translation would lead to thesis on martin luther there seems to be evidence that emojis, if anything are opening paths of communicative exploration. VoidWorks, a Singapore-based-app development studio, has released an app that allows users to emojify any photo by converting pixels into statement, emoji; emoji poetry is everywhere, and there's a Tumblr blog, Narratives in on martin luther, Emoji (http://narrativesinemoji.tumblr.com) that includes emoji translations of inherit essay prompts Les Miserables , The Titanic and Groundhog Day . Even the statement on martin king lyrics to wanted from home The Fresh Prince of Bel Air have received their emoji props (Dries). The art world is king also enjoying the fruits of emoji labors. For Work From Position? The Daily Dot, for example, has translated Grant Wood's American Gothic (Alfonso), and the Twitter hashtag#emojiarthistory yields many other similar translations. In these instances the emojis provide a metonymic self-referentiality, replacing one set of iconic symbols with another.
These creators have in effect responded to Lawrence Murr’s and James Williams' call to use pictures to 'get the on martin king picture' (418). In some instances emoji have themselves been subject to nvq level coursework translation, as Justine on YouTube demonstrates in this aural representation of thesis statement on martin luther king them: In their visuality, their connection to gestures and their digitized form, emojis fit squarely in the social future called for by The New London Group in thesis capital, their 1996 Pedagogy of Multiliteracies. Luther King? An international collaborative aimed at developing new pedagogies that would respond to changing literacies brought by increasing globalization, cultural, social diversity and changes in technology, the group called for a literacy pedagogy of inherit available designs. Thesis Statement On Martin Luther? The New London Group identified six design elements: linguistic; gestural; audio; spatial; visual and the multi-modal that combines these. Digital communication, increasingly composed on the very small screen, calls for the multi-modal as composers find certain forms of alphabetic composition unwieldy and unsuitable. In some instances, composers will be able to choose their medium, deciding if what they have to say is best expressed via the page, or if they need the more visual affordances of the thesis capital computer screen or if they need the speed of texting via the tiniest screen of them all. If they choose this tiniest of thesis statement luther screens, they may very well conclude that a multi-literate understanding of emojis serves them well.
Almost a decade prior to convention collective prothesiste 2012 the New London Group manifesto, Murr and Williams would reason that since language shapes our perception of reality it is clear that new concepts of language must be developed with the king emergence of the visual culture. Just as the practice of language in college statement, Western civilization, as served by statement on martin king, speech and memory, was altered by the invention of an alphabet and later its encoding in books through monotype, so must it be altered again as a result of the invention of visual tools (415). Murr and Williams explain the futility and even educational cruelty of assigning something like word problems in math as a confusion of brain hemispheres. Science and excellence, math are right-brain activities: it does not make sense to emphasize text-based descriptions of scientific phenomena in general, or mathematical phenomenon in particular (417). They extend the helical logic to the mis-use of computers in the classroom: Here is a visual tool, an example of hypertelevision, a right-brain preprocessor, a supercharger of graphic information and graphic knowledge, which we have merely reconfigured as a high-tech typewriter! (417). As antidote, they advocate a need for some attention to graphic forms, drawing, painting and the visual arts, by raising our consciousness of symbols, by connecting text and thesis statement king, graphics through the creation of language networks(418). Writers Wanted For Work From Position? Perhaps work with emojis will provide an entryway for such balance.
Calls for the visual in the composition classroom have a long history. (See for example, Fleckenstein; George; Kress; Selfe; Stroupe; Yancey). The explorations that have already begun in classrooms are beyond the thesis statement on martin king scope of this essay, but it is worth mentioning that emoji work has the potential to excellence support the statement on martin luther king same kinds of rich learning experiences we seek in composition classes: a recognition of a multi-literate world; a platform for the wind essay, communicative play, experimentation and statement, creativity; a basis for dissertation writers for work from, analysis of cross-cultural communication, identity and representations, and the threads of a re-materialized concept of composing. Emojis have neither destroyed nor rescued words. We continue, as Megan Garber so beautifully puts it, to thesis luther MacGuyver our way into language. At the end of the day, emojis are just as much a reflection of their creators as words, with just as much potential to express, explore, kvetch and ultimately connect us to excellence others. Though in some instances they supplant words entirely, they also open up new vistas of exchange and creativity.
They are in a sense, the words that got away, and statement on martin king, then returned. As smiles and essay, frowns and jetliners. Lisa Lebduska teaches writing and directs the college writing program at Wheaton College in Massachusetts. Focused on thesis statement the intersections and eruptions among composition, technology and nvq level 3 childcare coursework, people, her work has appeared in such publications as WPA Journal , CCC , Narrative , Writing on the Edge , and Technological Ecologies and Sustainability: Methods, Modes, and luther, Assessment . Acknowledgements: I wish to thank the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for providing me with summer research support, including those allowing me to work with Hailey Heston (Wheaton Class of 2018), who found the 3 childcare Library of Congress images used here, and statement luther king, whose photoblog serves up many an image for thought. Berger, Jon. Why Look at Animals?
About Looking. New York: Random House, 1988. 1-28. Print. Brownlee, John. Nvq Level 3 Childcare Coursework? Where Do Emoji Come From? Co.design. 30 June 2014. Thesis Statement Luther King? Web. 1 July 2014. Burnett, Ron. How Images Think . Wanted From? Cambridge: MIT, 2004. Print. Crouch, Ian. New Emojis, but No Hot Dog.
Culture Desk. The New Yorker 18 June 2014. King? Web. 20 June 2014. Dillon, Sam. Thesis Capital? In Test, Few Students Are Proficient Writers. New York Times . New York Times, 3 April 2008. Web. 20 July 2014. Dries, Kate.
People Have iPhones and They're Not Afraid to Use Them. Buzzfeed . 5 February 2013. Web. King? 10 June 2014. Eliot, T.S. East Coker . London: Faber and Faber, 1942. Print.
Fleckenstein, Kristie S. Inviting Imagery into Our Classrooms. Language and Image in the Reading Writing Classroom: Teaching Vision . Eds. Essay Prompts? Kristie Fleckenstein, Linda T. Calendrillo and thesis statement luther, Demetrice Worley. Prothesiste? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002: 3-26. Print. Gabriele, Thomasina. Italo Calvino: Eros and Language . Fairleigh Dickinson P., 1994. Print. Garber, Megan. How to Tell a Joke on the Internet. The Atlantic Monthly . Thesis Statement King? 24 April 2013.
Web. 16 May 2013. George, Diana. From Analysis to Design: Visual Communication in the Teaching of Writing. College Composition and Communication . 54.1. (2002): 11-38. Prothesiste Dentaire? Print. Goldfield, Hannah. I Heart Emoji The New Yorker . Thesis Statement On Martin? 16 October 2012. Web.
16 May 2013. Goldmark, Alex. Inside the Mind That Translated Moby Dick into Emoji New Tech City . 27 February 2014. Web. 19 March 2014. Haiman, John. Talk Is Cheap: Sarcasm, Alienation and the Evolution of excellence Language . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Print. Hobbs, Catherine L. Learning from the Past: Verbal and thesis statement, Visual Literacy in Early Modern Rhetoric and Writing Pedagogy. In Fleckenstein, Calendrillo and convention 2012, Worley.
27-44. Rpt. in Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed. Statement Luther? Carolyn Handa. Boston:Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004: 55-71. Holland, Jessica. Emoji: A Tiny Graphic Can Be Worth a Thousand SMSes.
The National . 7 April 2013. Web. Dissertation Writers? 19 March 2014. Kelion, Leo. Apple Seeks Greater Racial Diversity. BBC News Technology. 26 March 2014. Web. Thesis Statement On Martin? 10 June 2014. Kress, Gunther. Literacy in the New Media Age . New York: Routledge, 2003.
Print. MacDonald, Susan Peck. The Erasure of Language. College Composition and essay, Communication . 58.4 (2007): 585-625. Thesis Statement On Martin King? Print. Marsden, Rhodri.
More Than Words: Are Emoji Dumbing Us Down Or Enriching Our Communication? The Independent . 11 May 2013. Web. 20 June 2014. McLuhan, Marshall. The Medium is the Massage . New York: Random House, 1967. Print. Miller, J. Abbott and Ellen Lupton. A Natural History of Typography.
Bierut, Michael, William Drenttel, Steven Heller, and nvq level 3 childcare coursework, D.K. Holland, Eds. Thesis Statement On Martin Luther? Looking Closer: Critical Writings on Graphic Design . Convention Collective Dentaire? Vols. 1-2. New York: Allworth, 1994, 1997. 19-25. Print. Mitchell, W. J. Statement? T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago: U. of Chicago P., 1986. Print.
Murr, Lawrence E. and James B. Williams. Half-Brained Ideas about Education: Thinking and Learning with Both the Left and Right Brain in a Visual Culture. Leonardo 21.4 (1988): 413-419. Print. New London Group. A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures. Harvard Educational Review , 1996 66 (1), 60-92. Print. Rock, Margaret.
From Talk to Telepathy. Mobiledia. 8 July 2013. Writers Position? Web. Thesis On Martin Luther? 1 July 2014. Selfe, Cynthia. Toward New Media Texts: Taking Up the Challenges of Visual Literacy. In Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition . Eds. The Wind Essay Prompts? Anne Francis Wysocki, Johndan Johnson-Eilola, Cynthia L. Selfe, Geoffrey Sirc. Utah State P, Logan: Utah, 2004:67-110. Print.
Smith, Aaron. African Americans and Technology Use: A Demographic Portrait. Statement Luther? Pew Research Internet Project. 14 January 2014. Web. 6 June 2014. Stephens, Mitchell. The Rise of the Image, the Fall of the the wind Word . New York: Oxford UP, 1998. Print. Stroupe, Craig. Statement King? Visualizing English: Recognizing the Hybrid Literacy of Visual and Verbal Authorship on the Web.
College English 62.5 (2000): 607-632. Print. Trimbur, John. Delivering the Message: Typography and writers, the Materiality of Writing. Rhetoric and Composition as Intellectual Work . Ed. Gary Olson.
Carbonddale: Southern Illinois UP, 2002. Statement On Martin Luther King? 188-202. Rpt. in Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed. Inherit The Wind Essay? Carolyn Handa. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s P., 2004: 260-271. On Martin Luther? Print. Walker, Hunter.
President Obama Is Glad He Didn't Get Emoji for excellence, Father's Day. Business Insider. Statement Luther King? 17 June 2014. Web. 2 July 2014. Wilson, James A. and Walter R. Gove. The Intercohort Decline in Verbal Ability: Does It Exist? American Sociological Review . 64.2 (1999): 253-266. JSTOR . Web 20 July 2014. Wortham, Jenna. The Wind Prompts? Whimsical Texting Icons Get a Shot at Success.
11 December 2011. New York Times . n.p.17 June 2014. Web. Yancey, Kathleen. Made Not Only in Words: Composition in thesis on martin luther, a New Key. College Composition and Communication . 56:2 (2004): 297-328. Print. Alfonso, Fernando III. Nvq Level? Reinterpreting Classic Works of Art with #emojiarthistory. The Daily Dot. 13 February 2013. http://www.dailydot.com/culture/emoji-art-history-tate-getty/
Babel Fish Diagram. Hitchhiker Wiki. n.d. Web. 1 July 2014. Cyrus, Miley Ray. RT If You Think There Needs to be an #emojiethnicity Update. 18 December 2012, 7:05 p.m. Tweet. Doctorow, Cory. Crowdsourced Translation of Moby-Dick into Emoji. Thesis Luther? Boing Boing . Boing Boing, 21 September 2009.
Web. 20 July 2014. Emoji Fortunes. Baker’s Blog. 6 June 2013. Emojify: Turn Pixels into Emoji Emoticons to Make Unique Art Images. Appszoom. Heston, Hailey. Excellence? Light Bulb of thesis king Ideas.
Wandering, Wondering. 29 March 2014. Dissertation For Work From Position? Web. 14 July 2014. Kahn, Justin. How to Get Emoji Keyboard on iPad. ipad Notebook: Tips, Thoughts Apps. Web. . Lee, Eric. The Not-Complete Idiot's Guide to: Alternative Handwriting and Shorthand Systems for Dummies. n.d.
Web. 10 June 2014. Psar, Ira. The Origins of Writing. Statement On Martin King? In Heilbrun Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metroploitan Museum of Art. October 2004. Web. 14 October 2014. Women Work in the Typewriting Department of the National Cash Register in Dayton, Ohio, 1902.
Library of Congress. Writers Wanted Home? Web. The purpose of all quoted material here is to on martin quote and cite material within the bounds of dissertation writers wanted for work from home position academic fair use. I have attributed all authors and creators, providing a Works Cited. The copyrighted work used in thesis on martin luther king, this essay consists of texts, images and 3 childcare, one video. In the case of text, less than one percent of the original has been quoted directly. Images have been used in their entirety.
The images of luther emoji are commonly used on writers for work from the internet, nearing the status of alphabetic symbols.
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Research Paper on Martin Luther King | CustomWritings com Blog
English and Comparative Literary Studies. This handbook is a guide that I’m hoping will enable you. It is on martin luther geared, in prothesiste 2012 particular, towards the seventeenth-century literature and culture module but I hope you will find it useful at other times too. I would like to stress, though, that it is thesis statement king not the only way to do things. Convention Dentaire 2012? It may be that you have much better ideas about what makes for a successful essay and have tried and tested methods of executing your research. There isn’t necessarily a right way and so I hope you will not see this as proscriptive and limiting. You should talk to all your tutors about statement what makes for a good essay to thesis capital, get a sense of the different ways that you might construct an statement, essay.
1. Essay writing (p.2) 2. Close reading (p. Excellence? 4) 4. Constructing an luther, argument (p. Dissertation Writers Wanted For Work From Home? 8) 5. Thesis? Help with this particular assessment (p. 9) 6. Grade descriptions (p. 10)
1. Writers Wanted For Work From Position? ESSAY WRITING (and historicist writing in particular) Essay writing has four stages: reading, planning, writing and proof-reading. Excepting the last, you may not find that they are not particularly discrete but rather interlinked and mutually informative. If any stage is skipped or done badly, though, it will impair your work. 1) Read the thesis statement on martin text and make sure you understand it. Use the Oxford English Dictionary online to look up any words you don’t understand or if they are operating in convention 2012 an unfamiliar context. On Martin Luther King? Available on the Warwick web: http://www.oed.com. 2) Do a close reading. Make a list technical features (cf. the page in this booklet entitled ‘close reading’; refer to the section on poetic form in 2012 the back of your Norton Anthologies pp.
2944-52). On Martin Luther King? Ask yourself: ‘how does the text achieve its effects?’ Then ask yourself: ‘how do those poetic effects relate to the meaning of the essay text?’. 3) Do some research, particularly on the historical theme, period, cultural group that you’re interested in. You could begin with a general history and thesis statement on martin luther king, then do a literature search for more specialist books and articles. It may help you to narrow your research to a particular theme or idea that is suggested, hopefully by your reading in 1) and 2). Rather than trying to find out about the whole of convention collective dentaire, seventeenth-century culture, limit your research to the restoration, cavalier culture, medicine, the family or whatever. (See the handout on research). 4) Be careful when you take notes so that you will make no mistake, when you come to writing and thesis on martin king, referencing your work, about what is your work and what is someone else’s.
Read and coursework, be clear about the thesis king university’s rules on plagiarism which are laid out in the blue booklet ‘Essay Writing and Scholarly Practice’ which you can get from the thesis capital general office. 1) Begin by making a spider plan of all your ideas and the relationships between them. IF YOU DON'T LIKE SPIDERS FORGET THIS BIT. 2) Then write out a paragraph (which you will not include in your essay necessarily) called ‘MY LINE OF ARGUMENT’. This will be information to yourself (so it can be very boringly and functionally written) about thesis luther what you intend to say. Ideally this should be a single big idea, which you can sustain for the length of the essay, made up of stages that can be demonstrated with reference to nvq level 3 childcare coursework, the passage in question. Statement Luther King? It may well be that you want to write something similar to this ‘line of argument’ paragraph, only in a more dynamic and collective prothesiste 2012, elegant way, for your introduction.
See the page entitled ‘constructing an argument’ that has an example of a ‘line of argument’ paragraph. 3) Then write out a linear plan of your essay with a logical ARGUMENT, an argument that is assertively stated and then proved through the thesis on martin luther king course of your piece. Thesis Capital? TIP: try not to separate out style, content and context; discuss them together to show how the relate to thesis on martin luther, one another. You are aiming to thesis capital, produce something that identifies and thesis on martin king, describes both the wood and the trees; indeed, the trees are your evidence for the existence of the excellence wood! You need to put together a big argument out of lots of bits of thesis on martin, evidence. 1) Everyone has his or her own way of writing. I sometimes find it easier to write the middle of the essay first and then come to the introduction last, which is for work from position perhaps the hardest bit to on martin luther king, write. You may find that your ideas change and are worked out more fully as you start to write. In which case go back to B) and produce another plan.
Present your ideas as a finished thought, rather than a thought process. 2) Keep yourself closely to your argument by imagining your reader. Perhaps a friend, a tutor or a parent might serve: imagine them behind you as you write asking ‘SO WHAT?’, making you insist on its relevance and trying to coursework, prove a particular point. Imagine that you are a newspaper editor writing a polemic, trying to convince your readership of a particular point of view. 3) Inventing a title and writing an introduction. You should try to make your essay interesting to an examiner. Which do you think is the best of these three titles: ‘Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’; ‘Discuss the question of race in Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’; ‘The “gallant slave”: the idea of the noble savage in thesis on martin king Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’.
Similarly with the introduction. The first sentence should grab the examiner immediately. Which is a better first sentence: ‘Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko was published in 1688 and statement, is a prose work about Surinam’; ‘At the heart of Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko stands the deep paradox of the ‘royal slave’. 4) Using secondary literary criticism. It is, of course, good to read lots and to incorporate that reading into your work. What you are attempting to king, do, though, is to position your independently arrived at ideas in relation to for work position, other critics in the field. You shouldn’t be deferential or let the ideas of others drag you off course. You should USE other people’s work in the service of your own argument. For example, you might disagree with a critic; you might apply their theory about on martin luther one text to another; you might say that their work hasn’t gone far enough in the wind its assessment.
Never use a quotation from someone else to thesis luther king, clinch an argument: just because someone famous has said x or y it doesn’t mean that it’s necessarily true. I sometimes find it useful to write a draft of dissertation writers wanted for work from position, my paper that includes no secondary reading at thesis on martin king, all, basing it just on my general knowledge of the critical field. Statement? I then do some detailed research in statement on martin secondary criticism before writing a second draft. This means that the agenda is not dictated by other scholars, and ensures that I use them rather than becoming their spokeswoman. Make sure, of course, that all your reading is properly referenced to avoid a charge of plagiarism. 1) Check the spelling: in particular the nvq level 3 childcare names of the author and the text that you’re looking at MUST be spelled correctly. 2) Check your punctuation. On Martin? If you don’t know how to use particular punctuation marks please get a book and learn how. In particular the misuse of apostrophes is deeply irritating to convention dentaire, an examiner. The Collins gem guides are really good also Lynne Truss, Eats, Shoots and Leaves is fun and informative.
3) Make sure that you get hold of the blue booklet, ‘Essay Writing and Scholarly Practice’, from the general office. You must use the reference guide in there. I favor the MHRA guidelines; you may prefer the MLA style. If you do reference a website it is statement on martin luther king best to put it in 3 childcare coursework a footnote rather than the text were it looks ugly. You should always include some close detailed analysis of the thesis on martin king literary text(s) that you’re discussing in your essay. This demonstrates your sensitivity to the forms, textures and ideological purpose of nvq level 3 childcare, language. You should aim to show the relationship between form and meaning, between the text and its world. Statement Luther King? Before you can put together an argument about the relationship between a text and its time you will need to do some close reading, compiling a list of technical features in a text or an excerpt from a text. Choose excerpts that relate to themes or passages that interest you. Then you can develop a checklist of features to look for.
Use this as a guide but you may want to add to, or amend it. *** What you see will be very different from what other people see. So, although it looks like a slightly dry exercise, this is where your ideas, your originality will come from. Close reading, in thesis capital any module, will make your essays sparkle. *** #61623; Prose, drama or poetry? #61623; Genre? (e.g. is it panegyric, epic, restoration comedy or what ever) #61623; Does it remind you of anything?
Can you compare or contrast it with something of a similar date? Or, alternatively, compare it with something of a similar genre from the previous or next decade, for example, in order to investigate change over statement on martin luther king, time. #61623; Poetry: metre, rhythm and rhyme. Look at the section on poetic form at the back of the 3 childcare coursework Norton Anthology (p. 2944) and other guides. Don’t just describe metre etc but ask yourself how it works in that particular passage. How are units of meaning created by the line divisions? When a poet downplays or emphasizes a particular word through positioning it in a particular way, what effect does it have? How does the poet manage tone, pace and register with his use of rhyme and rhythm? iF THESE FEATURES ARE NOT IMPORTANT IN YOUR PIECE IGNORE THEM.
#61623; Drama: look at the length / speed of the speeches, the stage directions, the entrances and exits. #61623; Prose: rhetorical features and clause structure are the things to look out for in particular. Are the sentences complex or simple? Is it in hypotaxis or parataxis? What about word order and syntax, is statement on martin luther there anything unusual or unexpected there? #61623; What is the overall structure of the passage / text?
Are there abrupt changes or a progression from one idea to dissertation writers wanted for work from home position, another? #61623; What other structures are there? Symmetries, comparisons and contrasts, digressions, asides, repetition. Statement On Martin King? Is there any dialogue? Are the arguments circular or progressive? #61623; Are there any words you don’t fully understand? If you aren’t in a closed exam you could look them up in thesis capital the Oxford English Dictionary online. This would also give you a sense of the other meanings that that word might have. Are there any puns? #61623; Think about thesis king grammatical features: tenses, conditional constructions, the passive voice.
Is the essay statement passage in the first, second or third person? Perhaps there are tense or person shifts; what effect do these produce? #61623; Look out for thesis luther king, predominance: several superlatives or comparative adjectives and adverbs; a lot of words that mean a similar thing, repetitions of possessive pronouns or what ever. #61623; What kind of language is being used? i.e. what register is it in? Is it elevated or earthy, legal or lyrical, rhetorical or religious? Why? #61623; Look for particular rhetorical features: metaphor and simile, hyperbole and litotes, personification, metonymy and so on. #61623; Look at punctuation (but be careful: it could be the intervention of a printer or a later editor).
Look out excellence, for: enjambment, parentheses, direct speech? When the punctuation is sparse, why? Is it because there is a proliferation of thesis statement on martin luther, conjunctions that resist punctuation like, for college essay, example, the thesis king word ‘and’. This may indicate parataxis or a very conversational style. #61623; Look out for thesis capital, allusions and thesis, references, often to the bible or classical stories. If you don’t know them and you’re not in a closed exam, look them up in a reference dictionary or on the internet. #61623; What is the college essay tone of the passage? Is it homiletic, comic, anxious, melancholy or ironic?
How is this effect created? #61623; Where else does that poet use similar phrases, ideas, patterns and luther king, images? What does it say about his or her concerns and art? TIP: Don’t make simple associations between sense and sound. For example, whilst there are a lot of warm words that begin with ‘m’ (like, for essay prompts, example, milkmaid, mother, magic etc) there are also some, like ‘malice’, ‘muscular’, ‘murder’ which evoke quite different associations. You then need to thesis statement luther, think how those technical features, which you’ve noted construct the meaning of the passage / text.
Do not think about form and content as separate things as if form were a kind of cloak in which meaning is excellence dressed: they are organically connected. Above and luther, beyond that you will also need to think about how that text (both its form and its meaning) relate to the particular concerns and fashions (literary, political, philosophical etc) of its time. You might think about the way in which repeated ideas in your text / excerpt link to significant contemporary discourses. Excellence? Look for substituted vocabularies: i.e. when love / sex is discussed with the language of money / credit for example. Thesis Statement On Martin? Could that be related to prevailing economic trends and ideas? When you are constructing your ARGUMENT and writing your essay, consult your close reading list. Not everything there will be relevant to convention collective dentaire 2012, your ARGUMENT; you only want to include the things that relate, that offer evidence for thesis on martin luther king, a particular point of view about nvq level 3 childcare coursework how the text is placed culturally, politically, socially and / or historically. Research is crucial for any essay and requires a certain amount of initiative. You will partly have to learn by trial and error.
Here are a few tips and ideas, though. Read both narrowly (and address the theme of your essay) and also widely. So if you are, for thesis statement on martin luther king, example, researching infanticide, also research the family or law / crime. When you research a context it might be worth look at the work of philosophers, painters, and thesis capital, theologians and see what they were saying / doing in this period. An essay which looked at the early modern patriarchal family in the light of Robert Filmer’s political tract Patriarchia, for example, would be much more interesting than one that only looked at modern historians’ account of the statement early modern family. An essay that discussed the panegyric written to, or on a particular king, alongside the portraits that were painted of him could also be very suggestive.
EEBO might be very useful here at helping you to find out college essay, about, say, sermon culture or advice literature. (look at the last page of this booklet for some help here). Think of some the thesis statement luther king areas, themes, historical moments, authors and thesis capital, ideas that you want to find out about. List them as key words. Thesis Luther? For example: Aphra Behn, Oroonoko, race, royalism, restoration, early modern, colonialism, slavery etc Do not be limited here. Thesis Capital? Think of terms / phrases that will give you some background too. How about ‘cheap print’, ‘renaissance politics’ etc Then begin on the computer. Be careful of stuff that you find on statement on martin luther king the ordinary WWW. It is not usually very reliable. Often this is stuff that people can’t publish in proper books.
Use it is a guide and be very critical. 1) http://www.jstor.org (through the Warwick network only). Here you can read articles from the wind essay reputable, peer-reviewed journals on thesis statement luther line. An excellent starting point. From Position? Try various combinations of your search terms in luther king either the Basic search (will give you hundreds of items) or in coursework the advanced search form (which will give you much narrower and probably more useful stuff. Try it out; go to the advanced search form: A) In the box marked ‘All of these words’ insert the word ‘Behn’. Then tick the box marked ‘title’ and then also the box marked ‘article’. Press the ‘Search’ button. See if you can identify any articles with a particularly historicist bent.
B) In the box marked ‘All of these words’ insert the words ‘White’ and ‘Black’ and ‘England’. In the box marked ‘exact phrase’ enter ‘Seventeenth-century’. Press search and see what you get out. Try other, similar search terms. C) In the thesis king box marked ‘All of these words’ insert the word ‘Royalist’. Thesis Capital? In the thesis statement on martin luther box marked ‘at least one of excellence, these words’ enter the words ‘print culture’. Perhaps limit to articles by checking the relevant tick box. Press search and see if any of those are useful. [you will see that sometimes you have to do some considerable sifting to thesis on martin luther king, find good things.] 2) The Modern Language Association of America database direct access from the Warwick network at: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/library/electronicresources/databases/#m.
The bibliographic databases are listed alphabetically so scroll down to ‘M’. Dissertation? Select ‘MLA’. This will give you the reference only (although Warwick may provide a link to the on-line journal). Luther? You may find that some of the things that are listed you won’t be able to get because Warwick doesn’t subscribe to that journal or perhaps the item is a doctoral dissertation from another institution. Don’t worry, you’re not expected to read everything under the excellence sun. Leave those things that you can’t get.
Try it out: put in the search terms ‘Aphra’, ‘Behn’ and ‘race’ into the keywords box. Press search and see what you get. 3) Historical abstracts: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/library/subjects/arts/elecresources/#databases_internet. Again, use this database to help you compile a list of thesis on martin king, articles or books that you could look at either on-line, if Warwick has a link, or in collective dentaire 2012 the library. Ignore the things that you can’t get hold of. A) Put the search terms ‘restoration’, ‘race’ and statement on martin luther, ‘England’ into the keywords box. Press search. B) Put the search terms ‘early modern’ and ‘print culture’ into the keywords box.
Press search. Again you will have to decide what’s useful / relevant. 4) Use the library catalogue, don’t limit yourself to books about thesis capital English. Put in search terms that will give you books on the historical background that you’re looking for. Thesis Statement King? Once you have found one book on the shelf look around in that same area for excellence, others that will be related by subject. 5) Look on your reading list for general background books. CONSTRUCTING AN ARGUMENT. Producing a successful argument is a process that has a number of stages. Often you will understand your argument better after you have started writing. Thesis Statement On Martin King? It is important that you go back and re-plan your work, taking into account your new findings. You will need to develop a provisional thesis, however, so that you have somewhere to start: a focus for your close reading and research.
You don’t need to argue that history is important for the study of literature. Dissertation From? You can take that as a given and thesis statement luther, move on to say something a bit more sophisticated about how the particular poem / play or prose piece you’re working on intersects with a particular set of events or ideas in a specific historical moment. A good argument should be fairly specific rather than general and comprehensive. In particular, when writing a historicist essay, do not list the thesis capital ways in which one text is statement king embedded in its period. Instead choose one of those ways and research it in more depth. Inherit The Wind? So, rather than writing about, say, Ben Jonson’s interest in Anabaptists, Spanishness, alchemy, the plague, etc in thesis luther king The Alchemist, choose one of these themes and find out inherit essay, about it in the historiography of the seventeenth century and couple this research with a close reading of thesis, those sections of the play that treat that theme. Your readings of the text and the history of the times should suggest your detailed argument. Don’t think of your argument first and then try to press it onto the play or poem you’re interested in; allow your idea to grow out of your reading. Below is my best attempt at collective dentaire, a LINE OF ARGUMENT for an essay on Rochester and Milton. Again, I should stress that this is only by way of demonstration what I would do.
This is very different from what you would do. Thesis Statement On Martin Luther King? There is no one way and your ideas will be as interesting / valid as mine. Don’t think that you have to thesis capital, produce something the same, or even necessarily similar I have done this just to give you an statement king, example of 3 childcare coursework, what I mean. I have tried to construct an argument which uses both close reading and historical context. Imagining the future in the restoration: a critical comparison of the poetry of John Wilmot, Earl of statement on martin, Rochester and dissertation writers for work home, John Milton. Line of Argument: This essay will argue that Rochester’s poetry is not only everywhere fascinated by time, regularly exploring what it is and how it operates, but that this interest betrays his sophisticated engagement with contemporary political philosophy.
It will closely interrogate the thesis on martin forms of several of Rochester’s time-related poems for their political sensibilities. It will then contrast those poetic forms and political sensibilities with those in the poetry of John Milton and especially Paradise Regained. Milton as I shall show with the use of historical evidence is very differently socially and politically placed, indeed at the other end of the ideological spectrum from the Earl of Rochester. I shall show that the difference is the wind essay prompts one of statement on martin king, dispossession (Rochester) and providence (Milton). Rochester’s narrators exist in fear of, and subject to thesis capital, an arbitrary and absolute future; Milton’s Paradise Regained, on the other hand, asks an imagined republican reader to wait in thesis anticipation of a future in which God will deliver their political success. Essay? I shall explore the way in on martin luther which Rochester’s pessimism the idea and tone of dispossession in his poetry and Milton’s optimism the visionary quality of his providential allegory stand in contrast to the respective fortunes of the political groups to thesis capital, which those poets actually belonged and at the particular times when the poems I’m discussing here were written and published: i.e. On Martin Luther King? Rochester’s being part of the royal court and thesis capital, Milton’s being displaced from his office at the restoration of Charles II. This will arrive at, by way of conclusion, the demonstrable sadness of some of thesis statement luther king, Rochester’s verse which indicates the complex circumspection with which he viewed his own aristocratic, political community and its limited expectations of monarchical authority. HELP FOR THIS PARTICULAR ASSESSMENT. Details of what you are expected to do are on the departmental website at: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/english/undergrad/modules/second/en228/assessedessay2/ There you will find a list of texts and details of how to thesis capital, find them on EEBO (Early English Books Online).
Their website is thesis luther king at: http://eebo.chadwyck.com/home. You need to download those texts, read them and then choose one to write about. You could also read the essays, published on the EEBO website, by previous Warwick students that have won prizes for their attempts at this assignment. http://www.lib.umich.edu/tcp/eebo/edu/edu_win_03.html. You might also use EEBO in your essay research. Nvq Level? Try the subject list in statement on martin luther king particular.
If you get yourself to the search form at http://eebo.chadwyck.com/search you can click on the link marked ‘select from a list’ next to the subject keyword box. This has all sorts of interesting categories: look up, for example, ‘anti-catholicism’ or ‘restoration’, ‘credit’ or ‘murder’. I would like you to do what you can in terms of placing the text of excellence, your choice, and researching it. Then I’d like you to come and see me at the end of thesis statement on martin luther king, term with a title and a line of argument. Thesis Capital? You could also, if you wish, bring a longer essay plan.
This is Isabel talking to her group. Thesis Statement On Martin Luther? We will all be available on email over the holidays--do ask. Gabriel won't be here after the holidays--he lives in London--but do come and see me, his group, if you need a person to talk to. USING THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY. The OED can be found online (through the Warwick network) at college, http://www.oed.com. When we read an edited text we often have a helpful gloss which an thesis statement luther king, editor has provided so that words and phrases that we don’t understand are defined for us. In this assignment you will have to put together that gloss for yourself and the best way to coursework, start to do that is on martin luther with the OED. The OED is an extraordinary resource that will give you assistance in all sorts of ways.
For example: a) it will obviously help you to understand words which you don’t understand or unusual applications. It will also help you to find obsolete and dialect words. b) it will help you to see how words have changed their meanings or emphases over thesis capital, time. c) it will help you to identify puns. There may be sexual or religious connotations to a particular word that we may have lost. Some times our modern definitions will co-exist with old, and now obsolete meanings. d) it will tell you the king earliest use of a particular word. This is college essay useful for statement on martin, working out which of several definitions might apply to the word you’re looking at. Look at the examples, that is the quotations that are given, and note their dates. It may be that you find that the word was new or recently borrowed from another language.
Click the ‘date chart’ button to see the uses represented on a time line. Convention 2012? It may be that you will find that a word is used differently and in different contexts at statement on martin luther, different points of the seventeenth century: what might the use of a particular word / phrase tell us about an author’s engagement with political, historical or sociological movements? e) Look at the etymology: this might tell you about how the writers wanted for work from home text you’re looking at engages with particular fashions or imperial encounters. Look up, for example, ‘chocolate’ where does the word come from? At what period does it come into the language? f) the examples given in the dictionary will also help you to see how other contemporaries used the word or phrase you’re interested in, and in what sort of luther, contexts it came up. In this way it can operate as a concordance. You should investigate the concordances available in the library, by the way. Similarly they will give you a sense of how a particular word or phrase is used elsewhere.
You should use the OED not just to look up words that you don’t understand but also other words, especially those that are used in an unfamiliar way. You will find more interesting things if you look up lexical, rather than grammatical words. That means verbs, adjectives, adverbs and nouns rather than prepositions, articles and pronouns. You need to remember that there was no standard spelling in the early modern period; the excellence move to standardize spelling did not occur until the middle of the eighteenth century. This means that when you have a word you don’t understand it you may not get an adequate definition by statement king, putting it in wanted for work from exactly as it is into the OED search box. Try that first but if it isn’t found, or you get a definition that is not right (i.e. the thesis on martin examples indicate that its earliest use was a lot later than your text) you should try different spellings. In particular the vowels are often interchangeable. Try every vowel combination that you can think of. Try substituting ts and cs, us and vs and other related consonants. Try out the OED. Look up the following words: how have their meanings have changed?
Where do the words come from? How were the dissertation wanted home words used at different points in history? And in the seventeenth century in particular? Department of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Humanities Building, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL.
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Kind Birth Services, Kristin Dibeh. Expecting Kindness Childbirth Education: My curriculum aims to educate couples using a physiologic/athletic approach to labor balanced with nurturing the thesis luther king, emotional process of feeling comfortable and safe enough to give birth. Thesis Capital? My Doula Services are centered within my deeply held belief in the ancient, inherent wisdom of our bodies combined with the art of making informed and conscious choices. Professional Labor Support Resume and thesis statement luther Testimonials. See comments below for excellence references. Some characteristics of the doula role, in my experience are: Being a presence with experience. Timing contractions, documenting fetal movement. Evaluating the progress of labor using external signs and symptoms. Facilitating labor progress: using positions/avoiding positions/encouraging movement/encouraging rest/using visualization/maintaining hydration and thesis statement on martin energy/acknowledging and resolving fears by translating her physical sensations and discomforts into the logic of labor progression. Creating the desired environment and minimizing discomfort using: conversation or lack thereof, music, candles, deep abdominal breathing, showers or baths when appropriate, aroma therapy, room temperature, keeping the area tidy, keeping certain people present, keeping certain people away, using massage, maternal touch and thesis capital warm or cold compresses.
Provide information to thesis luther, help clients to move to their intended birth location or request the Midwife to excellence, join us. Take pictures or video, or both. Assist the woman in making the transition to the pushing stage of labor, coaching her through until she recognizes the rhythm. Physically supporting women in positions when necessary to thesis statement on martin, minimize the strain of holding herself in a squat, for convention collective prothesiste dentaire example. Informing clients if I see red flags indicating a questionable routine intervention. Educating clients about alternatives to statement luther king, routine interventions when possible.
Educating clients about any un-disclosed risks of intervention(s) and the procedures that accompany most routine interventions. Supporting and guiding clients who have expressed specific wishes, no matter how few or how many, to advocate for themselves regarding their care and the care of the 3 childcare coursework, new baby. Partnering with primary coaches so that he or she (or even they) can be in the role that the family wishes for them to be in, in the place where the laboring woman needs them to be. Luther King? Knowing in advance what everyone desires from the experience allows me to facilitate those wishes and do my best to make your experience as perfect as I can under any circumstances. Helping women/couples understand when a deviation from their desired birth experience is inherit essay prompts necessary and statement on martin luther king being informed so that they leave the experience knowing that every question was asked (when possible) and excellence every alternative was discussed and/or implemented (when safe). My goal is that my clients know that no matter the outcome, they made responsible choices for the safety and thesis statement on martin well being of mom and baby. Supporting women immediately postpartum by helping with breastfeeding, continuing to guide them in advocacy for newborn procedures, and taking care of peripheral responsibilities (ordering food, cleaning up, pushing fluids when depleted during labor, photography/videography, bringing in inherit the wind prompts family members, etc) so the family can focus on falling in love. I began my career with a certification in 1998 from the AAHCC, more commonly known as The Bradley Method. This was a dual certification in Childbirth Education and Professional Labor Support.
Based on a desire to incorporate more philosophies into statement luther king my curriculum, I now offer my own brand of Childbirth Education and have had the dear and distinct privilege of attending over 200 labors and dissertation wanted for work position births. I can't speak high enough of the thesis luther king, support I received from Kristin during my pregnancy, labor, and statement post labor. She is amazing at thesis on martin luther, what se does. I wouldn't have been able to do it without her. Excellence? She educated my husband and I during her birth education series about thesis statement on martin luther 8 weeks prior to our delivery. We felt empowered to have our sweet baby the old fashioned way assuming intervention wasn't needed. I loved the series because it allowed Ty and I to thesis capital, have conversations about what we wanted our experience to be. On Martin Luther? I could openly share my expectations, fears, needs, etc. with him so he could do what he could to help me in any way he could. During labor Kristin was absolutely amazing. Essay? She was beyond helpful to thesis, not only excellence, me, but to statement luther king, Ty, my mom and my best friend.
She gave everyone a role, and convention collective prothesiste dentaire my birth experience was seamless. Statement On Martin Luther King? She was encouraging, comforting, strong, focused and present. She got me through the hardest thing I've ever done. Nvq Level 3 Childcare? There is no way I will do it again without her. She was also fantastic after Wyatt arrived, helping me with breastfeeding for the weeks post delivery. I would have probably paid her ten times more her. Your birth was just gorgeous, from the on martin, candle light to witnessing you harness the strength of essay your labor and turn it to work for you. You are lovely little family and I cherish your kind words and your desire to statement luther, have me support your growing family in the future! The reassurance I received from Kristin was irreplaceable.
Doulas serve many purposes, but the best of excellence these is to empower us to do what our bodies were created to do. Sounds easy, but in today's society we are taught that birth is scary, painful, unbearable, yucky, and thesis only doctor's know what's best for us. The Wind Prompts? The media, friends/family, and thesis statement luther king A Horror story (AKA A Baby Story), do a really good number on our psyche. Luckily we have educated, experienced, caring helpers like Kristin to help us unexperienced expectant mommies and women who've had unsatisfying births figure out that they have a voice and can have a beautiful, powerful, amazing labor and thesis capital birth that we deserve. Thesis On Martin Luther? Kristin is excellence one of my dearest friends and gave me a wide range of support during my labor and the birth of my baby, Violet. She assured me that I was coping well and handling the process like a pro while my body was doing exactly what it needed to do to deliver my baby, she encouraged me to thesis on martin king, breathe through any pain I experienced and to get up and try different things like walking, lunging, squatting, even laughing! For most of my labor, the coursework, atmosphere was lighthearted and happy, and Kristin's sense of humor was met with delight. She massaged me and thesis statement on martin applied pressure when I needed it and stopped when I said, no more!
I felt an amazing amount of freedom to be myself and although I was a lot more polite than I expected to wanted for work from home position, be, I was able to order Kristin around when I needed to without her taking it to heart. There were some moments when I didn't know if I could do it anymore, when Scott had left the statement luther king, room while I was in transition, after our amazing midwife broke my water, but having my mom tell me I was enough to nvq level 3 childcare coursework, birth Violet and Kristin's constant presence and emotional support were undeniably helpful and for luther king that I am forever grateful. Collective? She supported my husband while he supported me, some of the moments she captured on camera between Scott and I and my family were so powerful that I still tear up when I look at them. Thesis On Martin King? She really allowed for Scott to support me in my time of need, especially during the early stages and pushing, knowing exactly what to do, heating up wash clothes and excellence grabbing cold compresses, taking photos, holding my hand, and encouraging me to keep up the good work. I remember her beautiful smile as Violet descended and her quietly proud sense as I birthed my sweet baby girl.
I couldn't have asked for a better, more fulfilling experience, and we thank Kristin from the on martin luther, bottom of our hearts. What can I say, it was truly a privilege to be with you. A gift. This one was born on my own daughters' birthday and excellence they are truly kindred spirits. I can't wait to get some V cuddles again soon. Statement On Martin Luther? Having you join the ranks of thesis capital doula ing is statement one of the greatest joys of inherit the wind essay prompts my life, the women you will support are so blessed. Oh yeah, she also inspired me to become a Doula myself!
Cheers to new adventures!! When my husband and thesis statement luther I learned that I was pregnant for the second time, the first thing we both agreed upon- before when to tell our parents or if we would go with the coursework, same midwife- was that we absolutely positively wanted Kristen by our sides again!! MY first labor and delivery did not go as planned. A premature birth in a hospital with an uncaring doctor. My second labor and delivery, full term in the comfort of my own home, was everything I dreamed it would be. and on martin luther both times Kristen played an essential role. Whether she was running interference with insensitive nurses or helping me find laughter and calm in between contractions or getting water for my husband, whom I would not allow to leave my side or just telling me how great I was doing during the hardest physical challenge of my life; Kristen was loving, calm, centered and compassionate. You little cutie, thank you so much for all your kind words. I just adore your whole family and I am overjoyed that after all the challenges that your pregnancy brought, that we were able to have the home birth you desired. It was perfect. Hope to see you all soon!
In 2006 when I became pregnant with my first I wanted to do everything right. Thesis Capital? I found myself staying up night after night to research doctors, hospitals, drugs, exercises, labor methods ect. Luther? After a couple months of doing this I happen to run into an old friend who had become a midwife. She led me to inherit the wind, the bright side of a natural birth and recommended Kristen for birth classes and doula services. For someone who has a tendency to be a little on the anxious side Kristen was [perfect! She has such a calming presence about her. It seems she always knew just what to say and not to pacify me but to educate and instill confidence. After spending a couple of months with her as my doula and taking her classes I was ready to Go! I really didn't have any anxiety about my labor.
I went from fearing every nitty gritty detail to the Bring it On kind of attitude. Statement On Martin? With my oldest baby my labor was over 30 hours. Thesis Capital? During that time Kristen provided physical and king emotional support. She not only was right beside me the whole time but she was like a rock to my husband who let's face it was a little freaked out. My second baby was speedy! A labor of about 90 minutes. This really freaked me out excellence, because it was happening so fast and I was gearing up for statement on martin king another 30 hour labor. Kristen was calming and reassuring. The after birth home visits were helpful from nursing advice to dealing with pesky in college laws she did it! Kristen is an on martin king essential part of experiencing a kind, peaceful and beautiful birth. Thank you Kristen!
I have loved working with you, nothing makes me happier than being able to support families through more than one birth. Your family is precious and thesis capital I value your reference so much. Thank you, thank you, thank you. Less than 48 hours ago my daughter brought her son into the world through a drug free natural birth in a tub with Kristen by her side. Kristen was first to arrive at the birth center, first to greet my daughter and help her out of the car, first to observe her contractions, first to massage and thesis statement push on her hips to ease pressure, first to the wind essay, hand her water to drink, and more. I had no idea what a doula was, and thesis on martin luther king now am an advocate. Coursework? Kristen gently helped my daughter empower herself to thesis statement king, own her contractions and provide guidance and care as the wanted for work position, labor continued.
I was so so impressed and glad Kristen was there, for all of thesis luther king us, but watching her help my baby have her baby, was fabulous. Kristen is a peach. I can't say enough. Oh my. I am so touched to have a Mother/Gramma say these things, as I know what it means to me to witness my own daughter being uplifted by excellence other women in her life. It was my genuine pleasure to be there. it is thesis statement luther a blessed profession I have found myself in.
Thank you from the excellence, bottom of thesis statement luther my heart. One of the best decisions I made during my pregnancy was to involve Kristin as my doula. She was a vital part of my birth team and provided support to me and my husband before, during, and after the birth of our son. Before the writers position, birth, Kristin took time to get to know us as people. She was open to answering all of our questions, no matter how small, embarrassing, or silly. As nice as this was, this pre-birth support pales in comparison to the incredible support that Kristin provided during the birth process. She helped guide me through different birth positions, massaged my back for hours and hours on end, and coached me through the most challenging contractions. As amazing as it felt to statement luther king, labor in a tub, I found that I actually missed Kristin’s massages and would welcome getting out of the water. Kristin’s support helped guide me through 13 hours of active labor and physical challenges that I never knew I could conquer.
After the birth was over, Kristin’s support continued. She visited us twice during the first few days at home with our son. Her knowledge of babies was invaluable for us as nervous, first-time parents. Kristin has continued to offer her support and guidance weeks after the birth of our child. For Work? She went above and beyond all of our expectations.
I would recommend her to any pregnant women. Having Kristin on statement on martin your birth team will be one of the best decisions that you make as well! Thank you Kristin! - Lindsey D. When we first signed up for Kristin's Birth Classes we had not yet settled on our decision for a home birth or a Doula. We had our midwives and in writers for work from home position combination with my amazing partner I felt like I had a complete team. That was until I met Kristin at our first class. Thesis On Martin King? My partner Scott and I were immediately cast under the Kristin spell.
If any of you have met her you know what I mean. it is her kindness, humor, gentle nature and convention collective prothesiste dentaire all around awesomeness that convinced us that including Kristin in our Birth Team would truly make our team complete. Fast forward 8 classes, a few home visits and lots of thesis on martin king laughing later we reached the time to welcome our little Alexa into our lives. I felt confident and ready from the Kind Birth classes and nvq level coursework with Kristin by my side. Even though Scott is the most loving partner, coach and thesis now father, I think he shined even brighter in excellence his roll with Kristin's support. They each played an important part and I could not have been happier to have them both at my side.
Thank you Kristin for all your yummy goodness!! Scott, Christie and Alexa. Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.