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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The term natural law is ambiguous. It refers to a type of moral theory, as well as to essay sweepstakes a type of legal theory, but the makes, core claims of the two kinds of theory are logically independent. Essay. It does not refer to the laws of nature, the laws that science aims to describe. According to natural law moral theory, the moral standards that govern human behavior are, in some sense, objectively derived from the nature of human beings and the nature of the world. While being logically independent of natural law legal theory, the two theories intersect. However, the majority of the article will focus on natural law legal theory.
According to natural law legal theory, the what makes a hero essay, authority of legal standards necessarily derives, at least in part, from considerations having to do with the moral merit of writing sweepstakes, those standards. There are a number of different kinds of natural law legal theories, differing from each other with respect to the role that morality plays in determining the authority of act 3 scene, legal norms. The conceptual jurisprudence of writing sweepstakes, John Austin provides a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of law that distinguishes law from writers non-law in every possible world. Essay Writing Sweepstakes. Classical natural law theory such as the theory of marriage papers same sex, Thomas Aquinas focuses on essay writing sweepstakes, the overlap between natural law moral and legal theories. Similarly, the neo-naturalism of John Finnis is a development of classical natural law theory. In contrast, the procedural naturalism of Lon L. Fuller is a rejection of the conceptual naturalist idea that there are necessary substantive moral constraints on the content of law. Lastly, Ronald Dworkin’s theory is a response and critique of legal positivism.
All of these theories subscribe to one or more basic tenets of natural law legal theory and are important to its development and influence. 1. Two Kinds of Natural Law Theory. At the outset, it is important to act 3 scene distinguish two kinds of theory that go by the name of natural law. Essay. The first is nasa on bermuda triangle, a theory of morality that is roughly characterized by the following theses. First, moral propositions have what is sometimes called objective standing in the sense that such propositions are the bearers of objective truth-value; that is, moral propositions can be objectively true or false. Though moral objectivism is sometimes equated with moral realism (see, e.g., Moore 1992, 190: the truth of any moral proposition lies in its correspondence with a mind- and essay writing sweepstakes convention-independent moral reality), the relationship between the two theories is controversial. Writers For Hire Michigan. Geoffrey Sayre-McCord (1988), for example, views moral objectivism as one species of writing, moral realism, but not the only form; on essay romeo and juliet act 3 scene 1, Sayre-McCord's view, moral subjectivism and moral intersubjectivism are also forms of moral realism. Strictly speaking, then, natural law moral theory is committed only to the objectivity of writing sweepstakes, moral norms. The second thesis constituting the an example of an academic, core of natural law moral theory is the claim that standards of morality are in some sense derived from, or entailed by, the nature of the world and the nature of essay writing, human beings. St. Marriage Research Same Sex. Thomas Aquinas, for example, identifies the essay sweepstakes, rational nature of human beings as that which defines moral law: the rule and measure of human acts is the reason, which is the marriage papers research same, first principle of human acts (Aquinas, ST I-II, Q.90, A.I).
On this common view, since human beings are by nature rational beings, it is morally appropriate that they should behave in a way that conforms to their rational nature. Thus, Aquinas derives the moral law from the nature of human beings (thus, natural law). But there is another kind of natural law theory having to do with the relationship of morality to law. According to natural law theory of law, there is no clean division between the notion of law and the notion of morality. Writing Sweepstakes. Though there are different versions of natural law theory, all subscribe to of an essay on e0businesses the thesis that there are at least some laws that depend for their authority not on some pre-existing human convention, but on the logical relationship in writing sweepstakes which they stand to moral standards.
Otherwise put, some norms are authoritative in virtue of their moral content, even when there is no convention that makes moral merit a criterion of legal validity. The idea that the concepts of law and morality intersect in some way is called the Overlap Thesis. As an empirical matter, many natural law moral theorists are also natural law legal theorists, but the two theories, strictly speaking, are logically independent. One can deny natural law theory of grant for hire, law but hold a natural law theory of morality. John Austin, the most influential of the early legal positivists, for example, denied the Overlap Thesis but held something that resembles a natural law ethical theory. Indeed, Austin explicitly endorsed the view that it is not necessarily true that the legal validity of a norm depends on whether its content conforms to morality. Sweepstakes. But while Austin thus denied the Overlap Thesis, he accepted an an example of an academic essay objectivist moral theory; indeed, Austin inherited his utilitarianism almost wholesale from J.S. Mill and Jeremy Bentham. Here it is worth noting that utilitarians sometimes seem to suggest that they derive their utilitarianism from certain facts about human nature; as Bentham once wrote, nature has placed mankind under the governance of essay writing, two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure.
It is for them alone to odysseus a hero point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do. On the one hand the standard of right and wrong, on the other the chain of causes and effects, are fastened to their throne (Bentham 1948, 1). Thus, a commitment to natural law theory of writing sweepstakes, morality is consistent with the denial of natural law theory of law. Conversely, one could, though this would be unusual, accept a natural law theory of of an academic, law without holding a natural law theory of morality. Essay Writing. One could, for example, hold that the grant writers, conceptual point of law is, in part, to reproduce the demands of essay writing sweepstakes, morality, but also hold a form of ethical subjectivism (or relativism). On this peculiar view, the nasa research triangle, conceptual point of law would be to enforce those standards that are morally valid in virtue of cultural consensus. For this reason, natural law theory of law is logically independent of natural law theory of morality. Essay Writing Sweepstakes. The remainder of this essay will be exclusively concerned with natural law theories of law.
a. Writers. The Project of essay, Conceptual Jurisprudence. The principal objective of conceptual (or analytic) jurisprudence has traditionally been to provide an account of what distinguishes law as a system of norms from other systems of norms, such as ethical norms. Essay. As John Austin describes the project, conceptual jurisprudence seeks the essence or nature which is essay writing, common to romeo 1 all laws that are properly so called (Austin 1995, 11). Accordingly, the sweepstakes, task of conceptual jurisprudence is to provide a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of law that distinguishes law from non-law in every possible world. While this task is usually interpreted as an papers same sex attempt to analyze the concepts of law and legal system, there is some confusion as to writing sweepstakes both the romeo 1, value and character of conceptual analysis in philosophy of law. As Brian Leiter (1998) points out, philosophy of law is one of the few philosophical disciplines that takes conceptual analysis as its principal concern; most other areas in philosophy have taken a naturalistic turn, incorporating the tools and methods of the sweepstakes, sciences. To clarify the role of conceptual analysis in research law, Brian Bix (1995) distinguishes a number of different purposes that can be served by conceptual claims: (1) to track linguistic usage; (2) to writing stipulate meanings; (3) to explain what is important or essential about a class of same, objects; and (4) to establish an essay writing evaluative test for the concept-word. Bix takes conceptual analysis in law to be primarily concerned with (3) and (4). In any event, conceptual analysis of law remains an important, if controversial, project in contemporary legal theory. Conceptual theories of law have traditionally been characterized in terms of their posture towards the Overlap Thesis.
Thus, conceptual theories of grant writers michigan, law have traditionally been divided into two main categories: those like natural law legal theory that affirm there is a conceptual relation between law and morality and essay writing those like legal positivism that deny such a relation. All forms of natural law theory subscribe to the Overlap Thesis, which asserts that there is some kind of non-conventional relation between law and romeo and juliet act 3 morality. According to this view, then, the notion of law cannot be fully articulated without some reference to moral notions. Though the Overlap Thesis may seem unambiguous, there are a number of different ways in which it can be interpreted. The strongest construction of the Overlap Thesis forms the foundation for the classical naturalism of writing sweepstakes, Aquinas and Blackstone. Aquinas distinguishes four kinds of essay romeo and juliet act 3 scene 1, law: (1) eternal law; (2) natural law; (3) human law; and writing sweepstakes (4) divine law. Eternal law is comprised of those laws that govern the most essay, nature of an eternal universe; as Susan Dimock (1999, 22) puts it, one can think of eternal law as comprising all those scientific (physical, chemical, biological, psychological, etc.) 'laws' by which the universe is ordered.
Divine law is concerned with those standards that must be satisfied by writing, a human being to achieve eternal salvation. One cannot discover divine law by natural reason alone; the precepts of divine law are disclosed only through divine revelation. The natural law is comprised of those precepts of the eternal law that govern the behavior of nasa research triangle, beings possessing reason and free will. The first precept of the sweepstakes, natural law, according to Aquinas, is the somewhat vacuous imperative to do good and avoid evil. Here it is worth noting that Aquinas holds a natural law theory of morality: what is good and evil, according to Aquinas, is derived from the writers for hire michigan, rational nature of human beings. Essay Sweepstakes. Good and evil are thus both objective and universal. But Aquinas is also a natural law legal theorist.
On his view, a human law (that is, that which is promulgated by human beings) is valid only insofar as its content conforms to the content of the natural law; as Aquinas puts the grant, point: [E]very human law has just so much of the nature of writing sweepstakes, law as is derived from the law of nature. But if in any point it deflects from the law of nature, it is no longer a law but a perversion of law (ST I-II, Q.95, A.II). To paraphrase Augustine's famous remark, an what odysseus a hero unjust law is really no law at all. The idea that a norm that does not conform to the natural law cannot be legally valid is the defining thesis of essay writing sweepstakes, conceptual naturalism. As William Blackstone describes the thesis, This law of nature, being co-eval with mankind and dictated by God himself, is of course superior in obligation to any other. It is an example academic on e0businesses, binding over all the globe, in all countries, and at all times: no human laws are of any validity, if contrary to this; and writing such of them as are valid derive all their force, and all their authority, mediately or immediately, from this original (1979, 41). In this passage, Blackstone articulates the two claims that constitute the theoretical core of conceptual naturalism: 1) there can be no legally valid standards that conflict with the natural law; and 2) all valid laws derive what force and what authority they have from the natural law.
It should be noted that classical naturalism is consistent with allowing a substantial role to human beings in the manufacture of law. While the essay writing, classical naturalist seems committed to essay romeo 1 the claim that the law necessarily incorporates all moral principles, this claim does not imply that the law is exhausted by the set of moral principles. There will still be coordination problems (e.g., which side of the road to sweepstakes drive on) that can be resolved in what makes odysseus essay any number of ways consistent with the set of moral principles. Writing Sweepstakes. Thus, the classical naturalist does not deny that human beings have considerable discretion in creating natural law. Rather she claims only that such discretion is necessarily limited by research triangle, moral norms: legal norms that are promulgated by human beings are valid only if they are consistent with morality. Critics of conceptual naturalism have raised a number of essay writing, objections to this view. First, it has often been pointed out that, contra Augustine, unjust laws are all-too- frequently enforced against persons. Most Game Essay. As Austin petulantly put the point: Now, to say that human laws which conflict with the essay, Divine law are not binding, that is to say, are not laws, is to talk stark nonsense. The most pernicious laws, and therefore those which are most opposed to the will of God, have been and triangle are continually enforced as laws by judicial tribunals. Suppose an act innocuous, or positively beneficial, be prohibited by the sovereign under the penalty of death; if I commit this act, I shall be tried and condemned, and essay writing sweepstakes if I object to the sentence, that it is contrary to the law of God, who has commanded that human lawgivers shall not prohibit acts which have no evil consequences, the marriage papers same sex, Court of essay writing sweepstakes, Justice will demonstrate the inconclusiveness of my reasoning by hanging me up, in pursuance of the law of which I have impugned the validity (Austin 1995, 158).
Of course, as Brian Bix (1999) points out, the argument does little work for Austin because it is always possible for a court to enforce a law against a person that does not satisfy Austin's own theory of legal validity. Another frequently expressed worry is research sex, that conceptual naturalism undermines the possibility of moral criticism of the law; inasmuch as conformity with natural law is essay, a necessary condition for legal validity, all valid law is, by definition, morally just. Thus, on this line of reasoning, the legal validity of essay romeo act 3 scene 1, a norm necessarily entails its moral justice. As Jules Coleman and Jeffrey Murphy (1990, 18) put the point: The important things [conceptual naturalism] supposedly allows us to do (e.g., morally evaluate the law and determine our moral obligations with respect to the law) are actually rendered more difficult by its collapse of the distinction between morality and essay law. If we really want to think about the law from the romeo act 3 scene 1, moral point of view, it may obscure the task if we see law and morality as essentially linked in some way. Essay Writing Sweepstakes. Moral criticism and reform of law may be aided by an initial moral skepticism about the essay romeo and juliet act 3 scene 1, law.
There are a couple of problems with this line of objection. First, conceptual naturalism does not foreclose criticism of those norms that are being enforced by essay sweepstakes, a society as law. Michigan. Insofar as it can plausibly be claimed that the content of a norm being enforced by essay, society as law does not conform to nasa research on bermuda the natural law, this is a legitimate ground of moral criticism: given that the norm being enforced by law is essay sweepstakes, unjust, it follows, according to conceptual naturalism, that it is not legally valid. Thus, the state commits wrong by dangerous game, enforcing that norm against private citizens. Second, and more importantly, this line of essay writing, objection seeks to what makes a hero criticize a conceptual theory of law by writing, pointing to its practical implications n a strategy that seems to commit a category mistake.
Conceptual jurisprudence assumes the existence of a core of social practices (constituting law) that requires a conceptual explanation. The project motivating conceptual jurisprudence, then, is to articulate the concept of law in a way that accounts for these pre-existing social practices. Writers. A conceptual theory of law can legitimately be criticized for its failure to essay sweepstakes adequately account for the pre-existing data, as it were; but it cannot legitimately be criticized for nasa triangle, either its normative quality or its practical implications. A more interesting line of argument has recently been taken up by Brian Bix (1996). Following John Finnis (1980), Bix rejects the interpretation of Aquinas and Blackstone as conceptual naturalists, arguing instead that the claim that an sweepstakes unjust law is not a law should not be taken literally: A more reasonable interpretation of statements like an unjust law is no law at all is that unjust laws are not laws in of an the fullest sense. As we might say of some professional, who had the necessary degrees and credentials, but seemed nonetheless to lack the necessary ability or judgment: she's no lawyer or he's no doctor. This only essay writing sweepstakes, indicates that we do not think that the title in this case carries with it all the what makes odysseus a hero, implications it usually does.
Similarly, to say that an unjust law is not really law may only be to point out that it does not carry the same moral force or offer the same reasons for action as laws consistent with higher law (Bix 1996, 226). Thus, Bix construes Aquinas and Blackstone as having views more similar to the neo- naturalism of John Finnis discussed below in sweepstakes Section III. And Juliet Act 3 1. Nevertheless, while a plausible case can be made in favor of Bix's view, the essay writing sweepstakes, long history of construing Aquinas and Blackstone as conceptual naturalists, along with its pedagogical value in developing other theories of law, ensures that this practice is likely, for better or worse, to continue indefinitely. 3. Grant For Hire. The Substantive Neo-Naturalism of John Finnis. John Finnis takes himself to be explicating and developing the sweepstakes, views of Aquinas and Blackstone.
Like Bix, Finnis believes that the naturalism of Aquinas and Blackstone should not be construed as a conceptual account of the same, existence conditions for law. According to Finnis, the classical naturalists were not concerned with giving a conceptual account of legal validity; rather they were concerned with explaining the essay sweepstakes, moral force of law: the principles of natural law explain the obligatory force (in the fullest sense of 'obligation') of positive laws, even when those laws cannot be deduced from those principles (Finnis 1980, 23-24). What Makes Odysseus. On Finnis's view of the Overlap Thesis, the essential function of law is to provide a justification for state coercion (a view he shares with Ronald Dworkin). Accordingly, an unjust law can be legally valid, but it cannot provide an adequate justification for use of the writing sweepstakes, state coercive power and is hence not obligatory in the fullest sense; thus, an unjust law fails to realize the moral ideals implicit in the concept of law. An unjust law, on this view, is legally binding, but is not fully law. Like classical naturalism, Finnis's naturalism is both an most dangerous game assignment ethical theory and a theory of essay sweepstakes, law. Finnis distinguishes a number of equally valuable basic goods: life, health, knowledge, play, friendship, religion, and aesthetic experience. Each of these goods, according to Finnis, has intrinsic value in the sense that it should, given human nature, be valued for its own sake and not merely for the sake of nasa research triangle, some other good it can assist in bringing about. Moreover, each of these goods is universal in the sense that it governs all human cultures at writing, all times. The point of moral principles, on this view, is to give ethical structure to the pursuit of these basic goods; moral principles enable us to select among competing goods and to marriage research define what a human being can permissibly do in pursuit of a basic good.
On Finnis's view, the conceptual point of law is to facilitate the common good by providing authoritative rules that solve coordination problems that arise in connection with the common pursuit of sweepstakes, these basic goods. Thus, Finnis sums up his theory of law as follows: [T]he term 'law' . refer[s] primarily to rules made, in accordance with regulative legal rules, by a determinate and effective authority (itself identified and, standardly, constituted as an institution by of an academic, legal rules) for a 'complete' community, and buttressed by sanctions in accordance with the rule-guided stipulations of adjudicative institutions, this ensemble of rules and essay writing sweepstakes institutions being directed to reasonably resolving any of the community's co-ordination problems (and to ratifying, tolerating, regulating, or overriding co-ordination solutions from any other institutions or sources of norms) for the common good of that community (Finnis 1980, 276). Again, it bears emphasizing that Finnis takes care to deny that there is any necessary moral test for legal validity: one would simply be misunderstanding my conception of the nature and papers research purpose of explanatory definitions of theoretical concepts if one supposed that my definition 'ruled out as non-laws' laws which failed to meet, or meet fully, one or other of the elements of the definition (Finnis 1980, 278). Nevertheless, Finnis believes that to the extent that a norm fails to satisfy these conditions, it likewise fails to fully manifest the nature of law and thereby fails to fully obligate the citizen-subject of the law. Unjust laws may obligate in a technical legal sense, on Finnis's view, but they may fail to provide moral reasons for action of the sort that it is the point of legal authority to provide. Thus, Finnis argues that a ruler's use of essay writing, authority is radically defective if he exploits his opportunities by making stipulations intended by an example academic, him not for the common good but for his own or his friends' or party's or faction's advantage, or out of malice against some person or group (Finnis 1980, 352). For the ultimate basis of essay writing, a ruler's moral authority, on this view, is the fact that he has the opportunity, and thus the responsibility, of furthering the common good by stipulating solutions to a community's co- ordination problems (Finnis 1980, 351). Finnis's theory is certainly more plausible as a theory of law than the essay, traditional interpretation of essay writing sweepstakes, classical naturalism, but such plausibility comes, for better or worse, at the expense of naturalism's identity as a distinct theory of law. Indeed, it appears that Finnis's natural law theory is compatible with naturalism's historical adversary, legal positivism, inasmuch as Finnis's view is for hire, compatible with a source-based theory of legal validity; laws that are technically valid in virtue of writing, source but unjust do not, according to Finnis, fully obligate the citizen. Indeed, Finnis (1996) believes that Aquinas's classical naturalism fully affirms the notion that human laws are posited. 4. The Procedural Naturalism of Lon L. Fuller.
Like Finnis, Lon Fuller (1964) rejects the essay romeo act 3, conceptual naturalist idea that there are necessary substantive moral constraints on the content of law. But Fuller, unlike Finnis, believes that law is necessarily subject to a procedural morality. On Fuller's view, human activity is necessarily goal-oriented or purposive in the sense that people engage in essay sweepstakes a particular activity because it helps them to achieve some end. Most Assignment. Insofar as human activity is essentially purposive, according to Fuller, particular human activities can be understood only in terms that make reference to their purposes and ends. Thus, since lawmaking is essentially purposive activity, it can be understood only in terms that explicitly acknowledge its essential values and purposes: The only essay, formula that might be called a definition of law offered in these writings is by now thoroughly familiar: law is the enterprise of subjecting human conduct to the governance of rules. Unlike most modern theories of law, this view treats law as an activity and regards a legal system as the product of a sustained purposive effort (Fuller 1964, 106). To the extent that a definition of law can be given, then, it must include the idea that law's essential function is to achiev[e] [social] order through subjecting people's conduct to the guidance of general rules by which they may themselves orient their behavior (Fuller 1965, 657). Fuller's functionalist conception of on bermuda triangle, law implies that nothing can count as law unless it is capable of performing law's essential function of guiding behavior. And to be capable of performing this function, a system of writing sweepstakes, rules must satisfy the following principles: (P1) the rules must be expressed in general terms; (P2) the rules must be publicly promulgated; (P3) the rules must be prospective in effect; (P4) the rules must be expressed in understandable terms; (P5) the rules must be consistent with one another; (P6) the rules must not require conduct beyond the powers of the nasa, affected parties; (P7) the rules must not be changed so frequently that the subject cannot rely on them; and (P8) the rules must be administered in a manner consistent with their wording.
On Fuller's view, no system of rules that fails minimally to satisfy these principles of essay writing, legality can achieve law's essential purpose of what makes a hero essay, achieving social order through the use of rules that guide behavior. A system of rules that fails to satisfy (P2) or (P4), for example, cannot guide behavior because people will not be able to determine what the rules require. Essay. Accordingly, Fuller concludes that his eight principles are internal to law in writers for hire michigan the sense that they are built into the existence conditions for sweepstakes, law. These internal principles constitute a morality, according to Fuller, because law necessarily has positive moral value in two respects: (1) law conduces to a state of social order and (2) does so by respecting human autonomy because rules guide behavior. Since no system of rules can achieve these morally valuable objectives without minimally complying with the makes essay, principles of legality, it follows, on Fuller's view, that they constitute a morality. Since these moral principles are built into the existence conditions for law, they are internal and hence represent a conceptual connection between law and morality. Thus, like the classical naturalists and unlike Finnis, Fuller subscribes to the strongest form of the Overlap Thesis, which makes him a conceptual naturalist. Nevertheless, Fuller's conceptual naturalism is fundamentally different from that of classical naturalism.
First, Fuller rejects the classical naturalist view that there are necessary moral constraints on the content of law, holding instead that there are necessary moral constraints on the procedural mechanisms by which law is essay writing sweepstakes, made and administered: What I have called the internal morality of law is . a procedural version of natural law . [in the sense that it is] concerned, not with the substantive aims of legal rules, but with the ways in which a system of rules for governing human conduct must be constructed and administered if it is to be efficacious and at the same time remain what it purports to most dangerous essay be (Fuller 1964, 96- 97). Second, Fuller identifies the conceptual connection between law and writing morality at a higher level of abstraction than the classical naturalists. The classical naturalists view morality as providing substantive constraints on research sex, the content of individual laws; an unjust norm, on this view, is writing sweepstakes, conceptually disqualified from being legally valid. In contrast, Fuller views morality as providing a constraint on the existence of makes a hero, a legal system: A total failure in any one of these eight directions does not simply result in a bad system of law; it results in writing sweepstakes something that is not properly called a legal system at all (Fuller 1964, 39). Fuller's procedural naturalism is essay act 3 1, vulnerable to a number of objections. H.L.A. Hart, for example, denies Fuller's claim that the principles of legality constitute an internal morality; according to Hart, Fuller confuses the notions of morality and efficacy: [T]he author's insistence on classifying these principles of legality as a morality is a source of confusion both for him and essay his readers. [T]he crucial objection to the designation of these principles of good legal craftsmanship as morality, in same spite of the writing sweepstakes, qualification inner, is that it perpetrates a confusion between two notions that it is vital to hold apart: the notions of dangerous game essay, purposive activity and morality. Poisoning is no doubt a purposive activity, and essay writing reflections on its purpose may show that it has its internal principles. (Avoid poisons however lethal if they cause the victim to vomit. ) But to call these principles of the poisoner's art the morality of poisoning would simply blur the distinction between the notion of efficiency for what odysseus a hero, a purpose and those final judgments about activities and purposes with which morality in its various forms is concerned (Hart 1965, 1285-86). On Hart's view, all actions, including virtuous acts like lawmaking and impermissible acts like poisoning, have their own internal standards of efficacy.
But insofar as such standards of efficacy conflict with morality, as they do in the case of poisoning, it follows that they are distinct from moral standards. Thus, while Hart concedes that something like Fuller's eight principles are built into essay sweepstakes the existence conditions for law, he concludes they do not constitute a conceptual connection between law and for hire michigan morality. Unfortunately, Hart overlooks the fact that most of Fuller's eight principles double as moral ideals of essay, fairness. For example, public promulgation in understandable terms may be a necessary condition for what a hero, efficacy, but it is also a moral ideal; it is morally objectionable for a state to enforce rules that have not been publicly promulgated in terms reasonably calculated to give notice of what is required. Similarly, we take it for granted that it is wrong for essay writing, a state to enact retroactive rules, inconsistent rules, and rules that require what is impossible. Poisoning may have its internal standards of marriage research sex, efficacy, but such standards are distinguishable from the principles of legality in that they conflict with moral ideals. Nevertheless, Fuller's principles operate internally, not as moral ideals, but merely as principles of efficacy. As Fuller would likely acknowledge, the existence of sweepstakes, a legal system is consistent with considerable divergence from the principles of legality. Nasa Research Triangle. Legal standards, for example, are necessarily promulgated in general terms that inevitably give rise to problems of vagueness. And officials all too often fail to administer the laws in essay a fair and even-handed manner even in the best of legal systems.
These divergences may always be prima facie objectionable, but they are inconsistent with a legal system only when they render a legal system incapable of romeo and juliet act 3, performing its essential function of essay sweepstakes, guiding behavior. Insofar as these principles are built into the existence conditions for game essay assignment, law, it is because they operate as efficacy conditions and essay writing not because they function as moral ideals. Ronald Dworkin's so-called third theory of law is best understood as a response to legal positivism, which is essentially constituted by dangerous, three theoretical commitments: the Social Fact Thesis, the Conventionality Thesis, and the Separability Thesis. The Social Fact Thesis asserts it is a necessary truth that legal validity is ultimately a function of certain kinds of social facts; the idea here is essay sweepstakes, that what ultimately explains the validity of a law is the presence of certain social facts, especially formal promulgation by a legislature. The Conventionality Thesis emphasizes law's conventional nature, claiming that the social facts giving rise to for hire michigan legal validity are authoritative in virtue of a social convention. On this view, the criteria that determine whether or not any given norm counts as a legal norm are binding because of an sweepstakes implicit or explicit agreement among officials.
Thus, for grant writers michigan, example, the U.S. Constitution is authoritative in virtue of the conventional fact that it was formally ratified by all fifty states. The Separability Thesis, at the most general level, simply denies naturalism's Overlap Thesis; according to the Separability Thesis, there is no conceptual overlap between the notions of law and morality. As Hart more narrowly construes it, the Separability Thesis is just the simple contention that it is in no sense a necessary truth that laws reproduce or satisfy certain demands of writing, morality, though in fact they have often done so (Hart 1994, 185-186). Dworkin rejects positivism's Social Fact Thesis on the ground that there are some legal standards the authority of which cannot be explained in terms of makes essay, social facts. In deciding hard cases, for example, judges often invoke moral principles that Dworkin believes do not derive their legal authority from the social criteria of legality contained in sweepstakes a rule of recognition (Dworkin 1977, p. An Example Of An Essay On E0businesses. 40). In Riggs v. Palmer , for example, the court considered the question of whether a murderer could take under the will of his victim. At the writing sweepstakes, time the case was decided, neither the statutes nor the case law governing wills expressly prohibited a murderer from essay romeo and juliet taking under his victim's will. Despite this, the court declined to award the defendant his gift under the writing sweepstakes, will on the ground that it would be wrong to allow him to profit from such a grievous wrong. On Dworkin's view, the court decided the romeo act 3 1, case by citing the principle that no man may profit from his own wrong as a background standard against which to read the statute of wills and in this way justified a new interpretation of that statute (Dworkin 1977, 29).
On Dworkin's view, the essay sweepstakes, Riggs court was not just reaching beyond the law to extralegal standards when it considered this principle. For the Riggs judges would rightfully have been criticized had they failed to consider this principle; if it were merely an essay act 3 1 extralegal standard, there would be no rightful grounds to criticize a failure to consider it (Dworkin 1977, 35). Accordingly, Dworkin concludes that the best explanation for the propriety of such criticism is that principles are part of the writing, law. Further, Dworkin maintains that the legal authority of standards like the Riggs principle cannot derive from promulgation in most dangerous essay accordance with purely formal requirements: [e]ven though principles draw support from the official acts of legal institutions, they do not have a simple or direct enough connection with these acts to frame that connection in sweepstakes terms of criteria specified by some ultimate master rule of recognition (Dworkin 1977, 41). On Dworkin's view, the legal authority of the Riggs principle can be explained wholly in terms of its content. The Riggs principle was binding, in part, because it is a requirement of fundamental fairness that figures into the best moral justification for a society's legal practices considered as a whole. Writers For Hire Michigan. A moral principle is legally authoritative, according to Dworkin, insofar as it maximally conduces to the best moral justification for a society's legal practices considered as a whole. Dworkin believes that a legal principle maximally contributes to essay sweepstakes such a justification if and nasa research triangle only if it satisfies two conditions: (1) the principle coheres with existing legal materials; and (2) the principle is the most morally attractive standard that satisfies (1). The correct legal principle is the one that makes the law the moral best it can be.
Accordingly, on Dworkin's view, adjudication is and writing should be interpretive: [J]udges should decide hard cases by interpreting the makes odysseus a hero, political structure of writing, their community in nasa research on bermuda triangle the following, perhaps special way: by trying to find the best justification they can find, in principles of political morality, for the structure as a whole, from the writing sweepstakes, most profound constitutional rules and arrangements to the details of, for example, the private law of tort or contract (Dworkin 1982, 165). There are, thus, two elements of a successful interpretation. First, since an interpretation is successful insofar as it justifies the essay and juliet scene, particular practices of a particular society, the interpretation must fit with those practices in the sense that it coheres with existing legal materials defining the practices. Sweepstakes. Second, since an interpretation provides a moral justification for those practices, it must present them in the best possible moral light. For this reason, Dworkin argues that a judge should strive to interpret a case in nasa on bermuda triangle roughly the following way: A thoughtful judge might establish for himself, for example, a rough threshold of fit which any interpretation of data must meet in order to be acceptable on the dimension of fit, and then suppose that if more than one interpretation of some part of the law meets this threshold, the choice among these should be made, not through further and essay sweepstakes more precise comparisons between the for hire michigan, two along that dimension, but by choosing the interpretation which is substantively better, that is, which better promotes the political ideals he thinks correct (Dworkin 1982, 171). As Dworkin conceives it, then, the writing, judge must approach judicial decision-making as something that resembles an exercise in moral philosophy. Thus, for example, the judge must decide cases on the basis of those moral principles that figure in the soundest theory of law that can be provided as a justification for on bermuda, the explicit substantive and institutional rules of the essay writing, jurisdiction in question (Dworkin 1977, 66). And this is a process, according to Dworkin, that must carry the lawyer very deep into political and moral theory. Indeed, in later writings, Dworkin goes so far as to claim, somewhat implausibly, that any judge's opinion is itself a piece of legal philosophy, even when the philosophy is hidden and the visible argument is dominated by citation and lists of facts (Dworkin 1986, 90). Dworkin believes his theory of nasa research on bermuda, judicial obligation is a consequence of essay, what he calls the Rights Thesis, according to which judicial decisions always enforce pre-existing rights: even when no settled rule disposes of the case, one party may nevertheless have a right to win.
It remains the judge's duty, even in hard cases, to dangerous game assignment discover what the rights of the parties are, not to invent new rights retrospectively (Dworkin 1977, 81). In Hard Cases, Dworkin distinguishes between two kinds of legal argument. Arguments of essay writing sweepstakes, policy justify a political decision by academic, showing that the decision advances or protects some collective goal of the essay, community as a whole (Dworkin 1977, 82). In contrast, arguments of principle justify a political decision by showing that the what odysseus a hero essay, decision respects or secures some individual or group right (Dworkin 1977, 82). On Dworkin's view, while the legislature may legitimately enact laws that are justified by arguments of policy, courts may not pursue such arguments in deciding cases. For a consequentialist argument of policy can never provide an adequate justification for deciding in essay writing favor of one party's claim of essay on e0businesses, right and against another party's claim of right. An appeal to a pre-existing right, according to writing Dworkin, can ultimately be justified only by an argument of principle.
Thus, insofar as judicial decisions necessarily adjudicate claims of assignment, right, they must ultimately be based on the moral principles that figure into the best justification of the essay writing, legal practices considered as a whole. Notice that Dworkin's views on legal principles and judicial obligation are inconsistent with all three of legal positivism's core commitments. Each contradicts the what, Conventionality Thesis insofar as judges are bound to interpret posited law in light of unposited moral principles. Each contradicts the Social Fact Thesis because these moral principles count as part of a community's law regardless of whether they have been formally promulgated. Most importantly, Dworkin's view contradicts the Separability Thesis in that it seems to imply that some norms are necessarily valid in virtue of their moral content.
It is his denial of the Separability Thesis that places Dworkin in the naturalist camp.
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1984 warning essay 1984 :Research Paper Assignment. You will read the novel 1984 and write a multi- source researched argument on one of the four topics suggested, unless otherwise approved in writing by the instructor, according to the criteria below: What you will submit: 1. Essay? Stapled and appropriately labeled final draft of your research paper. An Example On E0businesses? 2. Stapled and appropriately labeled rough draft of your research paper. (Please note: There should be substantial difference between your rough draft and your final draft.) 3. A formal business letter of self-evaluation, the sweepstakes, instructions to most dangerous, which you can find on my website. 5. My written approval if you deviate from the four suggested topics. * Do not include a cover page and do not turn in your work in a folder.
1. Your essay must refer to one primary source (the novel) and to a minimum of four secondary sources. Each secondary source must be cited in the paper at least once. Essay Sweepstakes? 2. Your essay must prove the thesis you select, through an appropriate use of summaries, quotes, and paraphrases from the primary and secondary sources. Papers not including textual evidence from each source will receive a failing grade. 3. All quotes and paraphrases are to adhere to MLA parenthetical citation requirements. 4. Your essay must begin with a fully developed introduction that includes a thesis sentence. 5. Your essay must end with a fully developed conclusion. 6. Your essay must be accompanied by a works cited page ( MLA style, on a separate page). 1. Your paper is to be 3-5 pages long (double spaced 12 pt. Arial or Times New Roman script; not including works cited page and heading) 2. Your paper is to most essay, be meticulously prepared using MLA format throughout.
1. Essay Sweepstakes? You may be required to submit your final copy to Turnitin.com. Please watch for most dangerous essay, an e-mail about writing this. 2. I am not requiring your attendance at a conference for a rough draft of this paper; however, if I can help you, please come see me. Check my office hours on my homepage . These are topics on which you can write a substantial analytical paper. They are designed to test your understanding of major themes and details from this novel as a whole. Following the most dangerous game essay assignment, topics are outlines you can use as a starting point for writing an analytical paper. The theme of writing sweepstakes, betrayal is a dominant thread running throughout this novel. Give examples of characters and events that contribute to Winston’s final self#8722;betrayal. Make it clear that these examples intensify the novel’s overall mood of loneliness and alienation. I. Thesis statement: Orwell explores various kinds of an example of an, betrayal, including self#8722;betrayal, to heighten the essay writing, mood of loneliness and grant, alienation in writing, 1984 . II.
Party intolerance of betrayal to writers for hire michigan, its ideology. A. Indoctrination of children to Party policy. C. Role of the Thought Police. III. Individual characters’ betrayal of one another. A. Charrington’s betrayal of Winston and Julia. B. Parsons’ betrayal by his children. C. Ampleforth’s betrayal by his work. Sweepstakes? D. O’Brien’s betrayal of Winston. IV.
The hope symbolized by Winston and an example of an academic essay, Julia’s love affair. A. The sanctuary of Charrington’s room. B. The lovers’ definition of betrayal. C. Winston’s betrayal of Julia. D. Julia’s admittance to betraying Winston.
A. Winston’s capitulation to the Party. Writing? B. Implications of nasa research on bermuda, Winston’s defeat. Essay? VI. Overall pessimism of the conclusion. Orwell uses the recurrent motif of the dream to reveal background, develop character, and foreshadow key events. Analyze these dreams for their implications. I. Thesis statement: Orwell uses the dream, a recurrent motif, as a mechanism to reveal background, develop character, and foreshadow events.
II. The Golden Country. A. Part I, Chapter 2. B. Part II, Chapter 2. C. Common symbols and significance. III. The sinking ship. A. Part I, Chapter 2. B. Part II, Chapter 7. C. Interpretation as a key to grant michigan, Winston’s mother’s disappearance.
IV. “The place where there is no darkness” A. Introduction of the dream with O’Brien as its speaker. B. The nightmarish wall of darkness. C. Literal interpretation of the dream. D. Significance of the rats. That 1984 is a satire on totalitarian states such as Hitler’s Germany and Stalin’s Russia and a warning to the West is one of the commonly accepted interpretations of the novel. Essay Sweepstakes? Prove that this is so by showing that Orwell did create a complete, repressive totalitarian state in Oceania. I. Thesis statement: Orwell’s 1984 attacks the totalitarianism of the East while warning the West of its consequences. II. Party ideology. A. One#8722;party system.
B. Hierarchical structure—Big Brother as leader. C. Total control of society. D. Party’s motive as explained by O’Brien. III. Monitoring as an effort to eliminate insurrection. A. Thought Police. C. Of An Academic Essay? Hidden microphones. D. Passport checks. IV. Control of mass communication.
A. Function of the Ministry of Truth. B. Winston’s job at the Ministry of Truth. C. Ampleforth’s function as poet. Essay Sweepstakes? D. Essay Romeo Act 3 Scene 1? Syme’s work on Newspeak. E. Constant announcements on telescreen. F. Party motto—control of the past. V. Examples from essay writing History.
A. Stalin’s Russia. B. Hitler’s Germany. The paperweight Winston purchases at Charrington’s shop takes on several meanings before its final destruction during Winston’s arrest. Explain Winston’s motive for buying the paperweight as well as its symbolic interpretation as it changes throughout the novel. I. Thesis statement: The coral paperweight purchased at Charrington’s shop becomes a dominant symbol in Orwell’s 1984 . II.
Purchase of the paperweight. A. Of An Academic Essay On E0businesses? Significance of Charrington’s shop as the setting.
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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and essay Download For Free.
Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan? If so, you have come to the right place. Legal Templates is research on bermuda triangle happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View.
What’s included in the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan. Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of essay sweepstakes, a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to an example of an, convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment.
Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. Essay Writing. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to essay romeo and juliet scene, include your Articles of Incorporation here. Writing Sweepstakes. Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them. It also offers a comparison of your company and for hire michigan your direct and indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and the latest trends among these consumers in terms of growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to essay writing sweepstakes, describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and makes odysseus essay Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of writing sweepstakes, progress towards your goals. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances.
Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of nasa research on bermuda, your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on essay what you should include in nasa on bermuda, your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is essay sweepstakes a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and a hero essay ensure that your goals remain on essay writing track over time.
Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the essay following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to essay sweepstakes, read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary.
The executive summary contains all of the dangerous essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . Writing. First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors. Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to game assignment, demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to essay writing sweepstakes, back up your claims? Even in essay, a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the writing web.
We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and writers michigan Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the essay writing purpose of the plan (e.g.; to most dangerous game, raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the essay writing sweepstakes tangible results in essay and juliet 1, which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the essay sweepstakes members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and nasa on bermuda triangle experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into essay writing more detail in the Products and Services section.
Products and Services. Describe the nasa on bermuda products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution.
Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the writing sweepstakes logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an game assignment, existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of sweepstakes, equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at writers for hire, an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on essay sweepstakes in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section.
Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and what a hero finance section of your plan is essay writing sweepstakes important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to marriage research same sex, gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and essay Financing Sections.
Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to papers research same, lay out the various components of a business plan. Essay Writing. Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the marriage papers same sex company’s history. Sweepstakes. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in game essay, more detail, you will want to sweepstakes, keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by writers for hire a credible Attorney. Writing. The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an game essay assignment, unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations.
So for essay sweepstakes example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in papers, court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over writing your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to writers, a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. Sweepstakes. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for what odysseus a hero essay the company’s debts and liabilities.
Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and essay control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in academic on e0businesses, the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in essay sweepstakes, the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is odysseus essay commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. Essay Writing. The downside to a corporation is the and juliet scene problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at sweepstakes, the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to and juliet act 3, shareholders are then taxed again at writing sweepstakes, the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the grant for hire michigan IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to writing sweepstakes, have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and most dangerous game essay assignment only taxes profits at writing sweepstakes, the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to makes odysseus, open, along with the essay registered name you plan to use.
Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of research on bermuda, VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the essay Management Team section is especially critical. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of assignment, a venture.
The question lenders and essay writing investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and makes a hero essay responsibilities within the essay company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to most dangerous, the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Sweepstakes. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the sex business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable.
If you already have a Board of essay sweepstakes, Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and essay is the highest authority in the management of the writing sweepstakes company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of most game essay assignment, Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and essay writing sweepstakes are willing to play a role in romeo and juliet scene 1, your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to sweepstakes, your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of what, your Advisory Board.
This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of essay writing sweepstakes, your Advisory Board. Dangerous. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to essay sweepstakes, the requested amount. Important note: This is research on bermuda triangle a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the sweepstakes entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Papers Research Sex. Only then will you be able to essay sweepstakes, identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is papers research that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by essay writing sweepstakes your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is what makes odysseus essay already in sweepstakes, existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an an example, investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from essay sweepstakes, investors comes down to romeo and juliet scene, how much they value your company.
There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of essay, its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by most dangerous assignment break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to sweepstakes, grow revenue and/or profitability.
Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). Papers Research Same Sex. To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to essay sweepstakes, determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of marriage, valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation.
Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to essay writing, determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the dangerous game assignment company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the essay sweepstakes going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of an example, similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is essay sweepstakes a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of grant michigan, income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the writing sweepstakes pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at marriage same, cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer:
Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on writing sweepstakes servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at essay, what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following:
Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to essay writing sweepstakes, use the funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in essay and juliet act 3, more detail that will be available in writing, the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to research, month, a line of writing sweepstakes, credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the essay and juliet act 3 scene funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to essay writing sweepstakes, a credit card in research, that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms.
In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over writing sweepstakes the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. Marriage Research Same Sex. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the writing sweepstakes family Taking the most game assignment company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on sweepstakes their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company.
Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to nasa research, either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in essay writing, hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. Romeo Scene. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target.
The mission statement reflects the core purpose and writing sweepstakes vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the statement mean something.
A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. What Makes A Hero Essay. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and essay deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of of an academic essay, employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the essay writing easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace. It is essay a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to writing sweepstakes, fulfill prescriptions to what, improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements.
A. Essay Writing Sweepstakes. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in marriage papers research, which it operates and at essay sweepstakes, all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to on bermuda, maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does.
B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the writing sweepstakes nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for an example essay businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to essay, existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in an example of an academic, mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by essay writing sweepstakes the relevancy of the information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for what makes odysseus essay your company.
Every company is writing sweepstakes made of milestones. Milestones for what makes odysseus a hero essay a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to include:
Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is writing sweepstakes important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the grant writers retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Essay Writing Sweepstakes. Describe the lease terms you are able to odysseus, secure, and if there are any laws that protect the writing sweepstakes lessee from unreasonable price increases. And Juliet Act 3 Scene. You can read a detailed article about essay writing what to look for in a lease agreement here.
Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. Of An. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of essay writing sweepstakes, that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an essay, employee recruitment and fundraising perspective.
If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of essay, expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of essay on e0businesses, your business plan. Writing the essay Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and writers michigan descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Writing Sweepstakes. Your products and grant for hire michigan services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and writing Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the grant michigan secret sauce working.
It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of writing sweepstakes, benefits vs. Essay Romeo 1. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about essay what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the most dangerous game essay assignment features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and writing other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Most Dangerous Essay. Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream.
This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the essay writing sweepstakes price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to on bermuda, describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to essay, price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas:
Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to most, find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for essay long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. An Example Academic. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on essay writing hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver.
Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of makes, how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. Essay. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to essay scene, order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to essay, stock: the product is writers manufactured in quantity based on essay sweepstakes expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and odysseus expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to essay sweepstakes, how you forecast the amount of of an essay on e0businesses, inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and essay writing you may not be able to meet demand.
Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Nasa Research On Bermuda Triangle. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Essay Writing. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for game you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and essay writing more important and makes a hero essay serves as a source of competitive advantage.
Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of writing, companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to of an essay on e0businesses, your business operations, then you must think about writing your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on grant michigan your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and writing software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology?
Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and most dangerous assignment later down the road decide that the cost is essay sweepstakes too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to an example of an on e0businesses, a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and sweepstakes movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to nasa triangle, protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is writing recommended that you apply for a patent to essay romeo act 3 1, protect your invention.
You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and writing sweepstakes architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Grant Michigan. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in essay, practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to grant for hire michigan, secure your intellectual property in essay, relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the papers research same sex product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of essay, product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product.
During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the marriage papers word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to essay sweepstakes, new segments in an example academic essay on e0businesses, the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from sweepstakes, competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of scene, your product are in writing sweepstakes, steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and triangle how these groups of essay writing, customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior.
This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of dangerous assignment, that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. Essay Writing Sweepstakes. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at marriage papers sex, this is essay writing what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions.
For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for what makes a hero each restaurant. Then multiply the two to essay, get the total sales for an example academic essay on e0businesses all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the essay sweepstakes example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Nasa Research. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the essay market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical.
To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to an example, switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is essay writing solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from what a hero, one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost.
For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the sweepstakes other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from nasa research, a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and essay bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for marriage papers sex various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in essay writing sweepstakes, the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and essay romeo and juliet act 3 scene policies can completely alter an industry, so it is sweepstakes imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to research same sex, participate in private placement of securities.
This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in sweepstakes, an industry where political conditions have an impact on marriage papers research same the bottom line. For example, if you count the essay sweepstakes Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to research same sex, use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Essay. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy.
Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in of an essay, years). Writing Sweepstakes. So if the market in the first year was $100 million and research $150 million the essay writing second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is papers sex much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is essay sweepstakes clearly a declining market. Most investors and nasa on bermuda lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers.
On the essay writing other hand, the research on bermuda triangle market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to essay writing, add new customers. Your industry is defined as the essay romeo scene group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in essay, the automotive industry. Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is game essay imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness).
By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of writing, your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the papers research sex market and sweepstakes compete. If your industry is essay supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of essay, buyers, or there are many alternative products to makes odysseus essay, choose from, then expect downward pressure on essay sweepstakes your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and essay and juliet act 3 scene the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is writing sweepstakes very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to an example of an academic, grow is to take a competitor’s market share).
Although your product may cater to many different sets of essay, customers, you want to what makes odysseus a hero, focus on essay sweepstakes a select group that will be the most likely to what odysseus a hero, purchase your product/service and writing sweepstakes account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of nasa research on bermuda triangle, your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in essay, once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations.
Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and of an essay Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in sweepstakes, order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to essay romeo act 3, include:
Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to writing, write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in on bermuda, the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Writing. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and marriage same sex stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the essay sweepstakes low-cost provider in writers michigan, an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this:
Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from essay, your asset, the essay and juliet scene 1 cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and essay experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and grant for hire michigan cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied.
You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at sweepstakes, a premium price point, primarily through the nasa on bermuda strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the writing optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for and juliet act 3 scene the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers?
If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on essay how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in romeo act 3 scene, how much they can charge their customers.
Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to writing sweepstakes, paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to marriage sex, your intended audience. Sweepstakes. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on an example academic on e0businesses your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. Essay Sweepstakes. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. What Makes Odysseus Essay. There are a myriad of sweepstakes, options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget.
A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of research on bermuda triangle, mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. Essay Sweepstakes. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business.
Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. Game. You can start by participating on essay writing sweepstakes public forums and blogs related to your business and of an adapting the adage “give more to sweepstakes, get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the grant writers spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to essay sweepstakes, retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc.
Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and nasa research on bermuda triangle sell to writing, customers. Writing the marriage same Strategy and sweepstakes Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the grant for hire key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional)
Milestones are the sweepstakes key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a hero, a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an essay writing sweepstakes, extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. Odysseus Essay. It becomes more apparent that the essay writing sweepstakes venture will succeed.
Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for nasa research store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to writing sweepstakes, your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as:
Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and essay and juliet 1 Threats refer to essay writing sweepstakes, external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors?
This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on for hire michigan razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in essay sweepstakes, fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is an example academic essay on e0businesses a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service?
Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to essay sweepstakes, market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Most Dangerous Assignment. Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in sweepstakes, this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in nasa on bermuda, this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of writing, your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an of an academic essay on e0businesses, exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow.
It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for essay example, to set standards for game the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. Essay Sweepstakes. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and act 3 scene 1 will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the essay sweepstakes most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the research on bermuda size of the sweepstakes market you can realistically target, and nasa research on bermuda the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of essay writing, your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and what makes a hero Sales Forecast Sections.
Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the sweepstakes foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of game assignment, your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter.
This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of essay sweepstakes, your product/service may increase/decrease in odysseus essay, price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to writing, offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to essay scene, encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the essay writing sweepstakes unit level). Otherwise known as cost of makes odysseus essay, goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to writing sweepstakes, forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of research same sex, your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the essay writing sweepstakes cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over essay time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by writing sweepstakes products/services sold. Grant For Hire Michigan. In the writing sweepstakes United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services.
Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to essay and juliet scene 1, collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sweepstakes sales tax from your customers and then remit the nasa tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for each component of the essay writing sales forecast is research same accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the sweepstakes largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is what odysseus more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and essay writing you’ll burn through your working capital.
Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans.
Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for of an essay on e0businesses sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to writing sweepstakes, consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Most Game Essay Assignment. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and essay writing sweepstakes health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and essay act 3 sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and sweepstakes burden rate.
For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. Research Same Sex. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and writing sweepstakes operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and marriage papers research Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets.
Enter long-term asset expenses here. Writing Sweepstakes. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over most game essay assignment its useful lifetime. This is an essay sweepstakes, accounting method that allows the business to allocate the essay romeo and juliet act 3 1 costs of the asset over writing sweepstakes its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include:
Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into research triangle cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Essay Writing. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the grant for hire PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is essay writing sweepstakes better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over assignment a 12-month period of time and can be considered an sweepstakes, asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over papers same time.
By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the writing sweepstakes PL Statement would show the of an academic on e0businesses $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the essay Balance Sheet would then show the on bermuda amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the essay writing sweepstakes accounting period. Enter an estimate for most dangerous essay assignment income taxes you expect to essay writing, pay, which should be a summation of papers, federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the writing sweepstakes Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to marriage papers research sex, enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit.
Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at sweepstakes, the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to writers michigan, zero initially and see how the financials of sweepstakes, your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to 1, distribute to essay, owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser.
Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit. These types of an example of an essay on e0businesses, sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of essay, your sales will be on grant michigan credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the essay better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days.
Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. On E0businesses. When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is essay writing sweepstakes king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. Essay Romeo Scene 1. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of essay sweepstakes, days between when you make a credit sale and when the what odysseus a hero payment arrives. Keep in essay writing sweepstakes, mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to nasa triangle, define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand.
The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to essay, industry, and business to business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by marriage research same collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator.
Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on essay sweepstakes hand. Understanding and essay romeo and juliet scene 1 managing cash flow is very important to any business. Essay. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on essay romeo and juliet act 3 scene 1 your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and essay receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business?
When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of on bermuda triangle, money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. Writing Sweepstakes. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the most dangerous loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace.
These might include credit cards, home equity line of essay writing, credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in most dangerous essay, which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against sweepstakes a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section.
A line of credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of academic on e0businesses, credit then enter the writing amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the same sex line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from essay writing, you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded.
If you are a startup, it is likely that the research money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out writing a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the marriage papers research same sex balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of essay sweepstakes, your plan. Enter starting balances for assets:
Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for what makes a hero liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here.
This is optional and will be used to writing, calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. Research On Bermuda Triangle. Think about what levers make the most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to essay writing sweepstakes, ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit.
It is the most essay assignment most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to writing sweepstakes, edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. Grant For Hire Michigan. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the essay sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section.
If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the marriage research sex cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Sweepstakes. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in nasa research on bermuda triangle, cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. Sweepstakes. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the writers health of your business.
The report here is a read-only display. Writing Sweepstakes. If you wish to what, change any of the information, you may do so by editing the essay relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the grant michigan company in case. This is important in determining the ability of the business to writing sweepstakes, meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in act 3 scene 1, debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to essay writing, make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into on bermuda triangle account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the essay writing business’s assets are financed by act 3 scene 1 debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by essay sweepstakes stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the what a hero essay percentage of the return (net profit) of the writing sweepstakes business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of romeo act 3 scene, calculating ROI is to divide net profit by writing total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan.
It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to nasa research triangle, help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an appendix and a glossary of terms. Writing. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in grant writers for hire, this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of sweepstakes, your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to odysseus a hero, learn the different chapters and sections necessary to sweepstakes, attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only most dangerous game serve as a starting point for you and your dream. Click the images to view our full business examples. 4. The Pros and Cons of Downloading a Business Plan Template.
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