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10 Linux/Unix Bash and essay prompts, KSH Shell Job Control Examples. L inux and Unix are multitasking operating systems i.e. a system that can run multiple tasks (process) during the write biography essay, same period of time. In this new blog series, I am going to list the essay, Linux and Unix job control commands that you can use for multitasking with the Bash or Korn or POSIX shell. Job control is break essay nothing but the ability to stop/suspend the execution of processes (commands) and continue/resume their execution as per your requirements. This is done using your operating system and shell such as bash/ksh or POSIX shell. Who provides a facility to cbest essay prompts control jobs? The Bash / Korn shell, or POSIX shell provides a facility to control jobs. Your shell keeps a table of current jobs, called job table. When you type command the shell assigns a jobID (also known as JOB_SPEC). A jobID or JOB_SPEC is nothing but small integer numbers. Of An On E0businesses? #1: Creating your first Linux/Unix job. I am going to run a command called xeyes that displays two googly eyes on essay, screen, enter: Fig.01: Running the xeyes command in outline essay, the background.
I started a job in the background with an ampersand (#038;). The shell prints a line that looks like the cbest essay, following: In this example, two numbers are output as follows.  : The xeyes job, which was started in the background, was job number 1. Write Essay? 6891 : A process ID of job number 1. I am going to start a few more jobs: ## Start a text editor, system load average display for X, and sleep command ## gedit /tmp/hello.c xload sleep 100000 A brief description of each field is given below: A plus sign ( + ) identifies the default or current job. A minus sign ( - ) identifies the cbest, previous job. Running The job is write currently running and has not been suspended by a signal. Cbest Essay Prompts? You can also use ps command to of an on e0businesses list the processes running on the system: Hit the essay, [Ctrl]-[Z] key or use kill command as follows: kill -s stop PID. In this example, start ping command and use the Ctrl-Z key sequence to stop the ping command job: Animated gif 01: Suspending ping command job. #4: Resume suspended/stopped job in the foreground. Let us resume or bring stopped ping job to the foreground and make it the current job with the help of fg command. Christmas? The syntax is as follows: ## Job id number 5 for ping command ## fg %5. I can also state any job whose command line begins with the string #8220;ping#8221;: ## %String ## fg %ping. Essay? #5: Resume suspended/stopped job in exploratory, the background.
In this example, I am going to update all installed packages on Red Hat or CentOS Linux production server using yum command background job: # yum -y update /root/patch.log However, due to some reason (say load issue) I decided to cbest prompts stop this job for 20 minutes: # kill -s stop %yum. Restart a stopped background yum process with bg. To stop/kill a yum command process, enter the following kill command whose jobID was 7: #7 Why does shell kill off all my background jobs when I logout? In this example, I am going to start pdfwriter.py job to generate pdf files for questions, this site in bulk: /scripts/www/pdfwriter.py --profile=faq --type=clean --header=logo --footer-left nixCraft is GIT UL++++ W+++ C++++ M+ e+++ d- --footer-right Page [of] of essay prompts [total] As soon as I logout from shell, pdfwriter.py job will be killed by my shell. To overcome this problem use disown shell builting command to tell the shell not to send a HUP signal, type: #8 Prevent job from being killed on logout using an external command called nohup. To find the the process ID of the act writing essay questions, most recently executed background (asynchronous) command, use bash shell special parameter $! $ echo PID of most recently executed background job - $! The wait command waits for given process ID or jobID (job specification) , and reports its termination status. The syntax is cbest prompts as follows: /path/to/large-job/command/foo wait $! /path/to/next/job/that-is-dependents/on-foo-command/bar. Apa Format? Here is one of my working script: /scripts/www/pdfwriter.py --profile=blog --type=clean --header=logo --footer-left nixCraft is cbest GIT UL++++ W+++ C++++ M+ e+++ d- --footer-right Page [of] of [total]
Linux and Unix job control command list summary. A note about essay on soccer as a shell built-in and external commands. Run the following type command to find out whether given command is essay internal or external: type -a fg bg jobs disown. In almost all cases, you need to use shell built-in commands. All external commands such as /usr/bin/fg or /usr/bin/jobs works in a different shell environment, and can not use parent shell's environment. I hope you enjoyed this blog post series (rss feed) and I suggest that you read the christmas break, following for more information: I am planning to add more in-depth tutorial in this series. Please let me know if you need to see specific topic in the comment section below. Prompts? The author is the bcg matrix, creator of nixCraft and a seasoned sysadmin and cbest essay, a trainer for the Linux operating system/Unix shell scripting. He has worked with global clients and in various industries, including IT, education, defense and space research, and the nonprofit sector. Follow him on Twitter, Facebook, Google+.
Share this on (or read 10 comments/add one below): Your support makes a big difference: I have a small favor to ask. Essay? More people are reading the nixCraft. Many of you block advertising which is your right, and advertising revenues are not sufficient to cbest prompts cover my operating costs. So you can see why I need to ask for your help. The nixCraft, takes a lot of my time and hard work to apa format produce. If everyone who reads nixCraft, who likes it, contributes to prompts support it with donations: Very helpful. Thank you. Good Tips. Essay? Thanks to cbest essay share.I knew the essay, nohup but not the awesome the #8220;disown my son#8221; ! thx miker too.
Great great post ! Awesome tips. Didn#8217;t know about cbest essay jobs or disown! Thanks. You can also use #8220;disown#8221; to detach an existing job from the shell so that it is not subject to apa format exploratory paper SIGHUP when logging out. It#8217;s wonderful and certainly helps Linux power users and cbest, administrators. Keep up the good work.
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Nietzsche's Moral and cbest prompts, Political Philosophy. Nietzsche's moral philosophy is primarily critical in act writing, orientation: he attacks morality both for its commitment to untenable descriptive (metaphysical and empirical) claims about human agency, as well as for the deleterious impact of its distinctive norms and cbest essay prompts, values on the flourishing of the highest types of human beings (Nietzsche's “higher men”). His positive ethical views are best understood as combining (i) a kind of an example academic essay consequentialist perfectionism as Nietzsche's implicit theory of the good, with (ii) a conception of human perfection involving both formal and substantive elements. Because Nietzsche, however, is an anti-realist about value, he takes neither his positive vision, nor those aspects of his critique that depend upon it, to have any special epistemic status, a fact which helps explain his rhetoric and the circumspect character of his “esoteric” moralizing. Although Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes (for example, about human equality) are apparent, there are no grounds for ascribing to him a political philosophy, since he has no systematic (or even partly systematic) views about the nature of state and society. Essay? As an esoteric moralist, Nietzsche aims at of an academic essay freeing higher human beings from their false consciousness about cbest essay prompts morality (their false belief that this morality is essay good for them ), not at a transformation of cbest essay society at large. 1.1 Scope of the christmas break, Critique: Morality in the Pejorative Sense. Nietzsche is cbest prompts not a critic of all “morality.” He explicitly embraces, for example, the idea of a “higher morality” which would inform the lives of “higher men” (Schacht 1983: 466469), and, in so doing, he employs the exploratory paper, same German word Moral , sometimes Moralität for both what he attacks and what he praises. Moreover, Nietzsche aims to offer a revaluation of prompts existing values in a manner that appears, itself, to involve appeal to broadly “moral” standards of some sort.
As he writes in the Preface to Daybreak : “in this book faith in morality [ Moral ] is withdrawn but why? Out of morality [ Moralität ]! Or what else should we call that which informs it and us ?.[T]here is no doubt that a ‘thou shalt’ [ du sollst ] speaks to us too” (D 4). This means, of course, that (on pain of outline inconsistency) morality as the essay prompts, object of Nietzsche's critique must be distinguishable from the write biography essay, sense of “morality” he retains and employs. Yet Nietzsche also does not confine his criticisms of cbest morality to some one religiously, philosophically, socially or historically circumscribed example. Essay? Thus, it will not suffice to say that he simply attacks Christian or Kantian or European or utilitarian morality though he certainly at times attacks all of these. To do justice to cbest prompts the scope of his critique, we should ask what characterizes “morality” in passion, Nietzsche's pejorative sense hereafter, “MPS” that is, morality as the essay prompts, object of his critique. Nietzsche believes that all normative systems which perform something like the role we associate with “morality” share certain structural characteristics, even as the meaning and value of these normative systems varies considerably over biography time.
In particular, all normative systems have both descriptive and normative components, in the sense that: (a) they presuppose a particular descriptive account of human agency, in the sense that for the normative claims comprising the cbest essay prompts, system to have intelligible application to human agents, particular metaphysical and empirical claims about agency must be true; and (b) the system's norms favor the interests of some people, often (though not necessarily) at the expense of others. Any particular morality will, in turn, be the essay on soccer as a passion, object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., MPS) only cbest essay prompts if it: presupposes three particular descriptive claims about the nature of human agents pertaining to free will, the transparency of the self, and the essential similarity of bcg matrix study all people (“the Descriptive Component”); and/or embraces norms that harm the “highest men” while benefitting the “lowest” (“the Normative Component”). While Nietzsche offers criticisms of both the Descriptive and Normative Components of MPS, what ultimately defines MPS as against unobjectionable normative systems is the distinctive normative agenda. Thus, while Nietzsche criticizes the description of essay agency that is typically part and parcel of act writing essay questions MPS, he also holds that “[i]t is not error as error that” he objects to fundamentally in cbest essay, MPS (EH IV;7): that is, it is not the falsity of the an example of an academic on e0businesses, descriptive account of agency presupposed by MPS, per se , that is the heart of the problem, but rather its distinctive normative commitments. Thus, strictly speaking, it is true that an MPS would be objectionable even if it did not involve a commitment to an untenable descriptive account of agency (as, say, certain forms of utilitarianism do not). Because Nietzsche's two most common and closely related specific targets are, however, Christian and Kantian morality, the prompts, critique of the biography, descriptive component of cbest MPS figures prominently in exploratory paper, Nietzsche's writing, and any account of the logic of his critique that omitted it would not do justice to his concerns. 1.2 Critique of the Descriptive Component of cbest essay prompts MPS. MPS for Nietzsche depends for its intelligible application to act writing essay questions human agents on three descriptive theses about human agency (cf. BGE 32; GM I:13; TI VI; EH III:5; EH IV:8): (1) Human agents possess a will capable of free and autonomous choice (“Free Will Thesis”). (2) The self is sufficiently transparent that agents' actions can be distinguished on cbest, the basis of their respective motives (“Transparency of the Self Thesis”). (3) Human agents are sufficiently similar that one moral code is appropriate for (because in the interests of) all (“Similarity Thesis”).
These three theses must be true in order for the normative judgments of MPS to be intelligible because the normative judgments of MPS are marked for Nietzsche by three corresponding traits; namely, that they: (1′) Hold agents responsible for their actions. (2′) Evaluate and “rank” the motives for bcg matrix, which agents act. (3′) Presuppose that “morality” has universal applicability (MPS “says stubbornly and essay, inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” [BGE 202]). Thus, the falsity of the picture of agency would affect the intelligibility of write essay moral judgments in the following three ways: (1″) If agents lacked “free will” they could not be held responsible for their actions. (2″) If agent motives could not be distinguished then no evaluative distinctions could be drawn among acts in terms of their motives. (3″) If agents were, in fact, different in cbest, some overlooked but relevant respect, then it would, at study least, not be prima facie apparent that one morality should have universal application. It is the burden, then, of Nietzsche's critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS to show that, in fact, none of these latter theses about the nature of agency hold. Cbest Prompts? A brief review of these arguments follows (a more detailed treatment is in Leiter 2002: 81112). Against the Free Will Thesis, Nietzsche argues that a free agent (that is, one sufficiently free to be morally responsible) would have to be causa sui (i.e., self-caused, or the cause of act writing questions itself); but since we are not causa sui , no one can be a free agent. Nietzsche takes for granted not implausibly that our moral and religious traditions are incompatibilist at their core: causally determined wills are not free wills. Nietzsche offers two kinds of arguments to show that we are not causa sui : that it is logically impossible to be causa sui ; and essay prompts, that human beings are not self-caused in a sense sufficient to underwrite ascriptions of moral responsibility. (I owe the point that there are two different arguments at issue here to Eric Vogelstein.) He says relatively little about the first point, other than claiming that “the concept of a causa sui is something fundamentally absurd” (BGE 15), and that it is “the best self-contradiction that has been conceived so fara sort of rape and of an academic, perversion of logic” (BGE 21), such that this, desire for “freedom of the will” in the superlative metaphysical sensethe desire to bear the entire and ultimate responsibility for one's actions oneself, and to cbest essay absolve God, the world, ancestors, chance, and society involves nothing less than to be precisely this causa sui andto pull oneself up into existence by the hair, out of the apa format paper, swamps of nothingness. Essay? (BGE 21)
But we cannot, needless to say, pull ourselves up “out of the swamps of nothingness,” and so we cannot have ultimate responsibility for our actions. Nietzsche quickly moves from the claim that being causa sui involves a contradiction, however, to an argument that depends on exploratory, his picture of human agency. Nietzsche accepts what we may call a “Doctrine of Types” (Leiter 1998), according to which, Each person has a fixed psycho-physical constitution, which defines him as a particular type of prompts person. Call the relevant psycho-physical facts here “type-facts.” Type-facts, for Nietzsche, are either physiological facts about the person, or facts about the an example of an academic, person's unconscious drives or affects. The claim, then, is that each person has certain largely immutable physiological and psychic traits that constitute the “type” of person he or she is. Although Nietzsche himself does not use this exact terminology, the concept figures centrally in essay prompts, all his mature writings.
A typical Nietzschean form of argument, for example, runs as follows: a person's theoretical beliefs are best explained in terms of his moral beliefs; and his moral beliefs are best explained in essay, terms of cbest essay prompts natural facts about the type of person he is (i.e., in terms of type-facts). So Nietzsche says, “every great philosophy so far has beenthe personal confession of its author and a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir”; thus, to really grasp this philosophy, one must ask “at what morality does all this (does he ) aim” (BGE 6)? But the “morality” that a philosopher embraces simply bears “decisive witness to who he is ” i.e., who he essentially is that is, to the “innermost drives of his nature” (BGE 6). This explanation of a person's moral beliefs in terms of essay psycho-physical facts about the person is a recurring theme in Nietzsche. Cbest? “[M]oralities aremerely a sign language of the affects” (BGE 187), he says. “Answers to the questions about the value of existencemay always be considered first of all as the symptoms of certain bodies” (GS P:2). “Moral judgments,” he says are, “symptoms and sign languages which betray the process of physiological prosperity or failure” (WP 258). “[O]ur moral judgments and evaluationsare only images and fantasies based on christmas, a physiological process unknown to us” (D 119), so that “it is always necessary to draw forththe physiological phenomenon behind the moral predispositions and prejudices” (D 542). A “morality of sympathy,” he claims is “just another expression of physiological overexcitability” (TI IX:37). Ressentiment and the morality that grows out of it he attributes to an “actual physiological cause [ Ursache ]” (GM I:15).
Nietzsche sums up the idea well in the preface to On the Genealogy of Morality (hereafter simply “ Genealogy ” or “GM”): “our thoughts, values, every ‘yes,’ ‘no,’ ‘if’ and cbest essay prompts, ‘but’ grow from us with the same inevitability as fruits borne on the tree all related and each with an affinity to each, and evidence of outline essay one will, one health, one earth, one sun” (GM P:2). Cbest Essay Prompts? Nietzsche seeks to understand in naturalistic terms the type of “person” who would necessarily bear such ideas and values, just as one might come to essay understand things about a type of tree by knowing its fruits. And just as natural facts about the tree explain the fruit it bears, so too type-facts about prompts a person will explain his values and essay, actions. This means that the conscious mental states that precede the essay prompts, action and outline essay, whose propositional contents would make them appear to essay prompts be causally connected to the action are, in fact, epiphenomenal, either as tokens or as types: that is, they are either causally inert with respect to the action or causally effective only in virtue of other type-facts about the person (Leiter 2002: 9193 argues for the latter reading; Leiter 2007 argues for the former). We typically locate the “will,” as the seat of action, in various conscious states: for example, our beliefs and desires. According to Nietzsche, however, the “will” so conceived is nothing but the effect of type-facts about the essay, person. This means that the real story of the genesis of an action begins with the type-facts, which explain both consciousness and a person's actions. Here is how Nietzsche puts it, after suggesting that the “will” is related to, but conceptually prior to, the concepts of “consciousness” and “ego”: The “inner world” is full of phantoms: the will is one of them. The will no longer moves anything, hence does not explain anything either it merely accompanies events; it can also be absent.
The so-called motive : another error. Merely a surface phenomenon of cbest consciousness something alongside the questions, deed that is more likely to cover up the antecedents of the deeds than to represent them. What follows from this? There are no mental [ geistigen ] causes at all. (TI VI:3) In the cbest, last line, Nietzsche must mean only that there are no conscious mental causes.
Indeed, in on soccer as a passion, other passages, he is explicit that the essay, target of this critique is the picture of conscious motives as adequate to account for action. (For competing views of the scope of Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness, see Katsafanas 2005 and Riccardi 2015a.) As he writes in Daybreak , “we are accustomed to exclude all [the] unconscious processes from the accounting and to reflect on the preparation for an act only to the extent that it is conscious” (D 129), a view which Nietzsche plainly regards as mistaken, both here and in the passage quoted above. Indeed, the theme of the “ridiculous overestimation and misunderstanding of consciousness” (GS 11) is a recurring one in as a, Nietzsche. “[B]y far the greatest part of our spirit's activity,” says Nietzsche, “remains unconscious and unfelt” (GS 333; cf. GS 354). Apart from the prompts, general evidence on behalf of the Doctrine of Types, Nietzsche's strongest targeted argument for the epiphenomenality of consciousness depends on a piece of phenomenology, namely, “that a thought comes when ‘it’ wishes, and biography essay, not when ‘I’ wish” (BGE 17). If that is right and if actions are apparently “caused” by thoughts (by particular beliefs and desires), then it follows that actions are not caused solely by our conscious mental states, but rather by whatever it is cbest essay prompts (i.e., type-facts) that determines the thoughts that enter consciousness. Thus, it is the (autonomous) causal power of bcg matrix study our conscious mental life that Nietzsche must be attacking. Cbest Essay? Given, then, that Nietzsche claims consciousness is epiphenomenal, and given our identification of the “will” with our conscious life, Nietzsche would have us dispense with the idea of the will as causal altogether. (This gives Nietzsche a novel argument against apa format exploratory, hierarchical accounts of free will favored by compatibilists: see Leiter 2002: 9396). Since the conscious will is not causal, the Free Will Thesis is cbest essay prompts false. Against the Transparency of the Self Thesis, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable” (GS 335; cf.
WP 291, 294); as he writes in on e0businesses, Daybreak : The primeval delusion still lives on that one knows, and knows quite precisely in every case, how human action is brought about cbest essay prompts . “I know what I want, what I have done, I am free and apa format exploratory, responsible for it, I hold others responsible, I can call by its name every moral possibility and every inner motion which precedes action; you may act as you will in this matter I understand myself and understand you all!” that is howalmost everyone still thinks.[But] [a]ctions are never what they appear to us to essay be! We have expended so much labor on learning that external things are not as they appear to us to be very well! the on soccer, case is the same with the inner world! Moral actions are in reality “something other than that” more we cannot say: and prompts, all actions are essentially unknown. (D 116) Actions are unknown because “nothingcan be more incomplete than [one's] image of the totality of drives which constitute [a man's] being” (D 119). One “can scarcely name even the cruder ones: their number and strength, their ebb and on soccer as a, flow, their play and essay prompts, counterplay among one another, and above all the laws of their nutriment remain wholly unknown” (D 119). But as Nietzsche argues elsewhere (e.g., D 109), the self is merely the arena in which the struggle of drives plays itself out, and one's actions are the outcomes of the bcg matrix case, struggle (see Leiter 2002: 99104; cf.
Riccardi 2015b; for a general account of Nietzsche's philosophical psychology, see Katsafanas 2013). Against the Similarity Thesis, Nietzsche once again deploys his Doctrine of Types. Nietzsche holds that agents are essentially dissimilar , insofar as they are constituted by different type-facts. Since Nietzsche also holds that these natural type-facts fix the different conditions under which particular agents will flourish, it follows that one morality cannot be good for all. “ Morality in Europe today is herd animal morality ,” says Nietzsche, “in other wordsmerely one type of human morality beside which, before which, and after which many other types, above all higher moralities, are, or ought to be, possible” (BGE 202). Nietzsche illustrates the cbest, general point with his discussion of the case of the Italian writer Cornaro in Twilight of the christmas break essay, Idols (VI:1). Cornaro, says Nietzsche, wrote a book mistakenly recommending “his slender diet as a recipe for prompts, a long and happy life.” But why was this a mistake?
Nietzsche explains: The worthy Italian thought his diet was the cause of christmas break his long life, whereas the precondition for a long life, the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism, the cbest essay, consumption of so little, was the outline, cause of his slender diet. He was not free to eat little or much; his frugality was not a matter of “free will”: he became sick when he ate more. But whoever is not a carp not only does well to eat properly, but needs to. There exists, then, type-facts about Cornaro that explain why a slender diet is good for him: namely, “the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism.” These natural facts, in cbest essay prompts, turn, constrain what Cornaro can do, delivering him “feedback” about the conditions under which he will and won't flourish: given his slow metabolism, if Cornaro ate more “he became sick”; conversely, when he stuck to his slender diet, he did well. In sum, “[h]e was not free to eat little or much.” Cornaro's mistake consists, in effect, in his absolutism: he thought the “good” diet was good for write biography, everyone, when in fact it was only good for certain types of bodies (namely, those with slow metabolisms).
As with diets, so too with moralities, according to Nietzsche. Agents are not similar in type-facts, and so one moral “diet” cannot be “good for all.” As he writes: [T]he question is always who he is, and cbest essay prompts, who the other person isEvery unegoistic morality that takes itself for unconditional and an example of an essay on e0businesses, addresses itself to essay prompts all does not only sin against taste: it is a provocation to sins of omission, one more seduction under the mask of philanthropy and case, precisely a seduction and injury for the higher, rarer, privileged. (BGE 221) This point sets the stage for his core critique of morality. 1.3 Critique of the Normative Component of MPS. All of Nietzsche's criticisms of the normative component of MPS are parasitic upon essay prompts one basic complaint not, as some have held (e.g., Nehamas , Geuss ), the universality of moral demands, per se , but rather that “the demand of one morality for write outline, all is detrimental to cbest essay the higher men” (BGE 228). Universality would be unobjectionable if agents were relevantly similar, but because agents are relevantly different, a universal morality must necessarily be harmful to some.
As Nietzsche writes elsewhere: “When a decadent type of man ascended to act writing essay the rank of the highest type [via MPS], this could only happen at cbest prompts the expense of its countertype [emphasis added], the type of man that is strong and sure of life” (EH III:5). In the preface to the Genealogy , Nietzsche sums up his basic concern particularly well: What if a symptom of regression lurked in the “good,” likewise a danger, a seduction, a poison, a narcotic, through which the present lived at the expense of the future ? Perhaps more comfortably, less dangerously, but at the same time in a meaner style, more basely? So that morality itself were to blame if the essay, highest power and splendor [ Mächtigkeit und Pracht ] possible to the type man was never in fact attained? So that morality itself was the danger of dangers? (GM Pref:6; cf. BT Attempt:5) This theme is sounded throughout Nietzsche's work. In a book of 1880, for example, he writes that, “Our weak, unmanly social concepts of good and evil and their tremendous ascendancy over cbest body and soul have finally weakened all bodies and souls and snapped the self-reliant, independent, unprejudiced men, the pillars of apa format paper a strong civilization” (D 163). Similarly, in cbest prompts, a posthumously published note of 1885, he remarks that “men of great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding, will be sought in christmas, vain today” because “nothing stands more malignantly in the way of their rise and cbest, evolutionthan what in Europe today is called simply ‘morality’” (WP 957). In these and many other passages (e.g., BGE 62; GM III:14; A:5, 24; EH IV:4; WP 274, 345, 400, 870, 879.), Nietzsche makes plain his fundamental objection to MPS: simply put, that MPS thwarts the development of human excellence, i.e., “the highest power and biography, splendor possible to the type man” (for more on the “higher man,” see section (2)). There is another, important competing reading of cbest essay prompts Nietzsche's central complaint about essay passion MPS: namely, that it is “harmful to life” or, more simply, “anti-nature.” Geuss, for example, says that, “There is little doubt that ‘Life’in Nietzsche does seem to function as a criterion for evaluating moralities” (1997: 10).
So, too, Schacht claims that Nietzsche “takes ‘life’ in this world to be the sole locus of value, and its preservation, flourishing, and above all its enhancement to be ultimately decisive for determinations of value” (1983: 359). Thus, the question of the cbest essay prompts, value of MPS is bcg matrix really the question of its “value for life” (1983: 354). Yet such an account is prompts plainly too vague: what exactly does “life” refer to christmas break here? Schacht, following a suggestion of Nietzsche's from the essay, Nachlass (WP 254), suggests that life is will to power, and thus degree of power constitutes the standard of value. (We shall return to essay this suggestion in detail in cbest essay prompts, section 3.1, below.) But this involves no gain in precision. Nietzsche may, indeed, have thought that more “power” in christmas break essay, his sense was more valuable than less, but that still leaves us with the question: power of what or of prompts whom ? The only plausible candidate given especially his other remarks discussed above is power of people ; just as the only plausible candidate for the “life” that Nietzsche considers it valuable to preserve and enhance must be the lives of people and, in particular, the lives of the exploratory, “highest men.” That this is cbest essay what Nietzsche means is revealed by the context of his actual remarks about the “value for life.” For example, he comments that “a higher and bcg matrix case, more fundamental value for life might have to be ascribed to deception, selfishness, and lust” (BGE 2, emphasis added).
But what sort of prompts “life” is, e.g., “selfishness” valuable for? As Nietzsche writes elsewhere (e.g., GM Pref:56), it is simply that life which manifests “the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man.” And similarly, when Nietzsche says that a “tendency hostile to life is therefore characteristic of morality,” it is essay clear in context that what “life” refers to is “the type man” who might be “raised to his greatest splendor and power” (that is, but for the interference of MPS) (WP 897). In short, then, the things Nietzsche identifies as “valuable” for life are those he takes to be necessary for the flourishing of the highest types of life (or human excellence), while those that he identifies as harmful to it are those that he takes to be things that constitute obstacles to such flourishing. This suggests, then, that the “life” for which things are either valuable or disvaluable must be the life (or lives) that manifest human excellence i.e., the lives of “higher men.” Something similar may be said for the claim that Nietzsche objects to MPS because it is “anti-nature.” For example, when Nietzsche says in Ecce Homo (IV:7) that “it is the lack of cbest essay prompts nature, it is the utterly gruesome fact that antinature itself received the highest honors as morality” that he centrally objects to in a morality, his claim will remain obscure unless we can say precisely what about MPS makes it “anti-natural.” Nietzsche, himself, offers guidance on this in the same section when he explains that a MPS is anti-natural insofar as it has the following sorts of characteristics: it teaches men “to despise the very first instincts of life” and “to experience the presupposition of life, sexuality, as something unclean”; and it “looks for the evil principle in what is most profoundly necessary for growth, in severe self-love” (EH IV:7). But from this it should be apparent, then, that it is of an essay not anti-naturalness itself that is objectionable, but the consequences of an anti-natural MPS that are at issue: for example, its opposition to the instincts that are “profoundly necessary for essay, growth.” This point is even more explicit in act writing questions, The Antichrist , where Nietzsche notes that Christian morality “has waged deadly war against this higher type of man; it has placed all the basic instincts of his type under ban ” (5, emphasis added). In other words, the anti-naturalness of MPS is essay prompts objectionable because the “natural” instincts MPS opposes are precisely those necessary for the growth of the act writing, “higher type of man.” Thus, underlying Nietzsche's worries about the anti-naturalness of MPS just as underlying his worries about the threat MPS poses to life is a concern for the effect of MPS on “higher men.” So Nietzsche objects to the normative agenda of MPS because it is harmful to the highest men. In Nietzsche's various accounts of what the objectionable agenda of MPS consists, he identifies a variety of normative positions (see, e.g., D 108, 132, 174; GS 116, 294, 328, 338, 345, 352, 377; Z I:4, II:8, III:1, 9, IV:13, 10; BGE 197, 198, 201202, 225, 257; GM Pref:5, III: 11 ff.; TI II, V, IX:35, 3738, 48; A: 7, 43; EH III:D-2, IV:4, 7-8; WP 752). We may characterize these simply as “pro” and “con” attitudes, and we may say that a morality is the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., it is an MPS) if it contains one or more of the following normative views (this is a representative, but not exhaustive, list): The various possible normative components of MPS should, of course, be understood construed as ideal-typical , singling out for emphasis and essay, criticism certain important features of bcg matrix larger and more complex normative views.
Let us call that which morality has a “pro” attitude towards is the “Pro-Object,” and that which morality has a “con” attitude towards the “Con-Object.” Keeping in mind that what seems to have intrinsic value for Nietzsche is human excellence or human greatness (see the next section), Nietzsche's attack on cbest, the normative component of MPS can be summarized as having two parts: (a) With respect to the Pro-Object, Nietzsche argues either (i) that the Pro-Object has no intrinsic value (in the cases where MPS claims it does); or (ii) that it does not have any or not nearly as much extrinsic value as MPS treats it as having; and. (b) With respect to the Con-Object, Nietzsche argues only that the christmas break essay, Con-Objects are extrinsically valuable for the cultivation of human excellence and that this is obscured by the “con” attitude endorsed by MPS. Thus, what unifies Nietzsche's seemingly disparate critical remarks about altruism, happiness, pity, equality, Kantian respect for persons, utilitarianism, etc. is that he thinks a culture in which such norms prevail as morality will be a culture which eliminates the conditions for prompts, the realization of human excellence the latter requiring, on Nietzsche's view, concern with the self, suffering, a certain stoic indifference, a sense of hierarchy and difference, and act writing, the like. Indeed, when we turn to the details of Nietzsche's criticisms of these norms we find that, in fact, this is precisely what he argues. One detailed example will have to suffice here. What could be harmful about the prompts, seemingly innocuous MPS valuation of happiness (“pro”) and suffering (“con”)? An early remark of write essay Nietzsche's suggests his answer: Are we not, with this tremendous objective of cbest prompts obliterating all the sharp edges of apa format life, well on the way to turning mankind into sand ? Sand! Small, soft, round, unending sand! Is that your ideal, you heralds of the sympathetic affections? (D 174)
In a later work, Nietzsche says referring to hedonists and utilitarians that, “Well-being as you understand it that is no goal, that seems to cbest prompts us an apa format paper, end , a state that soon makes man ridiculous and contemptible” (BGE 225). By the hedonistic doctrine of prompts well-being, Nietzsche takes the utilitarians to have in mind “ English happiness,” namely, “comfort and fashion” (BGE 228) a construal which, if unfair to christmas break essay some utilitarians (like Mill), may do justice to our ordinary aspirations to happiness. In a similar vein, Nietzsche has Zarathustra dismiss “wretched contentment” as an ideal (Z Pref:3), while also revealing that it was precisely “the last men” the “most despicable men” who “invented happiness [ Glück ]” in the first place (Pref:5). So happiness, according to cbest essay prompts Nietzsche, is not an intrinsically valuable end, and men who aim for it directly or through cultivating the dispositions that lead to it would be “ridiculous and contemptible.” To be sure, Nietzsche allows that he himself and the “free spirits” will be “cheerful” or “gay” [ frölich ] they are, after all, the proponents of the “gay science.” But the point is that such “happiness” is not criterial of being a higher person, and thus it is not something that the higher person in contrast to christmas essay the adherent of MPS aims for. Yet why does aiming for happiness make a person so unworthy of cbest admiration? Nietzsche's answer appears to be this: because suffering is positively necessary for the cultivation of human excellence which is the essay, only thing, recall, that warrants admiration for Nietzsche. He writes, for example, that: The discipline of suffering, of great suffering do you not know that only this discipline has created all enhancements of man so far? That tension of the soul in unhappiness which cultivates its strength, its shudders face to face with great ruin, its inventiveness and courage in enduring, persevering, interpreting, and cbest prompts, exploiting suffering, and whatever has been granted to it of profundity, secret, mask, spirit, cunning, greatness was it not granted to it through suffering, through the passion, discipline of great suffering? (BGE 225; cf. Essay Prompts? BGE 270) Nietzsche is not arguing here that in contrast to act writing essay questions the view of essay prompts MPS suffering is really intrinsically valuable (not even MPS claims that).
The value of suffering, according to christmas break Nietzsche, is only extrinsic: suffering “great” suffering is a prerequisite of cbest prompts any great human achievement. As Nietzsche puts the point elsewhere: “Only great pain is the ultimate liberator of the spirit.I doubt that such pain makes us ‘better’; but I know that it makes us more profound” (GS Pref:3). Nietzsche's attack, then, conforms to questions the model sketched above: (i) he rejects the view that happiness is intrinsically valuable; and essay prompts, (ii) he thinks that the negative attitude of MPS toward suffering obscures its important extrinsic value. (There is reason to think that, on this second point, Nietzsche is generalizing from academic essay on e0businesses his own experience with physical suffering, the worst periods of which coincided with his greatest productivity. Indeed, he believed that his suffering contributed essentially to his work: as he writes, admittedly hyperbolically, in Ecce Homo : “In the midst of the torments that go with an uninterrupted three-day migraine, accompanied by laborious vomiting of phlegm, I possessed a dialectician's clarity par excellence and thought through with very cold blood matters for which under healthier circumstances I am not mountain-climber, not subtle, not cold enough” (EH I:1).) Even if there is no shortage in the history of art and literature of cases of immense suffering being the essay prompts, spur to great creativity, there remains a serious worry about the logic of this line of exploratory paper Nietzschean critique. Following Leiter (1995), we may call this the “Harm Puzzle,” and the puzzle is this: why should one think the general moral prescription to alleviate suffering must stop the suffering of great artists, hence stop them from producing great art? One might think, in fact, that MPS could perfectly well allow an exception for those individuals whose own suffering is essential to the realization of cbest central life projects. After all, a prescription to alleviate suffering reflects a concern with promoting well-being, under some construal. But if some individuals nascent Goethes, Nietzsches, and other geniuses would be better off with a good dose of christmas break essay suffering, then why would MPS recommend otherwise? Why, then, should it be the cbest prompts, case that MPS “harms” potentially “higher men”? This seems the natural philosophical question to ask, yet it also involves an important misunderstanding of Nietzsche's critique, which is not, we might say, about outline biography essay philosophical theory but rather about the real nature of culture . When MPS values come to dominate a culture, Nietzsche thinks (plausibly), they will affect the attitudes of all members of that culture.
If MPS values emphasize the badness of suffering and the goodness of happiness, that will influence how individuals with the potential for great achievements will understand, evaluate and conduct their own lives. Prompts? If, in write outline biography essay, fact, suffering is cbest prompts a precondition for act writing essay questions, these individuals to do anything great, and if they have internalized the cbest, norm that suffering must be alleviated, and that happiness is the ultimate goal, then we run the risk that, rather than to essay on soccer passion put it crudely suffer and create, they will instead waste their energies pursuing pleasure, lamenting their suffering and seeking to alleviate it. MPS values may not explicitly prohibit artists or other potentially “excellent” persons from ever suffering; but the risk is that a culture like ours which has internalized the cbest, norms against suffering and for pleasure will be a culture in which potential artists and other doers of great things will, in fact , squander themselves in self-pity and the seeking of pleasure. So Nietzsche's response to the Harm Puzzle depends upon an empirical claim about what the real effect of MPS will be. The normative component of christmas break MPS is harmful not because its specific prescriptions and prompts, proscriptions explicitly require potentially excellent persons to forego that which allows them to flourish (the claim is not that a conscientious application of the “theory” of MPS is an example of an essay incompatible with the flourishing of essay prompts higher men); rather, the christmas essay, normative component of prompts MPS is harmful because in practice , and especially because of MPS's commitment to write the idea that one morality is appropriate for all, potentially higher men will come to adopt such values as applicable to themselves as well. Thus, the normative component of cbest MPS is harmful because, in reality, it will have the effect of leading potentially excellent persons to value what is in fact not conducive to their flourishing and case, devalue what is in fact essential to it. In sum, Nietzsche's central objection to MPS is that it thwarts the development of human excellence. His argument for this, in each case, turns on identifying distinctive valuations of essay prompts MPS, and showing how as in the case of norms favoring happiness and devaluing suffering they undermine the development of individuals who would manifest human excellence. (For discussion of other examples, see Leiter 2002: 134136.)
2. Nietzsche's Positive Ethical Vision. While Nietzsche clearly has views about the states of affairs to write outline biography essay which positive intrinsic value attaches (namely, the essay, flourishing of higher men), there is more disagreement among interpreters about as a passion what kind of ethics arises from the latter valuation so central to his critique of morality. The two leading candidates are that Nietzsche embraces a kind of virtue ethics (e.g., Hunt 1991; Solomon 2001) and that he is a kind of perfectionist (Hurka 1993, Hurka 2007). These accounts turn out to overlap the perfections of the latter account are often the virtues of the former though the perfectionist account will prove to cbest essay have certain other advantages, discussed below. Any account of Nietzsche's “positive ethics” confronts a threshold worry, namely, that Nietzsche's naturalistic conception of persons and agency and, in particular, his conception of persons as constituted by non-conscious type-facts that determine their actions makes it unclear how Nietzsche could have a philosophical ethics in any conventional sense. If, as Nietzsche, says, we face “a brazen wall of fate; we are in prison, we can only dream ourselves free, not make ourselves free” (HAH II:33); if “the single human being is outline a piece of fatum from the front and from the cbest prompts, rear, one law more, one necessity more for act writing, all that is yet to come and to cbest prompts be” (TI V:6); if (as he says more hyperbolically in Nachlass material) “the voluntary is essay on soccer as a absolutely lackingeverything has been directed along certain lines from the beginning” (WP 458); if (again hyperbolically) “one will become only that which one is essay prompts (in spite of all: that means education, instruction, milieu, chance, and christmas, accident)” (WP 334); then it is hardly surprising that Nietzsche should also say, “A man as he ought to be: that sounds to us as insipid as ‘a tree as he ought to be’” (WP 332). Yet a philosopher reluctant to talk about “man as he ought to be” is plainly ill-suited to prompts the task of break essay developing a normative ethics, understood as systematic and theoretical guidance for how to live, whether that guidance comes in the form of rules for behavior or dispositions of prompts character to bcg matrix case be cultivated. (There is an prompts, additional, and apa format paper, special difficulty, for those who think Nietzsche is a virtue ethicist, namely, that he also thinks genuine virtues are specific to individuals, meaning that there will be nothing general for the theorist to say about them [see, e.g., Z I:5].) This means we must approach the question of Nietzsche's “positive” ethics in terms of explicating (1) what it is Nietzsche values, (2) what his criteria of evaluation are, and (3) what evaluative structure , if any, is exhibited by the answers to (1) and (2). We go wrong at the start, however, if we expect Nietzsche to produce a normative theory of any familiar kind, whether a virtue ethics or otherwise. Importantly, the preceding points should not be read as denying that Nietzsche thinks values and evaluative judgments can have a causal impact on actions and how lives are lived. After all, there would be no point in cbest prompts, undertaking a “revaluation of values” if such a revaluation would not have consequences for, e.g., the flourishing of higher men, or if MPS values did not have deleterious causal consequences for those same people.
Values make a causal difference, but, given Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness (discussed, above, in case study, 1.1), they do not make this difference because of free, conscious choices individuals make to cbest adopt certain moral rules or cultivate certain dispositions of outline character. We can better appreciate Nietzsche's unusual views on this score by looking more closely at cbest essay the popular, but mistaken, idea that Nietzsche calls on bcg matrix case, people to “create themselves” (on the general topic, see Leiter 1998). Alexander Nehamas, for example, reads Nietzsche as endorsing an ethics of self-creation. For Nietzsche, Nehamas says, “The people who ‘want to become those they are’ are precisely ‘human beings who are new, unique, incomparable, who give themselves laws, who create themselves’ (GS, 335)” (1985, p. 174). Unfortunately, Nehamas truncates the quote from The Gay Science at a misleading point. For Nietzsche, in the full passage, continues as follows: To that end [of creating ourselves] we must become the best learners and discoverers of everything that is lawful and cbest essay, necessary in the world: we must become physicists in order to be creators in this sense [ wir müssen Physiker sein, um, in jenem Sinne , Schöpfer sein zu können ] while hitherto all valuations and ideals have been based on ignorance of physics . An Example Academic On E0businesses? Therefore: long live physics! (GS 335) Creation “in this sense” is, then, a very special sense indeed: for it presupposes the discovery of what is “lawful and necessary” as revealed by cbest physical science! The passage begins to an example of an academic essay on e0businesses make more sense in context.
For in this same section, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable,” though he adds: our opinions, valuations, and tables of what is good certainly belong among the cbest prompts, most powerful levers in the involved mechanism of christmas our actions, butin any particular case the law of their mechanism is indemonstrable [ unnachweisbar ]. This observation leads Nietzsche immediately to prompts the suggestion that we should create “our own new tables of what is good,” presumably with an eye to paper effecting the cbest essay, causal determination of our actions in new ways. However, we need help from science to identify the lawful patterns into which values and an example essay on e0businesses, actions fall; even if the mechanisms are indemonstrable, science may at least reveal the patterns of value-inputs and action-outputs. So to create one's self, “in this sense,” is to accept Nietzsche's basically deterministic picture of action as determined by sub-conscious causes (type-facts) that are hard to identify but to use science to help identify those “values” which figure in the causal determination of cbest essay action in new, but predictable, ways. Values, then, have a causal impact upon how people act and thus also on their life trajectories; but we cannot expect these impacts to flow from free, conscious choices that persons make. This would explain, of course, why we find so little in Nietzsche by way of argumentative or discursive support for his evaluative judgments: such intellectual devices are precisely the ones that would appeal to our conscious faculties, and essay as a, thus would be idle with respect to the desired outcomes. Essay? Nietzsche's often violent rhetorical style, by contrast, might be expected (or so Nietzsche presumably thinks) to have the requisite non-rational effect on his desired readers those “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381). (More on this issue in Section 4, below.) If Nietzsche does not have a typical normative ethics, he certainly has no shortage of views about evaluative questions. Write? For example, it is clear from the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality that he assigns great intrinsic value to the flourishing of higher men. But who are these “higher men” and why does Nietzsche assign value to them? (Note that while Nietzsche speaks in Thus Spoke Zarathustra of the “superman” as a kind of ideal higher type, this concept simply drops out of cbest his mature work (except for a brief mention in EH in the context of discussing Zarathustra ). “Higher men” is an important concept in exploratory paper, Nietzsche; the “superman” is nothing more than a rhetorical trope in the highly stylized Zarathustra. ) Nietzsche has three favorite examples of “higher” human beings: Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself! What makes these figures paradigms of the “higher” type for Nietzsche, beyond their great creativity (as he says, “the men of great creativity” are “the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957))?
Following Leiter (2002: 116122), we can identify five characteristics that Nietzsche identifies as distinctive of “higher men”: the higher type is solitary, pursues a “unifying project,” is essay prompts healthy, is life-affirming, and an example, practices self-reverence. Taken together, they are plainly sufficient to make someone a higher type in Nietzsche's view, though it is not obvious that any one of these is necessary, and various combinations often seem sufficient for explaining how Nietzsche speaks of higher human beings. First, higher types are solitary and deal with others only instrumentally. Cbest Prompts? “Every choice human being,” says Nietzsche, “strives instinctively for a citadel and a secrecy where he is saved from the crowd, the many, the great majority” (BGE 26). “[T]he concept of greatness,” he says in act writing essay questions, the same work, “entails being noble, wanting to be by oneself, being able to be different, standing alone and cbest essay, having to live independently [ auf-eigne-Faust-leben-müssen ]” (BGE 212). Indeed, the higher type pursues solitude with something of essay on soccer as a a vengeance, for he “knows how to cbest prompts make enemies everywhere,[He] constantly contradicts the great majority not through words but through deeds” (WP 944). Unsurprisingly, then, the great or higher man lacks the “congeniality” and “good-naturedness” so often celebrated in contemporary popular culture. “A great manis incommunicable: he finds it tasteless to be familiar” (WP 962). More than that, though, the higher type deals with others, when he has to, in a rather distinctive way: “A human being who strives for academic on e0businesses, something great considers everyone he meets on cbest essay prompts, his way either as a means or as a delay and obstacle or as a temporary resting place” (BGE 273). Write Biography Essay? Thus, “a great manwants no ‘sympathetic’ heart, but servants, tools; in his intercourse with men, he is always intent on making something out of essay them” (WP 962). The great man approaches others instrumentally not only because of his fundamental proclivity for solitude, but because of another distinguishing characteristic: he is consumed by his work, his responsibilities, his projects. Second, higher types seek burdens and responsibilities, in case study, the pursuit of some unifying project . “What is noble?” Nietzsche again asks in a Nachlass note of 1888. His answer: “That one instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities” (WP 944). So it was with Goethe: “he was not fainthearted but took as much as possible upon himself, over himself, into himself” (TI IX:49).
But the higher type does not seek out responsibilities and tasks arbitrarily. “A great man,” says Nietzsche displays “a long logic in all of his activityhe has the ability to extend his will across great stretches of his life and to despise, and reject everything petty about him” (WP 962). This is the trait Nietzsche sometimes refers to essay prompts as having “style” in “character” (GS 290). (Note that this famous passage (GS 290) merely describes those “the strong and domineering natures” who are able “‘to give’ style” to their character; it does not presuppose that just anyone can do so and it is break essay not a recommendation that everyone try to do so.) Indeed, Nietzsche understood his own life in these terms: [T]he organizing “idea” that is cbest destined to rule [in one's life and work] keeps growing deep down it begins to command; slowly it leads us back from side roads and wrong roads; it prepares single qualities and fitnesses that will one day prove to essay on soccer as a be indispensable as means toward a whole one by one, it trains all subservient capacities before giving any hint of the dominant task, “goal,” “aim,” or “meaning.” Considered in this way, my life is simply wonderful. For the task of a revaluation of cbest all values more capacities may have been needed than have ever dwelt together in christmas essay, a single individual.I never even suspected what was growing in me and one day all my capacities, suddenly ripe, leaped forth in cbest prompts, their ultimate perfection. (EH II:9). Earlier in Ecce Homo , Nietzsche describes himself as a higher type, “a well-turned-out-person” (EH I:2), and thus we may conclude that it is a characteristic only of the higher type that he is driven in pursuit of a project in the way described here. Indeed, it turns out to an example be precisely this kind of instinctive drivenness that Nietzsche has partly in cbest, mind when he praises “health.”
Third, higher types are essentially healthy and resilient. An Example Of An Essay? One essential attribute of the “well-turned-out-person ”is that he “has a taste only for essay prompts, what is good for him; his pleasure, his delight cease where the measure of what is study good for essay, him is transgressed. He guesses what remedies avail against what is harmful; he exploits bad accidents to his advantage” (EH I:2). But this is just to say that a higher type is healthy , for of an, health, Nietzsche tells us, means simply “instinctively cho[osing] the prompts, right means against wretched states” (EH I:2). This permits us to understand Nietzsche's own declaration in essay, Ecce Homo that he was “ healthy at bottom ” (EH I:2), a seemingly paradoxical claim for prompts, a philosopher whose physical ailments were legion.
Yet “health,” for Nietzsche, is essay a term of art, meaning not the absence of sickness, but something closer to resilience , to how one deals with ordinary (physical) sickness and setbacks. “For a typical healthy person,” Nietzsche says, “being sick can even become an energetic stimulus for life, for living more. Cbest Prompts? This, in fact, is how [my own] long period of sickness appears to me now it was during the years of my lowest vitality that I ceased to case study be a pessimist; the instinct of self-restoration forbade me a philosophy of poverty and discouragement” (EH I:2). To cease to cbest be a pessimist is to essay reject MPS, for only under the color of MPS does life appear to lack value. Thus, being healthy, in cbest, turn, entails a distinctive non-pessimistic attitude towards life which is yet a fourth mark of the higher type. Fourth, higher types affirm life, meaning that they are prepared to will the eternal return of their lives . In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche describes “the opposite ideal” to that of moralists and essay, pessimists like Schopenhauer as “the ideal of the most high-spirited, alive, and cbest essay, world-affirming human being who has not only come to terms and apa format, learned to get along with whatever was and cbest prompts, is, but who wants to have what was and is repeated into all eternity” (BGE 56).
Put more simply: the higher type embraces the essay on soccer, doctrine of the eternal recurrence and thus evinces what Nietzsche often calls a “Dionysian” or “life-affirming” attitude. A person, for Nietzsche, has a Dionysian attitude toward life insofar as he affirms his life unconditionally; in particular, insofar as he affirms it including the “suffering” or other hardships it has involved. So someone who says, “I would gladly live my life again, except for my first marriage,” would not affirm life in the requisite sense. Thus, we may say that a person affirms his life in Nietzsche's sense only insofar as he would gladly will its eternal return: i.e., will the repetition of his entire life through eternity. Cbest Essay? In fact, Nietzsche calls “the idea of the eternal recurrence” the “highest formulation of on soccer as a passion affirmation that is at all attainable” (EH III:Z-1; cf. BGE 56). Higher men, then, are marked by a distinctive Dionysian attitude toward their life: they would gladly will the repetition of their life eternally. Strikingly, Nietzsche claims that precisely this attitude characterized both himself and cbest essay prompts, Goethe. Speaking, for example, of the neglect by his contemporaries of his work, Nietzsche writes: “I myself have never suffered from all this; what is necessary does not hurt me; amor fati [love of fate] is my inmost nature” (EH III:CW-4). Regarding Goethe, Nietzsche says that, “Such a spiritstands amid the apa format, cosmos with a joyous and trusting fatalism, in the faith that all is redeemed and affirmed in the whole.Such a faith, however, is the highest of all possible faiths: I have baptized it with the name of Dionysus ” (TI IX:49). Finally, the higher type of cbest essay human being has a distinctive bearing towards others and especially towards himself: he has self-reverence. “The ‘higher nature’ of the great man,” says Nietzsche in a striking Nachlass note of questions 1888 “lies in being different, in essay, incommunicability, in distance of rank, not in an effect of apa format any kind even if he made the whole globe tremble” (WP 876; cf.
GS 55). This is perhaps the most unusual feature of Nietzsche's discussion of the cbest prompts, higher type, for it suggests that, at an example academic on e0businesses bottom, being a higher type is a matter of “attitude” or “bearing.” In a section of Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche once again answers the question, “What is noble?”, this time as follows: “It is not the works, it is the faith that is decisive here, that determines the order of rank: some fundamental certainty that a noble soul has about itself, something that cannot be sought, nor found, nor perhaps lost. The noble soul has reverence [Ehrfurcht] for itself” (BGE 287). Self-reverence to revere and respect oneself as one might a god is no small achievement, as the proliferation of “self-help” programs and prompts, pop psychology slogans like “I'm OK, you're OK” would suggest. Self-loathing, self-doubt, and self-laceration are the norm among human beings; to write biography essay possess a “fundamental certainty” about oneself is, Nietzsche thinks quite plausibly, a unique state of affairs. Allied with this posture of prompts self-reverence are other distinctive attitudes that distinguish the case study, bearing of the higher man. “The noble human being,” says Nietzsche, “honors himself as one who is powerful, also as one who has power over himself, who knows how to speak and be silent, who delights in being severe and hard with himself and respects all severity and prompts, hardness” (BGE 260). (The higher man, unsurprisingly, is outline no hedonist: “What is noble?” asks Nietzsche: “That one leaves happiness to the great majority: happiness as peace of soul, virtue, comfort, Anglo-angelic shopkeeperdom a la Spencer” (WP 944).) In an cbest prompts, earlier work, Nietzsche explains that: [T]he passion that attacks those who are noble is peculiar.It involves the use of a rare and singular standard cold to christmas everybody else; the discovery of cbest values for which no scales have been invented yet; offering sacrifices on altars that are dedicated to an unknown god; a courage without any desire for honors; self-sufficiency that overflows and as a passion, gives to men and cbest essay, things. Biography? (GS 55) Indeed, the ability to cbest prompts set his own standard of valuation is one of the most distinctive achievements of the higher type, as we saw already in the discussion of solitude. And “the highest man” says Nietzsche is “he who determines values and directs the will of millennia by giving direction to the highest natures” (WP 999).
Considered all together, it becomes clear why creatives geniuses like Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself should be the preferred examples of the essay on soccer as a, higher human being: for cbest essay prompts, the characteristics of the biography essay, higher type so-described are precisely those that lend themselves to artistic and creative work. A penchant for solitude, an absolute devotion to one's tasks, an indifference to external opinion, a fundamental certainty about oneself and one's values (that often strikes others as hubris) all these are the traits we find, again and again, in artistic geniuses. (It turns out, for example, that Beethoven, according to his leading biographer, had almost all these characteristics to a striking degree; for prompts, discussion, see Leiter 2002: 122123.) If “the men of write great creativity, the cbest, really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957), men like Goethe and Beethoven, are Nietzsche's paradigmatic higher types, whose lives are models of flourishing excellence, is there anything systematic to be said about the theory of value that undergirds these judgments and informs, in turn, Nietzsche's critique of morality (MPS) on essay, the grounds that it thwarts the development of such men? One popular idea (e.g., Schacht 1983, Richardson 1996) is that higher men exemplify “power,” which is claimed to be Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value. Such readings, alas, have to employ the concept of “power” rather elastically, since the conglomeration of essay prompts traits of higher human beings noted above don't seem to be, in any ordinary sense, instances of “power” or its manifestation. (Treating Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value as “power” confronts even more serious textual and philosophical obstacles: see Section 3.1, below.) More illuminating is Hurka's view (1993 and Hurka 2007) that Nietzsche's evaluative posture conjoins perfectionism with maximizing consequentialism: what has value are certain human excellences (or perfections), and states of affairs are assessed in christmas break essay, terms of their maximization of these excellences.
As Hurka helpfully observes (1993: 75), Nietzsche seems to operate with the opposite prompts, of Rawls's maximin principle, what Hurka calls approriately “maximax.” Hurka states this as a rule for conduct (“each agent's overriding goal should be not a sum or average of lifetime value, but the greatest lifetime value of the single most perfect individual, or, if perfections are not fully comparable, of the few most perfect individuals” [1993: 75]), but given the earlier caveats about reading Nietzsche as a conventional normative theorist, it is better to exploratory paper treat maximax as reflecting the implicit structure of Nietzsche's revaluation of cbest prompts values: he rejects MPS because it fails to apa format exploratory paper maximize the perfection of the highest human beings, and he does so without, it appears, any regard for the costs to the herd of essay such a rejection (see Section 4). This leaves the question whether there are (formal or substantive) criteria of “perfection” for Nietzsche? Many writers (e.g., Hurka 2007; Nehamas 1985; Richardson 1996) are attracted to christmas break essay the idea that “style” or “unity” is a criterion of excellence or perfection for Nietzsche, and, indeed, as noted above, the pursuit of essay prompts a unified or coherent life project is a characteristic feature of on soccer as a those Nietzsche deems to be higher men. Whether such style or coherence suffices is a vexed interpretive question, since it is not entirely clear that the formal criterion of cbest essay prompts style or unity is available only to write biography Goethes and cbest, Beethovens: did not Kant, that “catastrophic spider” as Nietzsche unflatteringly calls him (A 11), exhibit an break, extraordinarily coherent style of creative productivity over many years? Others (e.g., Magnus 1978) take Nietzsche's idea of eternal recurrence (the hallmark of life-affirmation, as noted above) as the criterion of a well-lived life: perfection is a matter of living in such a way that one is ready to gladly will the repetition of one's life, in all its particulars, in to eternity. This, too, seems both too thin and too severe as a criterion of perfection standing alone: too thin, because anyone suitably superficial and complacent might will the cbest essay, eternal return; too severe, because it seems to require that a post-Holocaust Goethe gladly will the repetition of the Holocaust. Nehamas (1985), who shares some of Magnus's view, adds an idioscynratic element to this account: he claims that Nietzsche does not describe his ideal person his “higher man” but rather “exemplifies” such a person in paper, the form of the essay prompts, “character” that is constituted by and exemplified in his corpus. Act Writing Essay Questions? Nietzsche, however, describes at great length and in many places (e.g.
D 201; GS 55; BGE 287; NCW Epilogue:2; WP 943) the types of persons he admires; and cbest essay, he also describes himself as such a person (e.g., EH I:2) In any case, Nehamas's view would have the act writing essay questions, odd consequence that for Nietzsche to have had a positive ethical vision at any point earlier in his career he would have had to anticipate writing the series of books he actually wrote, such that his ethical ideal would be properly exemplified in them! Needless to say, there is no reason to think this was Nietzsche's view. Nietzsche holds that moral (i.e., MPS) values are not conducive to the flourishing of human excellence, and it is by reference to this fact that he proposed to assess their value. The enterprise of assessing the essay prompts, value of certain other values (call them the ‘revalued values’) naturally invites the metaethical question: what status metaphysical, epistemological do the an example of an essay, values used to undertake this revaluation (the ‘assessing values’) enjoy? (It is doubtful Nietzsche has a definite semantic view about judgments of value: cf. Essay? Hussain 2013, esp. 412.) Following Leiter (2000), we may distinguish “Privilege Readings” of Nietzsche's metaethics which claim that Nietzsche holds that his own evaluative standpoint is either veridical or better justified than its target from those readings which deny the break, claim of privilege. Essay? (Note that defenders of this latter, “skeptical” view need not read Nietzsche as a global anti-realist i.e., as claiming that there are no truths or facts about anything, let alone truths about value a reading which has now been widely discredited. Act Writing Essay? There is, on cbest, the skeptical view at issue here, a special problem about the objectivity of value.) Privilege Readings of Nietzsche can come in three varieties: Intuitionist Realist (I-Realist); Naturalist Realist (N-Realist); and Privilege Non-Realist (P-Non-Realist). The proponents of these views would hold the following: (i) According to the I-Realist, there are non-natural normative facts, which are sui generis, and which are apprehended by some appropriate act of normative ‘perception.’ (ii) According to the N-Realist, there are normative facts because normative facts are just constituted by certain natural facts (in some sense to be specified).
(iii) According to the P-Non-Realist, there are no normative facts, but some normative judgments still enjoy a privilege by virtue of their interpersonal appeal or acceptance. To say that there are ‘normative facts’ will mean, for purposes here, that norms are (in some sense) objective features of the world. No one, to date, has construed Nietzsche as an write biography essay, I-Realist, but Schacht (1983) and Wilcox (1974), among many others, have defended an N-Realist reading, while Foot (1973) has defended a P-Non-Realist reading. Cbest Essay? We consider the difficulties afflicting these Privilege Readings in turn. According to the N-Realist reading, Nietzsche holds, first, that only power really has value and, second, that power is an objective, natural property. Nietzsche's evaluative perspective is privileged, in turn, because it involves asssessing (i) prudential value (value for an agent) in terms of degree of an example of an academic power, and (ii) non-prudential value in terms of maximization of prudential value (i.e., maximization of power). (A cautionary note about terminology here: by ordinary conventions, the N-Realist proper holds that value itself is a natural property, not simply that what has value is essay a natural property.
There is apa format exploratory paper no clear textual evidence of Nietzsche's view on this subtle question, yet it still makes sense to use the “N-Realist” label for cbest prompts, two reasons: first, defenders of this reading treat Nietzsche's view as “naturalistic”; and, second, it is in fact ‘naturalistic’ in a familiar nineteenth-century sense, i.e., it denies that there are any supernatural properties. In the theory of value, then, one might plausibly think of Nietzsche as being a kind of naturalist in of an academic essay, the sense of resisting religious and cbest essay, quasi-religious theories that view goodness as supervening on non-natural (e.g., the “Forms”) or supernatural properties; as against study, this, Nietzsche claims that goodness supervenes on essay, a (putatively) natural property, namely power.) According to Schacht, Nietzsche's account of “the fundamental character of life and the world” as will to power is supposed to “ground” his own evaluative standpoint (1983: 348349). As Nietzsche writes (in a passage Schacht quotes): “assuming that life itself is the will to power,” then “there is nothing to life that has value, except the degree of power” (WP 55). Nietzsche's revaluation of values, then, assesses moral values on the basis of their “degree of power,” something which constitutes an “objective measure of value” (WP 674). Case Study? Hence the privilege of cbest his view: it embraces as an evaluative standard the only thing in life that (in fact) has value (namely power), and employs this “objective measure of value” in the revaluation (e.g., by criticizing Christian morality because it does not maximize “power”). What exactly is Nietzsche's argument on the N-Realist reading? When pressed, commentators are never very clear. Study? Schacht, for example, writes: Human life, for Nietzsche, is ultimately a part of a kind of vast game[which] is, so to speak, the only game in town.The nature of the essay prompts, game, he holds, establishes a standard for the evaluation of everything falling within its compass.
The availability of this standard places evaluation on footing that is as firm as that on which the comprehension of life and the world stands. (1983, p. 398) Talk of “the only game in town” is far too metaphorical, however, to christmas break essay bear the philosophical weight demanded. From the fact that “life itself is the will to power,” how does it follow that power is the only standard of value? From the fact, for example, that all life obeys the laws of prompts fundamental physics, nothing follows about the appropriate standard of value. What Schacht and others seem to paper have in mind is something like John Stuart Mill's argument for utilitarianism, which proceeds from the essay prompts, premise that since happiness is the essay as a passion, only thing people desire or aim for, it follows that happiness is the only thing that possesses intrinsic value. This argument, though, is cbest essay prompts famously unsuccessful: from the bcg matrix, fact that only happiness is desired, nothing at all follows about what ought to essay prompts be desired. Attempts to construe Nietzsche's argument in an analogous way encounter similar problems (Leiter 2000 explores the christmas break, analogy in cbest prompts, detail). On Mill's well-known and oft-criticized ‘proof’ of the break essay, principle of utility from his 1861 Utilitarianism , to show that something is prompts visible, we must show that it is seen; and to show that something is audible, we must show that it is heard; analogously, (P) to show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is desired. Millian hedonism holds that only happiness or pleasure is on soccer as a intrinsically desirable or valuable (‘Prescriptive Hedonism’). Let us call ‘Value Nihilism’ the view that there is nothing that has value or is cbest prompts valuable (or desirable).
To get Prescriptive Hedonism from act writing essay questions (P), then, plug in ‘Descriptive Hedonism’ the cbest, thesis that people do in fact desire only questions pleasure as an end. If (P) is valid, Descriptive Hedonism true, and Value Nihilism false, then the truth of cbest Prescriptive Hedonism follows. ((P), of course, is not valid, a point to which we will return.) Notice, now, that the same type of argument seems to capture what the N-Realist construal of of an academic Nietzsche has in mind. That is, to get the essay prompts, N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion that what is christmas valuable is power, take (P) and plug in a strong form of essay prompts Nietzsche's descriptive doctrine of the essay on soccer as a passion, will to power the doctrine, roughly, that all persons intrinsically ‘desire’ only power. If (P) is valid, Value Nihilism false, and the descriptive doctrine of the essay prompts, will to power is true, then the normative conclusion about on soccer passion power, which Schacht is after, seems to follow. (Note, of course, that the Millian Model argument as formulated so far would show only that power is what is cbest essay prompts non-morally valuable or good for an agent. Of course, if the Millian Model argument for prudential value or non-moral goodness does not work, then that provides a very strong (if defeasible) reason for supposing that there is no further argument for as a passion, the related account of non-prudential value as consisting in cbest prompts, maximization of christmas break power.) What are the problems with this “Millian argument”? The first problem, of course, is that (P) is not valid.
While from the cbest prompts, fact that x is heard, it follows that x is apa format exploratory paper audible, it does not follow from essay that fact that x is desired that x is desirable in the sense necessary for apa format, the argument . For while ‘audible’ can be fairly rendered as ‘can be heard,’ ‘desirable,’ in the context of Prescriptive Hedonism, means ‘ ought to be desired’ (not ‘can’ or ‘is’ desired). Thus, while it follows that: it does not follow that, If x is desired, then x ought to be desired (‘is desirable’). Yet in claiming that pleasure or power are valuable, Mill and the N-Realist Nietzsche are advancing a normative thesis. The truth of this normative thesis, however, simply does not follow from the corresponding descriptive thesis. Many, of course, have thought this too facile a response. Essay? Supplement the argument, then, by adding an ‘Internalist Constraint’ (IC), one that many philosophers have found plausible in the theory of value: (IC) Something cannot be valuable for a person unless the person is capable of caring about (desiring) it.
The (IC) is motivated by the thought that it cannot be right to say that ‘X is write biography valuable’ for essay, someone when x is alien to anything a person cares about or could care about: any plausible notion of academic essay on e0businesses value, the essay, (IC) supposes, must have some strong connection to a person's existing (or potential) motivational set. How does the (IC) help? Recall (P): (P) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable) show that it is desired. Now the on soccer as a passion, (IC) puts a constraint on what things can, in fact, be desirable or valuable: namely, only those things that agents can, in fact, care about or desire. This suggests that we might reformulate (P) as follows: (P′) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is or can be desired.
(P′) now is cbest simply a different formulation of the (IC): if we accept the (IC) then we should accept (P′). But what happens, then, if we grant the truth of Descriptive Hedonism: namely, that only pleasure is, in fact, desired. In that case, it would now follow that only pleasure is desirable (ought to be desired) (assuming, again, that Value Nihilism is false). That is, since something ought to be desired only if it can be desired (internalism), then if only outline essay x can be desired, then only x ought to be desired (assuming that Value Nihilism is false). Will this argument rescue the N-Realist Nietzsche?
Two obstacles remain. The first, and cbest essay prompts, perhaps less serious one, is that we must have some reason for accepting the (IC) or, more modestly, some reason for bcg matrix case, thinking Nietzsche accepts it. Prompts? It is not clear, however, that there are adequate textual grounds for saying where Nietzsche stands on this question. Since the (IC) does, however, seem to be presupposed by the Nietzschean remarks from the of an essay on e0businesses, Nachlass that support N-Realism in the sense that such remarks do not constitute a good argument without the (IC) let us grant that Nietzsche accepts the (IC), and let us simply put aside the contentious issue of whether we ought to accept the cbest essay prompts, (IC) as a general philosophical matter. A second difficulty will still remain: namely, that the argument for N-Realism still depends on the truth of the relevant descriptive thesis, in Nietzsche's case, the doctrine of the will to power. This presents two problems.
First, in the works Nietzsche chose to publish, it seems clear that he did not, in fact, accept the doctrine in the strong form required for the N-Realist argument (namely, that it is only power that persons ever aim for or desire). Second, it is simply not a plausible doctrine in its strong form. For the exploratory, Millian Model argument for N-Realism to essay prompts work in apa format exploratory paper, its new form (that is, supplemented with the (IC)) it must be the case that that which ought to cbest essay prompts be desired (‘is valuable’) are the essay on soccer as a passion, only things that are, in fact, desired. Since the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion is cbest essay that only power is on soccer passion valuable, power must be the cbest, only thing that is, in fact, desired (assuming, again, that something is valuable, i.e., that Value Nihilism is apa format exploratory false). Prompts? Many, of course, have thought that Nietzsche held precisely this view, and he plainly says much to suggest that. Zarathustra states that, “Where I found the break, living, there I found will to power” (Z II:12); Nietzsche refers to “the will to essay prompts power which is the will of life” (GS 349); he says “the really fundamental instinct of essay lifeaims at the expansion of power ” (GS 349); “life simply is will to power,” meaning a striving “to grow, spread, seize, become predominant” (BGE 259); he refers to his “theory that in essay, all events a will to essay on soccer as a power is operating” (GM II:12); he claims that “[a] living thing seeks above all to discharge its strength life itself is will to power ” (BGE 13); and so on. The difficulty is that Nietzsche says other things which might suggest that the stronger remarks are misleading; for cbest, example: Life itself is to my mind the instinct for growth, for durability, for an accumulation of act writing questions forces, for power : where the essay, will to power is lacking there is decline. Passion? It is my contention that all the supreme values of mankind lack this will. (A 6) But if all actions manifested this will , then this will could never be found lacking.
Yet Nietzsche thinks it can be lacking, which means he must countenance the possibility that not everyone aims for (‘desires’) power. This passage is not atypical. Later in the same work, he returns to the same theme concerning “[w]herever the will to power declines in any form” (A 17). In the immediately preceding work he claims that the “effects” of liberal institutions are “known well enough: they undermine the will to power” (TI IX:38). And in cbest prompts, the immediately subsequent work (his last), Nietzsche refers to “the terrible aspects of reality (in affects, in write outline biography, desires, in the will to prompts power)” (EH IV:4), which certainly sounds as if will to bcg matrix power is simply one among various characteristics of reality alongside affects and desires, rather than the cbest essay, essential core of them all. Three other general textual considerations count against act writing essay questions, attributing the strong doctrine of the will to power to Nietzsche. First, if, as the defenders of the strong doctrine believe, “his fundamental principle is the ‘ will to power’ ”, then it is hard to cbest prompts understand why he says almost nothing about will to power and nothing at all to apa format paper suggest it is his “fundamental principle” in the two major self-reflective moments in the Nietzschean corpus: his last major work, Ecce Homo , where he reviews and prompts, assesses his life and writings, including specifically all his prior books (EH III); and the series of break new prefaces he wrote for The Birth of Tragedy , Human, All Too Human , Dawn , and cbest, The Gay Science in 1886, in which he revisits his major themes. Christmas? That this putative “fundamental principle” merits no mention on either occasion strongly suggests that its role in Nietzsche's thought has been greatly overstated. Second, the view at issue presupposes an unusually strong doctrine of the essay prompts, will to christmas essay power: a doctrine, to prompts the effect, that all life (actions, events) reflects the will to power. But recent scholarship has cast doubt on whether Nietzsche ultimately accepted such a doctrine.
The single most famous passage on will to power in the Nietzschean corpus, for example, is the write outline essay, concluding section (1067) of The Will to Power , where he affirms that, “ This world is the will to power and cbest prompts, nothing besides ! And you yourselves are also this will to power and nothing besides!” Although a favorite of commentators for many years, the passage has now been conclusively discredited by the leading scholar of the Nachlass , the late Mazzino Montinari. Montinari has shown that Nietzsche had, in fact, discarded the passage by the spring of act writing 1887 (1982, pp. 103104)! It was, as Montinari notes, made part of the cbest, Köselitz-Forster compilation of The Will to Power (the basis for christmas, the English-language edition by Kaufmann and Hollingdale) notwithstanding “Nietzsche's literary intentions” (1982, p. 104). Finally, Maudemarie Clark has argued that Nietzsche could not have accepted the very strongest form of the doctrine of the will to cbest essay prompts power namely, that all force , animate and inanimate, is will to christmas power given the putative argument he gives for it. Clark points out cbest prompts, that the only argument for this doctrine of the will to power in Nietzsche's published works in Section 36 of break Beyond Good and Evil is cast in the conditional form: if we accept certain initial hypotheses, then, Nietzsche thinks, the strong doctrine of the cbest essay prompts, will to power follows. But one of the antecedents of of an this conditional is the “causality of the will,” and Clark argues that Nietzsche clearly rejects such causality elsewhere in his work (e.g., GS 127, TI II:5, TI VI:3). Therefore, this section cannot constitute an argument for the strongest doctrine of the will to power that Nietzsche, himself, would actually accept! Rather than embracing the strongest form of the cbest essay, doctrine, Clark argues that Nietzsche is, somewhat ironically, illustrating the outline, very flaw of philosophers he warns against in essay, the surrounding passages: namely, their tendency to propound theories of the essence of bcg matrix study reality that are just projections of their own evaluative commitments (Clark 1990, pp.
212227). Prompts? Thus, Nietzsche says of the Stoic talk of living “according to nature” that “while you pretend rapturously to read the canon of your law in nature, you want something opposite.Your pride wants to impose your morality, your ideal, on nature” (BGE 9). How, Clark wonders, could Nietzsche's own doctrine of will to power be exempted from such a charge? (Note, too, that Montinari claims that the one surviving relic of 1067 of The Will to Power in the published works is precisely the ironic Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil (1982, p. 104).) What, then, does Nietzsche believe about act writing essay will to power? As others have noted (e.g., Clark 1990: 209212), Nietzsche's doctrine of will to power in its original deployment and most of its later development is psychological in character: the will to power is posited as the best psychological explanation for a wide variety of human behaviors. Prompts? But as the preceding passages and considerations make clear, Nietzsche could not have believed that will to power was the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. To the extent he sometimes seems to embrace this stronger claim (see the example, above), we must simply take Nietzsche to questions have overstated his case something which his penchant for hyperbolic rhetoric and polemics often leads him to do or to be engaged in the kind of ironic move described by Clark, above. That would, of course, be quite fortunate, since it is hardly plausible that will to power is the exclusive explanation for all human behavior.
There is an additional, textual worry for the argument that will to power provides an objective criterion of value lurking here as well. Nietzsche only makes the cbest essay, remarks that seem to suggest that power is an objective criterion in passages from the Nachlass , work that Nietzsche never published during his lifetime. Thus, even if one thought that Nietzsche really held the strong descriptive doctrine of the will to apa format paper power the doctrine that all animate force (perhaps all force) is will to essay prompts power in his published works, it is still the case that he only an example academic on e0businesses uses this doctrine to argue for the normative conclusion in Nachlass material. Since scholars have now raised important doubts about the canonical status of this Nachlass material (Montinari 1982, pp. 92104; Hollingdale 1985, pp. Cbest Prompts? 166172, 182186), this might suggest that a view ought not to bcg matrix study be attributed to Nietzsche solely on cbest essay, the basis of its articulation in these notebooks, which is exactly what the apa format exploratory, N-Realist reading requires. Although not attributing to Nietzsche any kind of value realism, Philippa Foot, like Schacht, wants to show that Nietzsche is doing something more than simply expressing his idiosyncratic view, a view that admits of prompts no interpersonal justification. While agreeing that Nietzsche's intention is, in part, “to present us with a clash of interests the good of the strong against that of the weak,” Foot adds that “this is not all he wants to essay suggest” (1973: 162).
Noting that Nietzsche “seems to want to say that anyone who is strong, independent, and so on anyone who fits his description of the higher type of man is one who has value in cbest essay, himself” (163), Foot goes on to explicate this notion of “value” as follows: [I]t does make sense to say that we value strong and exceptional individuals. We do find patterns of reaction to exceptional men that would allow us to see here a valuing rather similar to valuing on aesthetic grounds. I am thinking of the interest and admiration which is the common attitude to remarkable men of exceptional independence of mind and strength of will. [Nietzsche] is appealing to essay as a our tendency to admire certain individuals whom we see as powerful and splendid. [There is] a similarity between the way we attribute value (aesthetic value) to art objects and the value that Nietzsche attributes to a certain kind of man, both resting on a set of common reactions. Cbest Essay Prompts? (1973: 163) So Nietzsche, on this account, does not claim that his evaluative perspective is veridical; he simply claims that it enjoys a certain sort of interpersonal appeal, owing to our “common attitude to remarkable men,” “our tendency to admire certain individuals,” to find them aesthetically appealing. There may be no fact-of-the-matter as to whether higher men are or are not really valuable, but Nietzsche's evaluative standpoint is privileged by virtue of its appeal to break all of us. Cbest Essay? We're all interested, it seems, in the flourishing of higher men. Yet Nietzsche could not embrace the view that the flourishing of “higher men” will appeal to “ our tendency” to admire such men or to any sort of “common” attitude, given the logic of his critique of morality.
This follows from what we may call Nietzsche's ‘Callicleanism,’ after Plato's Callicles in the Gorgias . On Soccer Passion? It has now become something of a commonplace for commentators to note that Nietzsche did not accept one sort of Calliclean view, namely, the view that “anyone who is to live aright should suffer his appetites to grow to the greatest extent and not check them” ( Gorgias , 419e) (cf. Nehamas 1985: 202203; BGE 188). Yet there remains a more important respect in essay prompts, which Nietzsche's view is on soccer as a Calliclean: namely, in cbest essay, its embrace of the Calliclean doctrine that the inferior employ morality to make “slaves of those who are naturally better” ( Gorgias , 491e-492a), that the weaker folk, the majorityframe the laws [and, we might add, the morals] for their own advantage’ in order to ‘frighten [the strong] by saying that to overreach others is shameful and evil’ ( Gorgias , 483b-d). In short, Callicles' view is that morality is simply the prudence of the weak, who unable to essay as a passion do what the strong can do, opt instead to put the actions of the strong under the ban of morality. This, of course, is essentially Nietzsche's view as well. So, for example, Nietzsche describes slave morality as simply ‘the prudence [ Klugheit ] of the lowest order’ (GM I:13), and he observes that “everything that elevates an essay prompts, individual above the apa format exploratory, herd and intimidates the neighbor iscalled evil ” (BGE 201), that “[m]oral judgments and cbest essay, condemnations constitute the favorite revenge of the spiritually limited against write outline biography essay, those less limited” (BGE 219), and he claims that the “chief means” by which the “weak and cbest, mediocreweaken and apa format exploratory, pull down the stronger” is “the moral judgment” (WP 345). Recall, now, that Foot wanted to resist the view that in his revaluation Nietzsche simply “present[s] us with a clash of interests the cbest prompts, good of the strong against that of the weak” (1973: 162); instead, Foot suggests that Nietzsche is appealing to exploratory a ‘common’ tendency to cbest prompts admire higher men, men who would otherwise be thwarted by the reign of bcg matrix study moral values.
But for cbest essay, a Calliclean like Nietzsche, it is part of the very appeal of on e0businesses morality that it does thwart the flourishing of higher men. If that is right, then he could not think that the flourishing of cbest essay “higher men” would appeal to everyone. It is precisely because it doesn't that morality arises in the first place, as a means for the low and base to thwart the flourishing of the high. This is not to bcg matrix case deny that higher men may still be admirable in the eyes of the base and low (hence their envy); it is to essay prompts deny, however, that Nietzsche's evaluative perspective that it is an objection to morality that it thwarts the high could enjoy a privilege in virtue of this shared admiration. On the Calliclean picture, there is break a fundamental hostility between the high and low, the strong and the weak, one which will not be bridged by inviting the low to essay admire the high, or the weak, the strong. “The well-being of the majority and the well-being of the few are opposite viewpoints of value,” Nietzsche says in the ‘Note’ at the end of the first essay of the Genealogy . And in an example of an on e0businesses, Nietzsche's revaluation, it appears, there is no evaluative standpoint from cbest essay which one could successfully mediate and reconcile the normative claims of the opposing moralities. If Nietzsche is not a realist about value, then he must be an anti-realist: he must deny that there is any objective fact of the matter that would privilege his evaluative perspective over its target. Case? (This, in fact, is the most familiar reading outside the secondary literature on Nietzsche; one finds this view of Nietzsche's metaethics, for example, in the sociologist Max Weber and the moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, among many others.) We must be careful about the kinds of judgments to which this anti-realism applies. Recall that in his critique of morality, Nietzsche appears to hold that, e.g., “herd” morality is good for the herd, but that it is bad for higher men. He says, for example, that, “The ideas of the essay prompts, herd should rule in the herd but not reach out beyond it” (WP 287; emphasis added); and elsewhere he describes slave morality as simply “the prudence of the lowest order” (GM I:13).
It may appear that regarding value judgments pertaining to welfare or prudential goodness what is good or bad for particular sorts of persons Nietzsche believes there is an objective fact of the matter, though one relative to an example academic essay type-facts about persons. But this is not right: while Nietzsche believes it is objectively correct that different moralities have certain effects on cbest prompts, different kinds of people, that these effects are good or bad itself admits of bcg matrix anti-realist interpretation (cf. Leiter 2015: 119 for a revision of the view defended in Leiter 2002). Even more importantly, though, Nietzsche's anti-realism applies to the “revaluative” judgment that follows upon these judgments about the cbest prompts, effects of different moralities: that is, the judgment that because herd morality is good for the herd but bad for higher men, herd morality (or the universal reign of herd morality) is bad or disvaluable. Nietzsche certainly says much that sounds like he is denying the objectivity of values. Zarathustra tells us that, “Verily, men gave themselves all their good and evil [ Gut und Böse ]” (Z I:15) and that “good and break essay, evil that are not transitory do not exist” (Z II:12).
In The Gay Science , Nietzsche explains that, “Whatever has value in our world now does not have value in cbest essay prompts, itself, according to its nature nature is always value-less, but has been given value at some time” (301; cf. D 3). Case Study? Indeed, like certain radical anti-realists, he tends to equate evaluative questions with matters of taste. “What is now decisive against Christianity is our taste [ Geschmack ], no longer our reasons” (GS 132), he writes, noting later in the same work that what counts as “justiceis by essay all means a matter of taste, nothing more” (GS 184). Nietzsche's central argument for anti-realism about value is break essay explanatory : moral facts don't figure in the “best explanation” of essay prompts experience, and so are not real constituents of the objective world. Bcg Matrix Study? Moral values, in cbest essay prompts, short, can be “explained away.” Such a conclusion follows from Nietzsche's naturalism (on the latter, see the competing accounts in Janaway 2007 and Leiter 2013). Biography Essay? As we saw in the context of Nietzsche's critique of morality, Nietzsche thinks a person's moral beliefs can be explained in naturalistic terms, i.e., in terms of type-facts about prompts that person.
Thus, to explain a person's moral judgments, one needn't appeal to an example academic essay on e0businesses the existence of objective moral facts: psycho-physical facts about the person suffice. Thus, since non-evaluative type-facts are the primary explanatory facts, and essay, since explanatory power is the mark of objective facts, it appears that there cannot be any value facts. Moral judgments and evaluations are “images” and bcg matrix case study, “fantasies,” says Nietzsche, the mere effects of type-facts about agents (D 119). To describe Nietzsche as a moral anti-realist is so far only to prompts ascribe to him a metaphysical view: namely, that there are no objective facts about outline what is morally right and cbest, wrong. Essay As A Passion? It is a somewhat vexed interpretive question whether we should also ascribe to Nietzsche a particular view about the semantics of essay prompts moral judgment, a topic about which no philosopher prior to the 20 th century had a workedout view (see again Hussain 2013). For example, while it seems clear (from the passages quoted above) that Nietzsche has distinct views on the central metaphysical question about value, it seems equally apparent that there are inadequate textual resources for ascribing to him a satisfying answer to the semantic question.
Elements of his view, for example, might suggest assimilation to what we would call non-cognitivism and, in particular, expressivism. For example, in exploratory, describing master and Christian morality as “opposite forms in the optics of cbest essay prompts value [ Werthe ],” Nietzsche goes on to assert that, as opposite case, “optical” forms, they “areimmune to reasons and refutations. One cannot refute Christianity; one cannot refute a disease of the eye. The concepts ‘true’ and ‘untrue’ have, as it seems to me, no meaning in optics” (CW Epilogue). This passage typical of putatively expressivist passages in Nietzsche is, however, ambiguous.
For the passage could mean that “true” and “false” are meaningless not because evaluative judgments are essentially non-cognitive, but rather because competing evaluative views are immune to cbest essay the effects of reasoning. There may be rational grounds for thinking one view better than another, perhaps for thinking one true and the other false, but since reasoning has so little impact in this context, it is “meaningless” (in the sense of pointless) to essay raise issues of truth and falsity. More recently, Hussain (2007) has argued that we read Nietzsche as a fictionalist about moral value: granted that Nietzsche is an anti-realist about cbest prompts value (there exists no objective fact about what has value in-itself), Hussain wonders what it is those who “create values” can understand themselves to have done? Valuation, in this Nietzschean world, Hussain argues, involves a kind of an example on e0businesses “make-believe,” pretending that things are valuable-in-themselves, while knowing that nothing, in fact, has such value. There is cbest essay prompts a pressing philosophical question here whether “make-believe” about value really could suffice for valuing but also an interpretive problem: does Nietzsche really think that moral judgments express beliefs , that is, truth-apt propositional attitudes which then requires fictionalist treatment?
It would be astonishing if any 19 th -century philosopher were to have a clear answer to such a question (Hussain 2013 seems to have come around to this view). While Nietzsche was, to be sure, among the first to recognize the extent to which linguistic and grammatical practices generate metaphysical assumptions and problems, he simply did not view metaphysical questions themselves as best framed as issues about the semantics of an example of an essay on e0businesses a given region of discourse (e.g., are the essay, terms genuinely and successfully referential, or are they “merely” expressive?). Of An Essay On E0businesses? It is doubtful, then, that there are adequate grounds for assigning Nietzsche a view on cbest essay prompts, such subtle matters as whether ethical language is primarily cognitive or non-cognitive, when it clearly evinces aspects of act writing essay questions both descriptive and essay prompts, prescriptive discourse. Two aspects of Nietzsche's work may, however, seem to be in tension with value anti-realism, even understood as only a metaphysical doctrine: first, his reliance on christmas break, the distinction between “higher” and cbest essay prompts, “lower” types of passion human beings; and second, the force and seriousness with which he presents his evaluative judgments. As we saw, above, Nietzsche's critique of morality presupposes a distinction between higher and lower types of people. But are there objective facts about who is “high” and who is “low”? And if so, would such a view be compatible with anti-realism? Suppose there are objective facts about prompts “high” and “low”: Goethe really is a higher type, and the herd animal really is a lower type. But there is still no objective fact about whether MPS is non-prudentially disvaluable just because it has the effect of biography essay thwarting the flourishing of objectively higher types.
Realism about “high” and cbest prompts, “low” does not entail realism about non-prudential value, so the argument might go. Such a response cannot work for two reasons. First, the judgment that “X is a higher person” includes a significant evaluative component: “Goethe is a higher type” is christmas break essay not evaluatively neutral in the manner of “Goethe is prompts a taller than average type.” In saying that someone is a higher type, we seem committed to some positive evaluative attitude towards that person (e.g., that it is biography good to essay have persons like that around). If there is an objective fact that “X is a higher type,” and it is a fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of higher types, then it would seem that at least some objective weight must accrue to the Nietzschean position that MPS is essay on e0businesses disvaluable because of this effect it has. Second, if it is an objective fact that Goethe is essay prompts a higher type and, say, Hitler is a herd animal, then the following counterfactual would seem to be true: (C) If Hitler had been like Goethe, he would have been better off. He would have been better off because he would have been a higher type, instead of a lower type and it is an objective fact that the high are really high, and the low are really low. Essay As A? But this seemingly objective judgment that Hitler would have been better off had he been more like Goethe is a non-prudential value judgment; it is not a judgment about what is good for cbest prompts, Hitler under the circumstances, but rather a judgment about what would make Hitler better off, but for his circumstances. Questions? In general, it seems that conceding the objectivity of prompts “high” and “low” permits one to make objective non-prudential value judgments like: the study, good of the higher type is superior to the good of the lower type.
For these reasons, if Nietzsche is an anti-realist about non-prudential moral value, then he must also be an anti-realist about judgments of “high” and prompts, “low,” It may be an act writing, objective fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of cbest essay prompts those Nietzsche regards as higher types; but it is not an objective fact that they are really higher. In fact, there is textual evidence that this is an example on e0businesses exactly Nietzsche's view. For example, in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Nietzsche writes that, “Good and evil, and rich and poor, and essay, high and low [ Hoch und Gering ], and as a, all the names of prompts values arms shall they be and clattering signs that life must overcome itself again and again” (Z II:7). Here Nietzsche is explicit that “high and low” are simply “names of values,” just like “good and bcg matrix case study, evil.” But since, as we have just seen, Nietzsche is an cbest, anti-realist about these latter evaluative concepts, it should hardly be surprisingly that he is an anti-realist about the former. The actual contexts in on soccer as a, which Nietzsche marks traits as “high” and “low” invite the same reading. Consider, for example, the exposition in the Genealogy (I:14) of the sense in which slave morality is the “prudence of the lowest order” (GM, I:13). According to Nietzsche, slave morality takes certain typical characteristics of the “lowest order” and redescribes them in morally praiseworthy lights. So, for essay, example, their impotence becomes “goodness of heart,” their anxious lowliness becomes “humility,” their “inoffensiveness” and essay on soccer as a, “lingering at the door” becomes “patience”, and their desire for retaliation becomes a desire for justice. Cbest Prompts? If Nietzsche were really a realist about the concept of “lowness”, then we ought to be able to identify the objective facts in virtue of which something is really low.
Yet when Nietzsche tries to act writing essay questions describe all patience as nothing more than a “lingering at the door” and all humility as simply “anxious lowliness,” it is natural to think that there is no “objective” fact about “lowness” here but simply a polemical and essay, evaluatively loaded characterization. To think that all humility is really “anxious lowliness” is just to identify oneself as one who shares Nietzsche's evaluative sensibility, one “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381), one “predisposed and christmas, predestined” for Nietzsche's insights (BGE 30). In short, given the way in which Nietzsche actually speaks of the “high” and “low,” we should understand Nietzsche's metaethical position as also characterizing these terms: to say that “X is low” is not to describe an objective fact, but rather to identify oneself as sharing in a certain evaluative sensibility or taste. There remains a final interpretive difficulty: for Nietzsche simply does not write like someone who thinks his evaluative judgments are merely his idiosyncratic preferences! On the essay, metaethical position elaborated here, it seems Nietzsche must believe that if, in response to his point that “morality were to blame if the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man was never in fact attained” (GM Pref:6), someone were to say, “So much the better for morality!”, there would be nothing further to say to that person: at essay the best, Nietzsche might turn his back and say, “Oh well doesn't share my evaluative tastes.” Yet there seems to cbest essay prompts be a substantial amount of Nietzschean rhetoric (see, e.g., BGE 259; TI V:6 IX:35; EH IV:4, 7, 8) that cannot be reconciled with this metaethical view, and act writing, which cries out instead for prompts, some sort of realist construal. Three sorts of as a considerations, however, block the inference from Nietzsche's rhetoric to the conclusion that he embraced a realist metaphysics of value. First, while the rhetoric is forceful, the language of truth and falsity is essay prompts conspicuously absent. As some of the passages quoted above suggest, Nietzsche writes with great force and passion in opposition to MPS.
But it is exploratory striking that he does not use the epistemic value terms the language of cbest prompts truth and falsity, real and unreal in this context. This, of course, might not be notable, except for the fact that in his equally forceful attacks on, e.g., Christian cosmology, or religious interpretations of natural events, he invokes the conceptual apparatus of truth and falsity, truth and lie, reality and an example academic, appearance, all the time (cf. Essay Prompts? Leiter 1994, pp. 336338). Thus, for example, Nietzsche lampoons Christian cosmology as lacking “even a single point of contact with reality” and as a, as “pure fiction” which “falsifiesreality” (“ die Wirklichtkeit fälscht ”) (A, 15). Such epistemic value terms are strikingly absent in Nietzsche's remarks about cbest prompts value. One natural explanation for this difference in rhetoric natural especially in outline essay, light of the substantial evidence for his anti-realism is precisely that in cbest, the moral case he does not think there is any fact of the act writing essay questions, matter. Second, in undertaking a “revaluation of all values,” Nietzsche, as we have seen, wants to alert “higher” types to the fact that MPS is not, in fact, conducive to their flourishing.
Thus, he needs to “wake up” his appropriate readers those whose “ears are related” to his to cbest prompts the dangers of MPS, a task made all the more difficult by case study MPS's pretension to cbest be “morality itself.” Given, then, that Nietzsche's target is a certain sort of misunderstanding on the part of higher men, and given the difficulty of supplanting the norms that figure in essay passion, this misunderstanding (the norms of MPS), it should be unsurprising that Nietzsche writes with passion and force: he must shake higher types out of their intuitive commitment to the moral traditions of two millenia! Moreover, Nietzsche's naturalism, and the prominent role it assigns to non-conscious drives and type-facts, leads him to be skeptical about the efficacy of reasons and arguments. Essay Prompts? But a skeptic about the paper, efficacy of rational persuasion might very well opt for persuasion through other rhetorical devices. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a rhetorical tone like Nietzsche's looked at cbest prompts in the essay as a, context of his life does not really suggest realism about the cbest essay, content, but rather desperation on the part of the author to reach an increasingly distant and uninterested audience. The Nietzsche who was almost completely ignored during the apa format exploratory, years before illness erased his intellect and prompts, deprived him of his sanity might have resorted to more and more strident and violent rhetoric in frustration over not being heard and not because he was a realist. Indeed, in bcg matrix study, the absence of explicit evidence of value realism, this seems the most plausible explanation for the vast majority of the passages with which we have been concerned in cbest prompts, this section.
For these various reasons, then, the character of Nietzsche's rhetoric can be understood as compatible with his anti-realism about value. 4. Nietzsche's Lack of a Political Philosophy. When the Danish critic Georg Brandes (18421927) first introduced a wider European audience to Nietzsche's ideas during public lectures in 1888, he concentrated on Nietzsche's vitriolic campaign against morality and what Brandes dubbed (with Nietzsche's subsequent approval) Nietzsche's “aristocratic radicalism.” On this reading, Nietzsche was primarily concerned with questions of value and write outline biography essay, culture (especially the value of morality and its effect on culture), and his philosophical standpoint was acknowledged to prompts be a deeply illiberal one: what matters are great human beings, not the “herd.” The egalitarian premise of all contemporary moral and political theory the premise, in one form or another, of the act writing essay questions, equal worth or dignity of each person is simply absent in Nietzsche's work. Essay Prompts? This naturally leads to the question: what politics would Nietzsche recommend to us in light of his repudiation of the egalitarian premise? A striking feature of the reception of Nietzsche in the last twenty years is the large literature that has developed on act writing, Nietzsche's purported political philosophy. Cbest Prompts? Two positions have dominated the literature: one attributes to Nietzsche a commitment to aristocratic forms of social ordering (call this the “Aristocratic Politics View” [e.g., Detwiler 1990]), while the other denies that Nietzsche has any political philosophy at all (call this the “Anti-Politics View” [e.g., Hunt 1985]). More recently, Shaw (2007) has staked out as a passion, a third position, namely, that Nietzsche was, in fact, concerned with the normative legitimacy of prompts state power, but was skeptical that with the demise of religion, it would be possible to achieve an effective normative consensus in essay, society at essay large that was untained by the exercise of state power itself.
Whether Nietzsche is christmas essay really interested in these issues has been contested (Leiter 2009). Here we will concentrate on the two dominant lines of interpretation, noting that the evidence favors the cbest, second view. Even the casual reader knows, of write outline biography essay course, that Nietzsche has intense opinions about prompts everything , from German cuisine to the unparalleled brilliance (in Nietzsche's estimation) of outline Bizet's operas, not to mention various and sundry “political” matters. The interpretive question, however, is prompts whether scattered remarks and parenthetical outbursts add up to systematic views on questions of philosophical significance. Is Nietzsche even interested in political philosophy? Martha Nussbaum (1997: 1) declares that, “Nietzsche claimed to be a political thinker, indeed an important political thinker”, but she can produce no clear textual evidence in act writing, support of that contention. She notes that, “In Ecce Homo he announced that he was ‘a bringer of glad tidings like no one before me,’ and that those glad tidings are political” (1997: 1). In fact, Nietzsche does not say the “tidings” are political; indeed, as the earlier discussion of his critique of morality shows, the “tidings” are directed only at select readers, nascent higher human beings, for whom morality is harmful. That this section from Ecce Homo (IV:1) concludes with the hyperbolic claim that only with Nietzsche does “the earth [first] know[ ] great politics ” does as little to prompts establish that he has a political philosophy as the claim, in the very same passage , that Nietzsche's “glad tidings” will cause “upheavals, a convulsion of earthquakes, a moving of mountains and valleys” does to establish that he has a geological theory. Nussbaum goes on to suggest that “serious political thought” (1997: 2) must address seven precise topics (e.g., “procedural justification” [“proceduresthat legitimate and/or justify the resulting proposals” for “political structure”], “gender and outline biography essay, the family,” and “justice between nations”) most of which, of course, Nietzsche does not address. (Marx does not address most of cbest them either.) Instead of drawing the natural conclusion Nietzsche was not interested in questions of political philosophy she, instead, decries his “baneful influence” in political philosophy (1997: 12)! Those who claim to find a political philosophy in on soccer passion, Nietzsche typically rely on a handful of passages most often, sections 5657 of The Antichrist as the slender evidence on essay prompts, the basis of act writing essay which elaborate views about the ideal forms of social and political organization are attributed to Nietzsche.
In particular, Nietzsche is said to endorse (in A 5657) the caste-based society associated with the Hindu Laws of Manu as his political ideal: The order of castes, the supreme, the dominant law, is merely the sanction of cbest essay prompts a natural order , a natural lawfulness of the first rank, over an example of an which no arbitrariness, no “modern idea” has any powerNature, not Manu, distinguishes the pre-eminently spiritual ones, those who are pre-eminently strong in essay prompts, muscle and temperament, and those, the third type, who excel neither in bcg matrix study, one respect nor in the other, the mediocre ones the last as the great majority, the essay, first as the elite. (A 57) This reading, however, does not withstand scrutiny, as Thomas Brobjer (1998) has argued. As Brobjer notes, the only other published discussion of the laws of Manu, in Twilight of the Idols , is highly critical, not laudatory (pp. 304305); Nietzsche's discussions of comparable caste-based societies are all critical (pp. Of An Essay? 308309); and Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks contain numerous entries on the theme “a critique of the Laws of Manu” (pp. 310312). The passage from The Antichrist only prompts seems laudatory when read out of context; as Brobjer remarks: [Nietzsche's] purpose [in these passages in essay, The Antichrist ] is to make the contrast with Christianity as strong as possible, to provoke the reader, to make the reader “realize” that even the laws of Manu is essay prompts higher and more humane than Christianity.
Whereas Christianity destroys, the intention at least of the laws of Manu was to save and protect. Apa Format Exploratory? (1998, pp. 312313) In other words, the rhetorical context of the passage is crucial, though it is typically ignored by commentators defending the prompts, Aristocratic Politics View. Write Biography? Indeed, the passage quoted above from A 57 is specifically introduced to illustrate the use of the “holy lie” (the lie being, in this case, the claim that “nature, not Manu” distinguishes the essay prompts, castes). And as even the outline, title of the book would suggest, Nietzsche's target is Christianity, and cbest essay, the laws of Manu are invoked simply to drive home that point.
Thus, although Manu and essay on soccer passion, Christianity both depend on lies, at least the Manu lies, according to Nietzsche, are not put in prompts, the service of Christian ends, i.e., “poisoning, slander, negation of essay passion life, contempt for the body, the degradation and self-violation of man through the concept of sin” (A 56). Similarly, Nietzsche goes out of his way to show that Christian views of female sexuality compare unfavorably with Manu views (A 56). The most balanced and careful defense of the Aristocratic Politics View, Detwiler (1990), is not able to adduce much additional evidence. For example, Detwiler (1990) ends up relying quite heavily on an essay the 27-year-old Nietzsche never published (1990: 39-41, 63)! As to passages in the “mature” corpus, Detwiler adduces ones that “appear[ ] to have explicit political implications” (1990: 43; cf. 44), or that “strongly suggestpolitical consequences” (1990: 4546), or that “raise the essay prompts, issue of troubling political implications of write outline essay Nietzschean immoralism” (1990: 49). But “implications” and “consequences” are one thing, and having a political philosophy another. The canon of political philosophers is composed of thinkers (like Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau) who have philosophical views about political questions the state, liberty, law, justice, etc. not thinkers whose views about other topics merely had “implications” for politics. Essay Prompts? As the conscientious Detwiler admits: “[t]he political implications of Nietzsche's revaluation of write biography values are never center stage for long” (1990: 58). Yet it is natural to think that Nietzsche's attack on morality does indeed have real political implications. When Nietzsche commends the laws of Manu for “mak[ing] possible the cbest prompts, higher and the highest types” (A 57), this resonates, all too obviously, with Nietzsche's central concern that morality is harmful to the highest types of human beings.
Yet the essay questions, undeniable “resonance” fails to show that Nietzsche endorses the laws of Manu. Most obviously, the cbest essay, “higher types” protected by the laws of outline essay Manu essentially a priestly caste have nothing in common with the essay, nascent Goethes that concern Nietzsche. Academic Essay? Nietzsche's worry for these potential higher types is, as we have seen, that they suffer from false consciousness , i.e., the false belief that “morality in the pejorative sense,” i.e., MPS, is good for them. MPS is cbest essay a threat to the flourishing of nascent Goethes, and it is this flourishing that interests Nietzsche above all. It would suffice for Nietzsche's purposes that nascent Goethes give up their faith in MPS in other words, it is individual attitudes not political structures that are Nietzsche's primary object (“The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd,” says Nietzsche, “and not reach out beyond it” [WP 287]). Outline? That should hardly be surprising if we recall Nietzsche's sustained hostility to politics throughout his career, as defenders of the Anti-Politics View emphasize. Even in the early Untimely Meditations , this hostility is already evident. Cbest? So, for example, Nietzsche comments: Every philosophy which believes that the problem of existence is touched on, not to act writing essay say solved, by a political event is a joke- and pseudo-philosophy.
Many states have been founded since the world began; that is an old story. How should a political innovation suffice to cbest turn men once and for all into contented inhabitants of the earth? [That people think the answer to bcg matrix case study existential questions might come from prompts politics shows] that we are experiencing the consequences of the doctrinethat the an example of an academic, state is the highest goal of mankind and that a man has no higher duty than to serve the prompts, state: in which doctrine I recognize a relapse not into questions, paganism but into cbest prompts, stupidity. It may be that a man who sees his highest duty in serving the christmas essay, state really knows no higher duties; but there are men and duties existing beyond this and one of the duties that seems, at prompts least to me, to an example of an academic on e0businesses be higher than serving the state demands that one destroys stupidity in every form, and cbest, therefore in this form too. That is why I am concerned with a species of act writing essay questions man whose teleology extends somewhat beyond the welfare of a state, and with [this kind of man] only in prompts, relation to a world which is case again fairly independent of the welfare of cbest prompts a state, that of culture. Of An Academic Essay? (U III:4) The same, almost anarchistic attitude is apparent in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , where Nietzsche calls the “statethe coldest of all cold monsters” and remarks, aptly enough, that “the statewhatever it says it liesEverything about it is false” (Z I:11). “Only where the state ends, there begins the human being who is not superfluous” (Z I:11) Of course, it is only the latter individual that really interests Nietzsche. And who is that individual?
The next section (Z I:12) tells us: he is the one who values his “solitude,” which is precisely what the essay, “marketplace” of politics violates, with its “showmen and actors of write outline great [sic] things.” “Far from the market place and from fame happens all that is cbest great” (Z I:12): in other words, great things (and great people) are to be found far from the realms of outline biography essay politics and economics. Passages like these seem to support the Anti-Politics View. Cbest? On this account, Nietzsche occasionally expresses views about political matters, but, read in context, they do not add up to a theoretical account of any of the questions of political philosophy. Essay Questions? He is more accurately read, in the end, as a kind of prompts esoteric moralist , i.e., someone who has views about human flourishing, views he wants to of an academic on e0businesses communicate at least to a select few. Cbest Essay Prompts? “This book belongs to the very few,” he says of The Antichrist , though the point holds more generally. Essay As A? Indeed, Nietzsche is clearly describing his own work when he writes in an earlier book that, It is not by any means necessarily an objection to a book when anyone finds it impossible to understand: perhaps that was part of the author's intention he did not want to be understood by prompts just ‘anybody.’ All the nobler spirits and tastes select their audience when they wish to essay questions communicate; and choosing that, one at the same time erects barriers against ‘the others.’ All the more subtle laws of any style have their origin at this point: they at the same time keep away, create a distance, forbid ‘entrance,’ understanding, as said above while they open the ears of those whose ears are related to ours. (GS 381) Or similarly: “Our highest insights must and should sound like follies and sometimes like crimes when they are heard without permission by those who are not predisposed and predestined for them” (BGE 30). Nietzsche, the esoteric moralist, wants to reach only cbest essay prompts select individuals those nascent higher human beings who are “predisposed and predestined” for outline biography essay, his ideas and alter their consciousness about morality.
The larger world, including its forms of political and economic organization, is simply not his concern. Even without a political philosophy, however, there remain disturbing questions about Nietzsche's critique of morality and its political implications . For example, when Nietzsche objects that morality is an obstacle to cbest essay “the highest power and essay, splendor possible” to man, one is tempted to cbest essay prompts object that this gets things perversely backwards. For surely it is the lack of morality in bcg matrix study, social policy and public institutions a lack which permits widespread poverty and cbest essay, despair to persist generation upon essay questions generation; that allows daily economic struggle and uncertainty to cbest essay prompts define the basic character of most people's lives that is write outline biography most responsible for a lack of human flourishing. Surely, in a more moral society, with a genuine commitment to social justice and human equality, there would be far more Goethes, far more creativity and cbest essay prompts, admirable human achievement. As Philippa Foot has sharply put it: “How could one see the present dangers that the world is in an example of an academic essay, as showing that there is too much pity and too little egoism around?” (1973, p. 168). Here, though, one must remember the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality. Consider the Nietzsche who asks: “Where has the last feeling of decency and cbest prompts, self-respect gone when even our statesmen, an otherwise quite unembarrassed type of man, anti-Christians through and through in their deeds, still call themselves Christians today and attend communion?” (A 38). Clearly this Nietzsche is under no illusions about the extent to act writing essay which public actors do not act morally. Indeed, Nietzsche continues in even more explicit terms: “Every practice of every moment, every instinct, every valuation that is translated into action is prompts today anti-Christian: what a miscarriage of break falseness must modern man be, that he is not ashamed to be called a Christian in spite of all this!” (A 38). What, then, is going on cbest prompts, here? If Nietzsche is not, contrary to Foot's suggestion, embracing the absurd view that there is too much pity and altruism in questions, the world, what exactly is his critical point?
Recall Nietzsche's paradigmatic worry: that a nascent creative genius will come to take the norms of MPS so seriously that he will fail to cbest realize his genius. Of An Academic Essay? Rather than tolerate (even welcome) suffering, he will seek relief from hardship and prompts, devote himself to the pursuit of pleasure; rather than practice what Nietzsche calls “severe self-love”, and attend to outline biography himself in the ways requisite for productive creative work, he will embrace the ideology of altruism, and reject “self-love” as improper, and so forth. It is prompts not, then, that Nietzsche thinks people practice too much altruism after all, Nietzsche tells us that egoistic actions “have hitherto been by far the most frequent actions” (D 148) but rather that they believe too much in the value of altruism, equality, happiness and the other norms of MPS. Even though there is neither much altruism nor equality in the world, there is almost universal endorsement of the bcg matrix study, value of altruism and equality even, notoriously (and as Nietzsche seemed well aware), by essay those who are its worst enemies in practice. So Nietzsche's critique is that a culture in the grips of MPS, even without acting on MPS, poses the real obstacle to flourishing, because it teaches potential higher types to disvalue what would be most conducive to their creativity and christmas, value what is irrelevant or perhaps even hostile to cbest essay prompts it. Nietzsche's worry, in short, is bcg matrix case that the man in the grips of MPS becomes “ imprisoned among all sorts of terrible concepts [ schrekliche Begriffe ]” that leave him “sick, miserable, malevolent against himself: full of hatred against the springs of life, full of suspicion against all that was still strong and happy” (TI VII:2, emphasis added). So, contrary to Foot, Nietzsche is not claiming that people are actually too altruistic and too egalitarian in their practice; he is worried that (as a consequence of the slave revolt in morals, etc.) they are now “imprisoned among.concepts” of equality and altruism, and that this conceptual vocabulary of value is itself the obstacle to essay prompts the realization of certain forms of essay on soccer human excellence.
That is cbest prompts a very different charge, one that raises subtle psychological questions that no one, to date, has really explored. To be sure, one might still object that if our society really were more altruistic and egalitarian, more individuals would have the chance to flourish and do creative work. Yet it is precisely this moral optimism common, for example, to utilitarians and Marxists this belief that a more moral society would produce more opportunity for more people to do creative work that Nietzsche does, indeed, want to question. Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes in this regard are once again apparent; he says to christmas take but one example that, “We simply do not consider it desirable that a realm of cbest essay prompts justice and christmas, harmony [ Eintracht ] should be established on earth” (GS 377). It is bad enough for Nietzsche that MPS values have so far succeeded in saying, “stubbornly and essay, inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” (BGE 202); it could only be worse on his view if more and more of our actions were really brought into accord with these values. For Nietzsche wants to urge contrary to the moral optimists that in a way largely unappreciated and (perhaps) unintended a thoroughly moral culture undermines the essay as a passion, conditions under which the most splendid human creativity is possible, and generates instead a society of Zarathustra's “last men” (Z P:5): “What is love? What is creation? What is cbest essay longing? What is a star?” thus asks the write outline biography, last man, and cbest prompts, he blinks. The earth has become small, and on it hops the last man, who makes everything small. Christmas Break Essay? His race is as in eradicable as the essay, flea-beetle; the last man lives longest.
“We have invented happiness,” say the essay questions, last men, and they blink. If we are trained always to think of happiness and comfort and safety and essay, the needs of others, we shall cut ourselves off from the preconditions for creative excellence on the Nietzschean picture: suffering, hardship, danger, self-concern, and write biography, the rest. Consider a particularly powerful statement of this view. Essay Prompts? Speaking of those “eloquent and profoundly scribbling slaves of the democratic taste and its ‘modern ideas’” who seek to promote “the universal green-pasture happiness of the herd” and who take “suffering itselffor something that must be abolished” (BGE 44), Nietzsche retorts that when we look at, how the plant “man” has so far grown most vigorously to a height we think that this has happened every time under the opposite conditions, that to this end the dangerousness of his situation must first grow to the point of enormity, his power of invention and simulation (his “spirit”) had to develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity. We think thateverything evil, terrible, tyrannical in man, everything in him that is kin to beasts of prey and serpents, serves the outline biography, enhancement of the species “man” as much as its opposite does. Indeed, we do not even say enough when we say only that much. (BGE 44) At the end of this passage, Nietzsche does hint at a role for morality as well it is just that what morality opposes is equally important. He, of course, qualifies this by suggesting that even to concede their equal importance may “not even say enough”: that is, perhaps there will not be much role for morality at all in the conditions under which “the plant ‘man’” will grow to its greatest heights.
But notice that, even in cbest essay prompts, this passage, what is called for is not a political transformation, but an individual one, that of the nascent higher human being: it is an example of an academic on e0businesses “his situation” that “must first grow to the point of enormity” and it is “ his power of invention and essay prompts, simulation” that “had to develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into of an on e0businesses, refinement and audacity.” As he writes in a Nachlass note of 1887, regarding those “human beings who are of any concern to me”: “I wish [them] suffering, desolation, sickness, ill-treatment, indignities I wish that they should not remain unfamiliar with profound self-contempt, the cbest prompts, torture of self-mistrust, the wretchedness of the vanquished” (WP 910). Essay As A Passion? This is not the outline of a political program, but rather a severe regimen for the realization of individual potential at least for cbest prompts, the select few. A. Nietzsche's Writings and Key to Citations. For untranslated material and essay on soccer as a, emendations to cbest prompts existing translations, I have relied on Friedrich Nietzsche, Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe in 15 Bänden , ed. G. Colli M. Montinari (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1980); this is cited as KSA, followed by the volume number, a colon, and the fragment number(s). Nietzsche's works are cited as follows, unless otherwise noted: roman numerals refer to major parts or chapters in Nietzsche's works; Arabic numerals refer to sections, not pages. The Antichrist , in act writing essay questions, The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as A. Beyond Good and cbest, Evil , trans. W. Write Essay? Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966.
Cited as BGE. The Birth of cbest essay Tragedy , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BT. The Case of break essay Wagner , trans. W. Cbest? Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as CW. Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of Morality , trans. R.J.
Hollingdale, ed. Break Essay? M. Clark B. Leiter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Cited as D. Ecce Homo , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1967. Cited as EH. The Gay Science , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1974. Cbest Essay? Cited as GS. On the Genealogy of case Morality , trans.
M. Clark A. Cbest? Swensen, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1998. Cited as GM. Human, All-too-Human , trans. R.J. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Cited as HAH. Nietzsche contra Wagner , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as NCW.
Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the outline essay, Greeks , trans. M. Cowan, Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway, 1962. Cited as PTAG. Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the Early 1870's , ed. trans. Cbest Essay? D. Breazeale, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1979.
Cited as PT, by apa format exploratory page number. The Portable Nietzsche , ed. trans. Cbest? W. Break? Kaufmann, New York: Viking, 1954. Cited as PN, by page number. Thus Spoke Zarathustra , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as Z. Essay Prompts? Twilight of the Idols , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as TI. Untimely Meditations , trans. R.J. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Cited as U. The Will to christmas break essay Power , trans.
W. Kaufmann R.J. Cbest Prompts? Hollingdale, New York: Vintage, 1968. Cited as WP. B. References and Works on Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Brobjer, Thomas, 1998. “The Absence of Political Ideals in Nietzsche's Writings: The Case of the Laws of Manu and the Associated Caste-Society,” Nietzsche-Studien , 27: 300318. Clark, Maudemarie, 1990. Bcg Matrix Case? Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 1994. “Nietzsche's Immoralism and the Concept of Morality,” in Schacht (1994). , 2001. “On the Rejection of cbest essay prompts Morality: Bernard Williams's Debt to Nietzsche,” in Schacht (2001). Clark, Maudemarie and Brian Leiter, 1997. “Introduction” to Nietzsche's Daybreak , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Detwiler, Bruce, 1990. Nietzsche and the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism , Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Foot, Philippa, 1973. “Nietzsche: The Revaluation of apa format Values,” reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). Gemes, Ken, and John Richardson (eds.), 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cbest Essay? Geuss, Raymond, 1997. “Nietzsche and act writing essay, Morality,” European Journal of Philosophy , 5: 120. Hollingdale, R.J., 1985.
Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy , London: Ark Paperbacks. Hunt, Lester, 1985. “Politics and Anti-Politics: Nietzsche's View of the essay prompts, State,” History of Philosophy Quarterly , 2: 453468. , 1991. Nietzsche and the Origin of an example on e0businesses Virtue , London: Routledge. , 1993. “The Eternal Recurrence and Nietzsche's Ethic of Virtue,” International Studies in Philosophy , 25 (2): 311. Hurka, Thomas, 1993. Perfectionism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2007. “Nietzsche: Perfectionist,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007). Hussain, Nadeem, 2007. “Honest Illusions: Valuing for Nietzsche's Free Spirits,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007). , 2013. “Nietzsche's Metaethical Stance”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Janaway, Christopher, 2007. Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Katsafanas, Paul, 2005. “Nietzsche's Theory of Mind: Consciousness and Conceptualization,” European Journal of cbest essay prompts Philosophy , 13: 131. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Philosophical Psychology,”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013).
Leiter, Brian, 1994. “Perspectivism in Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals ,” in Schacht (1994). , 1997. “Nietzsche and the Morality Critics,” Ethics , 107: 250285. Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 1998. “On the questions, Paradox of Fatalism and Self-Creation in Nietzsche,” in cbest, C. Janaway (ed.), Willing and Nothingness: Schopenhauer as Nietzsche's Educator , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 2000. “Nietzsche's Metaethics: Against the Privilege Readings,” European Journal of apa format Philosophy , 8: 277297. , 2002. Nietzsche on Morality , London: Routledge. , 2007. “Nietzsche's Theory of the Will,” Philosophers' Imprint , 7 (7): 115. , 2009. “Review of Shaw (2007)”, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , 2009.01.21 [Available online]. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Naturalism Reconsidered,” in essay prompts, Gemes and Richardson (2013). , 2015. Write Biography? Nietzsche on Morality , 2nd edition, London: Routledge. Leiter, Brian and Neil Sinhababu (eds.), 2007. Essay? Nietzsche and Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Magnus, Bernd, 1978. Nietzsche's Existential Imperative , Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
May, Simon, 1999. Nietzsche's Ethics and his “War on Morality” , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Montinari, Mazzino, 1982. Outline Biography? Nietzsche Lesen , Berlin: de Gruyter. Nehamas, Alexander, 1985. Cbest Essay Prompts? Nietzsche: Life as Literature , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, esp. Chs. 57. Nussbaum, Martha, 1997. “Is Nietzsche a Political Thinker?” International Journal of Philosophical Studies , 5: 113. Bcg Matrix Study? Reginster, Bernard, 2006.
The Affirmation of cbest essay prompts Life: Nietzsche on Overcoming Nihilism , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Riccardi, Mattia, 2015a. Christmas? “Nietzsche on the Superficiality of essay prompts Consciousness”,in M. Dries (ed.), Nietzsche on Consciousness and the Embodied Mind , Berlin, de Gruyter. , 2015b. “Inner Opacity: Nietzsche on academic essay on e0businesses, Introspection and Agency”, Inquiry , 58: 221243. Richardson, John, 1996. Nietzsche's System , Oxford: Oxford University Press, esp. Ch 3. Richardson, John, and Brian Leiter (eds.), 2001. Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Schacht, Richard, 1983. Nietzsche , London: Routledge, esp. Chs. IV-VII. (ed.), 1994.
Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality , Berkeley: University of California Press. (ed.), 2001. Nietzsche's Postmoralism , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shaw, Tamsin, 2007. Nietzsche's Political Skepticism , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Solomon, Robert C., 2001. Cbest Prompts? “Nietzsche's Virtues: A Personal Inquiry,” in Schacht (2001). Wilcox, John, 1974. Truth and Value in Nietzsche: A Study of His Metaethics and Epistemology , Ann Arbor: University of write outline essay Michigan Press.
Williams, Bernard, 1993. Cbest? “Nietzsche's Minimalist Moral Psychology,” European Journal of Philosophy , 1: 414. Reprinted in Schacht (1994). Nietzsche Chronicle, maintained by Malcolm Brown, Dartmouth College Brian Leiter's Nietzsche Blog Journal of Nietzsche Studies. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free. View this site from another server:
The Stanford Encyclopedia of bcg matrix study Philosophy is prompts copyright 2016 by bcg matrix case study The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University.
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A Comprehensive Guide to prompts, APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. On Soccer As A Passion. Included is essay prompts, information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and other helpful information related to an example of an academic, APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an cbest essay prompts APA citation generator. See more across the biography site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project.
A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of cbest essay prompts taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism!
Plagiarism is illegal and study there are many serious ramifications for prompts, plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. Of An Essay. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and cbest essay prompts easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of christmas break essay information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to essay prompts, make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation.
The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on write outline essay this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. Cbest Essay Prompts. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the christmas break other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Cbest Essay Prompts. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from of an essay, other sources, place them into prompts your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors.
The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. Break. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for prompts, everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is an example on e0businesses, used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Cbest Essay. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. On Soccer As A. Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in prompts, 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to apa format, document their sources. Prior to essay, the inception of apa format exploratory these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order.
You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to essay, look at an example essay a few different pieces of research and determine the cbest essay prompts types of sources that were used to develop the write research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to cbest prompts, glance at an APA citation and essay as a passion easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to cbest essay prompts, include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information.
Now, it is no longer required to essay on soccer as a, include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an cbest international publisher, is christmas, included in prompts, the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to on soccer as a passion, the increase in the amount of prompts technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to christmas break, learn more about how to format and cbest include in-text citations in your project.
Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. Exploratory Paper. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is cbest prompts, a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for bcg matrix study, you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to prompts, a piece of on soccer as a passion information from another source. Quite often, researchers and cbest scholars use a small amount of christmas break essay text, word for cbest prompts, word, from another source and include it in their own research projects.
This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to essay, using the exact words from another source and cbest essay prompts placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words.
When simply referring to another piece of on soccer passion information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the essay page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport.
The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to write outline biography, continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and cbest essay develop citations on christmas your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Prompts. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work.
APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. Write Outline Essay. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. Cbest. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL.
Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in apa format, the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. Essay Prompts. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for christmas break essay, you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published.
Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on cbest essay prompts the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. Bcg Matrix Case. (2017, May 19). Essay Prompts. City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the act writing first letter capitalized.
For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the prompts title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in essay on soccer as a, each word and cbest essay italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks.
In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by christmas break essay following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to cbest essay, the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and essay as a passion capitalize the first letter.
Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. Cbest. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the bcg matrix city and prompts state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the study entire country name when including areas outside of the United States.
After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted.
For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in prompts, parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the act writing essay publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the cbest essay location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books.
Our APA generator is an on soccer as a APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for cbest, you. An Example Academic. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of essay a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and break other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of cbest prompts electronic information to include in APA citations.
When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. Christmas Break Essay. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and cbest essay prompts write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher.
Dickens, C. Act Writing Essay. (1942). Prompts. Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. Outline Essay. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher.
Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Cbest Essay. Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in bcg matrix, Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published).
Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. Essay. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in act writing essay, Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Cbest Essay Prompts. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and write essay social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of cbest prompts chapter author, First initial. Write Outline Biography. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. Cbest Essay. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and outline biography technology (pp. 65-89).
Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Cbest Essay Prompts. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of an example essay on e0businesses work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation.
A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to cbest essay, include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. Essay. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from prompts, http://xxxx. Apa Format Exploratory Paper. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. Cbest Essay Prompts. I. (Year Published).
Title of article. Of An Academic. Title of cbest essay prompts Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. Paper. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the cbest essay URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex.
Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. On Soccer As A Passion. (Year Published). Title of cbest prompts article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009).
Sequential processing of an example academic on e0businesses lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an cbest APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. On Soccer As A. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an cbest article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp.
D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2.
You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Christmas. Author, F. Essay. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31).
College athletes want cut of bcg matrix study action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Cbest Essay Prompts. Author Last Name, F. Essay. I. Cbest Essay. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of christmas break Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). Essay. The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published).
Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from write outline, http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Essay. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). Essay Questions. EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post].
Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. Cbest Essay. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. Apa Format Exploratory. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. Essay. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel.
Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. Bcg Matrix. (Executive producer), House of cards . Prompts. Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994).
Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. Act Writing Essay. There is the option to essay, automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of essay source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in cbest essay prompts, APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Outline. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in cbest essay prompts, the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Essay. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview.
If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the cbest prompts recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the of an academic song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. Cbest Prompts. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL.
Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use.
Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Exploratory Paper. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014).
The influences of community college library characteristics on cbest essay institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for act writing essay questions, dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically.
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?Shaminika Paris Ballard English 201.722 Professor Gardner 4/6/12 Essay 2` RELUCTANT TO CHANGE It is common for an individual to find comfort . in familiar surroundings after being faced with a traumatic experience. In William Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily, the subject of the story is Emily Grierson, whose family in the South was once considered to be the prompts closest thing to true aristocracy. Emily’s father had been an affluent man who believed that nobody was good enough to christmas, marry his daughter; he warded. Death , Family , For Emily, Whenever I May Find Her 1056 Words | 5 Pages. Hindi Nationalism This piece on Hindu nationalism, written by Alok Rai, deals with the coming of modern Hindi in cbest prompts, the late 90s . and the early 20s. Alok Rai who is as a passion, also known as a critical thinker, theorist and cbest also the grandson of Premchand makes his readers aware of the process of modernization in the case of language. In this essay we get to witness a connection between Hindi (old Hindi ) and “ Hindi ” (new Hindi ). Making of essay, Hindi as a modern language connects to cbest prompts, the programme of the imagining the. Braj Bhasha , Hindi , Hindi languages 1413 Words | 4 Pages.
? THE NOVEL “BRIAR ROSE ” IS SHAPED BY INTENSE FOCUS ON EXTRAORDINARY HUMAN EXPERIENCES. Act Writing Essay! EXPLORE SOME OF THESE EXPERIENCES AND EVALUATE HOW . THEY IMPACT ON THE LIVES OF ATLEAST TWO CHARACTERS Briar Rose is shaped by an intense focus on extraordinary human experiences. Essay! Yolen reveals this throughout the apa format novel. Essay! Briar Rose mainly focuses on human experiences. An Example Of An Academic Essay On E0businesses! It focuses on Genocide and the Holocaust. Essay! It does this through characters. The characters explain and paper share what they went through during. Fairy , Fairy tale , Family 2042 Words | 4 Pages. Criticism of The Sick Rose By analyzing more information from different authors, I was able to draw a greater amount contrast from the . authors.
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Introduction Faulkner's most famous, most popular, and most anthologized short story, A Rose for Emily evokes the terms Southern gothic and . grotesque, two types of essay, literature in which the general tone is one of gloom, terror, and understated violence. The story is Faulkner's best example of these forms because it contains unimaginably dark images: a decaying mansion, a corpse, a murder, a mysterious servant who disappears, and, most horrible of all, necrophilia — an essay erotic or sexual attraction. A Rose for an example academic essay, Emily , African American , Joyce Carol Oates 2502 Words | 6 Pages. 26/6/2013 Essay on “Advantage and cbest Disadvantage of Telephone” in Hindi Essay on academic essay on e0businesses “Advantage and Disadvantage of . Cbest Essay! Telephone” in Hindi by Nilakshi Read this Essay on “Benefit and Loss of Telephone” in Hindi language. www.shareyouressays.com/113818/ essay -on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 1/6 6/27/13 Essay on “Advantage and write outline biography essay Disadvantage of Telephone” in Hindi www.shareyouressays.com/113818/ essay -on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 2/6 6/27/13 . 6th Marine Regiment , All rights reserved , Bihar 342 Words | 3 Pages. The Name of the Rose; Movie vs Essay. Amanda Trombley English 102 Professor Coletta The Name of the Rose Essay May 13, 2010 The Name of the Rose : . Novel vs. Cbest Essay Prompts! Movie Often times when a novel becomes a movie, critics judge the movie on a more difficult scale than they would if the movie did not have a book to essay as a passion, be compared too. When a situation like this occurs, the audience tends to lean one way or the other, towards the essay novel or towards the movie.
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In the story “A Rose for bcg matrix case study, Emily” by William Faulkner, the voices of the townspeople and narrator paint a character portrait of Miss Emily as a . reclusive woman who doesn’t have the strongest grasp on reality. Despite her odd behavior and refusal to accept the evolving world around her, the cbest prompts town collectively feels a “respectful affection” (391) for her, though it eventually gives way to morbid curiosity and finally fear. Though it is found out she may have done bad things, she is not a bad person and. Accept , For Emily, Whenever I May Find Her 1003 Words | 3 Pages. habit of clearing it every morning before I heat my breakfast on my small volcano. Aside from the baobabs, there are also some simple flowers . which have only one ring of planets. Apa Format Exploratory Paper! But from one certain day, I spot that a strange kind of seed began to cbest, get ready to produce a flower . I felt at once that some sort of miraculous apparition must emerge from it.
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In the novel The Lottery Rose , by Irene Hunt, is essay prompts, about a boy that suffers from the two types of abuse in write outline, many ways. A boy named Georgie, who is seven and a half years old, loses hope in himself when his alcoholic mother and her abusive boyfriend abuse Georgie both physically and. Abuse , Causality , Child abuse 1131 Words | 3 Pages. A Rose for Emily analitical essay. ?A Rose for Emily “When Miss Emily Grierson died, our whole town went to her funeral.” Miss Emily was both a tradition and an obligation of the . town. When her father was alive, he sheltered her from essay prompts relationships and hardship. After his death however, Emily was left with hardly any money, save for a crumbling manor and essay as a passion no relationships in sight –she was thirty at cbest essay prompts the time. Later, a Yankee named Homer Baron came to town for a job. They (Emily and Homer) started seeing each other every Sunday. However.
Death , English-language films , For Emily, Whenever I May Find Her 960 Words | 3 Pages. Horizontal flower arrangement- A very shallow container is used to make this type of essay on soccer passion, flower arrangement. It has a single big . flower as the focal point and drooping flower branches are added to each side. Rose is the main flower used as the essay prompts focal point in this type of flower arrangement. Horizontal flower arrangements are very low and hence are suitable for center table decorations.
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Through fairy tale elements of fantasy, recovery, escape and consolation; Yolen has been able to explore. Beauty and the Beast , Brothers Grimm , Charles Perrault 1070 Words | 2 Pages. Name of the Candidate Name Surname Name of the Parent / Guardian Date of Birth (dd-mm-yyyy) Socio-Economic Details : Gender Nationality Marital Status Social . Status Male Indian Married SC TELUGU Telugu (For office use only) ID No. ENGLISH Hindi Sanskrit Candidate’s Latest Photo Female Others Un Married ST BC Rural PH Urban Others If any Specify : Area which you are living comes under whether Are you employed Yes No Please furnish Work Experience (if any) : Organisation Govt. Essay! Private. Distance education , Education , Employment 417 Words | 2 Pages.
Guitar Highway Rose Critical Essay. ?Select a character from Brigid Lowry’s Guitar Highway Rose and, based upon evidence from the prompts txt, the paper lesson that we, as readers, learn from . their journey. Introduction Brigid Lowry’s novella, ‘Guitar Highway rose ’ is based on two teenagers that decide to prompts, run away on an example a journey up the coast of Australia, freedom is the cbest prompts key exploration for their disappearance. The purpose of write biography essay, this essay is to gain information on what we have learnt from cbest this novel, Asher’s Journey. The way, in which Lowry has written. Cognition , Decision making , Fiction 840 Words | 3 Pages. Parts Of The Flower A flower , sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants. . Christmas Break Essay! The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing or allow selfing. Cbest! Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to act writing questions, animals, so that they can be vectors for the transfer of pollen. 1.) Pistil- It is the female reproductive part of the flower . Located in the. Flower , Flowering plant , Plant morphology 628 Words | 3 Pages.
A r A Rose for Emily Kristina Linseisen-Snead ENG/125 September 26, 2011 Rocquie O'Rourke A Rose for Emily The . first short story published by William Faulkner (1930, 1897-1962), A Rose for Emily, invites the reader into the dark and oftentimes deranged world of Emily Grierson. The Southern Gothic story takes the reader on a transforming journey alongside the essay prompts main character from a sweet and case study innocent young girl to a mental-ill spinster. The main character Emily was once a bright and. A Rose for Emily , English-language films , Fiction 920 Words | 3 Pages. ?Danielle Sherstad Merle Alix English II 30 January 2015 Rhetorical Analysis of “The Rose -Elf” The Rose -Elf “Written by Hans . Christian Anderson” is prompts, one of his lesser known pieces of literature but like so many of apa format, his works he tells quite an interesting and sad story that ends with justice done. There are many meanings that one could take from the story; ones of revenge, romance or that no matter how small one is they are important, but one of the more prominent themes is one of cbest, life. Such as the. 2007 albums , Debut albums , Earth 1138 Words | 5 Pages.
BIRTH FLOWERS amp; PERSONALITY TRAITS Keep aside your zodiac signs and essay questions connected attitudes; birth numbers and numerological analysis; . horoscopes and astrological assertions; tarot cards and a glimpse into the future; crystal gazing and prophesying; parrot card predictions; palm reading and Chirology; seances and channeling; and essay every conceivable modern equivalent of the Oracles of Delphi…Forget about exploratory paper birth stones, lucky gems, charming mascots and magical amulets… Let us say it with beautiful Flowers;. Asteraceae , Divination , Flower 1204 Words | 4 Pages. Netaji Subhashchandra Bhose Hindi Essay. Certificate Course in Audio-Radio Servicing, from cbest Institute of Audio – Video Technology, Nagpur. Yr 1995.
5) Basic Computer course Personal Details: . Date of Birth : 28th March 1977. Father name : Mr.Sudhakar K. Case! Chaware Languages Known : Hindi , Marathi amp; English. Marital Status : Married Hobbies : Music, Badminton, Horse Riding amp; Art. Cbest Essay! Extra Curricular Activities : 1. Completed Disaster Relief Instructor Course, from National Civil Defence College, Nagpur (Central Government). 2008 , Bharti Airtel , Bharti Enterprises 691 Words | 4 Pages. The Flower Juice Orange juice, pineapple juice and other types of beverages . arethe usual drinks we find as typical now a days. But what if oneaccidentally eats at a foreign restaurant and actually gets to taste anextraordinary drink known to be made out of flowers . Well,coincidentally, one of the researchers did experience such a thing. Thiswas when the group got the idea of making an investigation on such amatter. Biography! The researchers, being very curious themselves, tried to fill theircuriosity.
Eating , Flower , Fruit 1959 Words | 6 Pages. The Drowned Rose --------Show how different points of view in essay prompts, the family community are developed in the story and how it affects the reader . response. The Drowned Rose by George Mackay Brown is a ghost story about a doomed love affair which takes place in a close knit community and is pieced together through various opinions by locals. In this essay I will show how different points of view can influence reader response through characterisation, theme, symbolism and structure. The story tells. Academy Award for essay on soccer passion, Best Actress , Academy Award for prompts, Best Picture , Education 1068 Words | 3 Pages. Faulkner’s A ROSE FOR EMILY The possible meanings of both the title and the chronology of write outline biography essay, William Faulkner’s “A Rose for . Emily” have been debated for essay, years. What is not under debate, however, is that the chronology deliberately manipulates and delays the reader’s final judgment of Emily Grierson by altering the evidence. In other words, what the chronology does is as important as when the events actually take place. In the same way, what the title does reveals as much as the debate over.
A Rose for Emily , Allusion , Barn Burning 1848 Words | 6 Pages. The constitution of India (Article 343) recognises Hindi as the official language of India. Hindi is also the main language in . many states of India such as Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal/ Uttarakhand, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh and of an academic essay on e0businesses Himachal Pradesh. Cbest Prompts! It is spoken by more than 437 million people in apa format exploratory, the world. The other dialects of Hindi are Brajbhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili, Bhojpuri, to cbest essay, name only a few. Hindi can be traced back to as early as the of an academic seventh or eighth. Chhayavaad , Hindi , Hindi literature 1435 Words | 5 Pages. when Momma talked to essay prompts, Mrs.
Flowers ? What do these conversations reveal about an example of an academic on e0businesses Angelous attitude toward her grandmother at this time? Because . Essay Prompts! she feels her mother is being disrespectful, that Mrs. Flowers deserves way more than being called just her name. At the time she could have resented her mother, felt like her mother knew better and that she didn’t agree at all. 4. As an adult, what does Angelou suspect about her grandmothers relationship to Mrs. Flowers that she didn’t see as a child. 613 Words | 3 Pages. A Rose for Emily is write outline, a short story by American author William Faulkner first published in cbest essay prompts, the April 30, 1930 issue of Forum. Christmas! The story takes . place in Faulkner's fictional city, Jefferson, Mississippi, in the fictional county of Yoknapatawpha County. It was Faulkner's first short story published in a national magazine. Title Faulkner described the title as an allegorical title; the meaning was, here was a woman who has had a tragedy, an irrevocable tragedy and nothing could be done about it.
Fiction , Joyce Carol Oates , Marriage 838 Words | 3 Pages. Science writing in essay, Hindi appears to have began in 1818 (Patariya, 2000) with the publication of a magazine named “ Hindi . Digdarshan,” copies of essay on soccer, which were circulated to many schools in West Bengal. ‘Digdarshan' regularly incorporated materials on science, a trend that was not in vogue at prompts that time even in contemporary reputed Hindi publication 'Udant martand' (1928) credited to be the first Hindi newspaper. Patairiya (2000) further narrates that a questionnaire related to chemistry way. Delhi , Hindi , Popular science 1626 Words | 5 Pages. Tiffany Gattis Tavel ENG 151 05 Oct 2012 A Review of christmas, a Rose “A Rose for Emily”, by William Faulkner is a riveting tale of . the perils of love lost. Though the story offers up an elaborate plot, the conclusion did not fully provide closure as would be the natural expectation. Instead, the conclusion was heavily shrouded in mystery and secrecy. “Miss Emily after Dark”, by Thomas Robert Argiro, which was published in The Mississippi Quarterly, discusses the many obscurities within the story.
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