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Brief History of the Collection - Sigmund Freud Papers | Digital

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Anna Freud | Institute of Psychoanalysis

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Brief History of the Collection - Sigmund Freud Papers | Digital

Ross Anson Esq(Articles Pictures from 1995) Exiled from anna freud Kenya for 22 years because of his highly political work(including the bestselling novel Petals of Blood), one of creative, Africa's greatestwriters returns with his first novel in 20 years. Set in a fictional modernAfrican state this is papers, a magisterial, acerbic and humorous landmark inpost-colonial literature. His new book ‘Wizard of the Crow’ will be launched on Thursday 10 August, 7.00pmat Congress Hall, Congress Centre, 28 Great Russell Street, London, WC1B 3LS. Ngugi wa Thiongo’s proposed schedule is meant for him to essay job uk meet many during his tour to anna papers promote his book. During his short visit it is proposed to visit BBC Kiswahili service, BBC Focus on Africa, an Afternoon - Kenya High Commission for book signing, and an Evening - TV program - Africa Matters - Ben TV Channel 148 Live show on Friday 11th August 2006 8.00-9.00PM. Ngugi wa Thiong'o (1938-) - formerly known as James Ngugi Kenyan teacher, novelist, essayist, and playwright, whose works function as an important link between the midterm papers, pioneers of African writing and the younger generation of postcolonial writers.

After imprisonment in 1978, Ngugi abandoned using English as the freud papers, primary language of his work in favor of Gikuyu, his native tongue. The transition from colonialism to postcoloniality and the crisis of modernity has been a central issues in a great deal of Ngugi's writings. Again the owl cried. Twice! 'A warning to essay writing job uk her,' Njoroge thought. Anna Freud Papers! And again his whole soul rose in anger - anger against all those with a white skin, all those foreign elements that had displaced the true sons of the midterm, land from their God-given place. Had God not promised Gekoyo that he would give all the land to the father of the tribe - he and his posterity? Now all the land had been taken away. (from 'The Martyr' in African Literature, ed. by Lennart Sorensen, 1971) Ngugi wa Thiong'o was born in Kamiriithu, near Limuru, Kiambu District, as the fifth child of the third of his father's four wives. At that time Kenya was under British rule, which ended in 1963. Ngugi's family belonged to the Kenya's largest ethnic group, the Gikuyu.

His father, Thiong'o wa Nducu, was a peasant farmer, who was forced to become a squatter after the British Imperial Act of 1915. Ngugi attended the mission-run school at Kamaandura in Limuru, Karinga school in Maanguu, and Alliance High School in Kikuyu. Anna Papers! During these years Ngugi became a devout Christian. Later he rejected Christianity, and changed his original name in 1976 from James Ngugi, which he saw as a sign of colonialism, to Ngugi wa Thiong'o. After receiving a B.A. in English at midterm papers Makerere University College in Kampala (Uganda) in 1963, Ngugi worked briefly as a journalist in Nairobi.

He married in freud papers, 1961. Over the next seventeen years his wife, Nyambura, gave birth to six children. In 1962 Ngugi's play THE BLACK HERMIT was produced in Kampala. In 1964 he left for England to pursue graduate studies at the Leeds University in England.As a novelist Ngugi made his debut with WEEP NOT, CHILD (1964), which he started to write while he was at school in England. It was the first novel in English to be published by an East African author. Ngugi used the Bildungsroman form to tell the story of a young man, Njoroge.

He loses his opportunity for connection for essays further education when he is caught between idealistic dreams and the violent reality of the colonial exploitation. The most prominent theme in Ngugi's early work was the conflict between the individual and the community. THE RIVER BETWEEN (1965) had as its background the Mau Mau Rebellion (1952-1956). The story was set in the late 1920s and 1930s and papers, depicted an unhappy love affair in a rural community divided between Christian converts and non-Christians. A GRAIN OF WHEAT (1967) marked Ngugi's break with cultural nationalism and his embracing of Fanonist Marxism. Ngugi refers in the title to psy 101 midterm papers the biblical theme of self-sacrifice, a part of the anna freud papers, new birth: unless a grain of wheat die. The allegorical story of one man's mistaken heroism and a search for the betrayer of gatsby american, a Mau Mau leader is set in a village, which has been destroyed in the war. The author's family was involved in anna, the Mau Mau uprising - Ngugi's older brother had joined the five, movement, his stepbrother was killed and his mother was tortured.

Ngugi's village suffered in a campaign.In the 1960s Ngugi was a reporter for the Nairobi Daily Nation and editor of Zuka from 1965 to papers 1970. He worked as a lecturer at several universities - at the University College in Nairobi (1967-69), at iowa summer the Makerere University in Kampala (1969-70), and at the Northwestern University in Evanston in the United States (1970-71). Anna Freud! Ngugi had resigned from his post at Nairobi University as a protest against government interference in the university, be he joined the faculty in 1973, becoming an associate professor and a chairman of the department of essay, literature. Anna! It had been formed in response to his and his colleagues' criticism of English - the British government had made in the 1950s instruction in English mandatory. Ngugi had asked in an article, written with Taban lo Liyong and Henry Owuor-Anyumba, If there is need for iowa creative writing summer program a 'study of the historic continuity of a single culture', why can't this be African? Why can't African literature be at the centre so that we can view other cultures in relationship to it? (from 'On the Abolition of the anna freud papers, English Department', 1968) Acknowledging the influence of European literatures on African writing, Ngugi and north and south essay, his coauthors emphasized the importance of the oral tradition, Swahili literature, and the Caribbean novel and poetry. We have eyes, but we don't see. Anna Freud Papers! We have ears, but we don't hear. We can read, but we don't understand what we read.

In 1976 Ngugi chaired the cultural committee of the Kamiriithu Community Edcational and Cultural Centre, a collective that a ran a public theatre. The government denied its permission for performances in 1982. At the end of December 1977 Daniel arap Moi, then vice-president, ordered Ngugi detained in Mamiti Maximum Security Prison. Ngugi was imprisoned under Public Security Act for iowa creative writing summer a year without trial for anna papers his involvement with a communal theatre in his home village. Behind his arrest was the uncensored political message of his popular play NGAAHIKA NDEENDA (1977, I Will Marry When I Want), written with Ngugi wa Mirii. Also Ngugi's novel, PETALS OF BLOOD (1978), drew attention with its keen sense of contemporary political events. For Essays! It reflected change in Ngugi's work from portraying the anna freud, colonial era to essay reflecting the anna, exploit and corruption in present-day Kenya.

The story focused on an investigation of the murder of three representatives of the new society, who have profited from for essays neocolonialism. The short story 'Minutes of Glory' examined the backside of economic progress - the anna papers, life of women who were teared off from their villages and doomed to work as prostitutes in cities. The protagonist, Beatrice, is an exploited barmaid who steals from a fellow victim, a lorry driver, and has her few minutes of freedom and admiration, before she is arrested.Her life was here in the bar among this crowd of lost strangers. Fallen from the great gatsby essay of the dream grace, fallen from grace. She was part of a generation which would never again be one with the soil, the crops, the wind and the moon. Anna Papers! Not for word for essays them that whispering in dark hedges, not for freud her that dance and love-making under the glare of the moon, with the hills of TumuTumu rising to touch the sky. (from 'Minutes of Glory' in Secret Lives, 1976) After being released, Ngugi was not reinstated in his university post, and his family were subjected to frequent harassment. Five Second Spiritual! In 1980 Ngugi published the first modern novel written in Gikuyu, CAITAANI MUTHARA-INI (Devil on the Cross). He argued that literature written by Africans in anna freud papers, a colonial language is not African literature, but Afro-European literature.

Writers must use their native languages to give the African literature its own genealogy and creative summer, grammar. 'Gikuyu once said: the leopard did not know how to scratch; it was taught. True, but it always had the freud, claws and the power to scratch. Does it scratch to kill its children? Or does it scratch to kill its enemies?' 'One thing is certain. What is psy 101 midterm, done cannot be undone.

Our actions are the bricks that we use to construct either god or an evil heart.' (from Devil on the Cross, 1980) Ngugi's prison diary DETAINED, written in English, appeared in 1981. He left Kenya in 1982 to anna papers live in self-imposed exile in London. In his book DECOLONISING THE MIND: THE POLITICS OF LANGUAGE IN AFRICAN LITERATURE (1986) Ngugi wrote that African writers should express themselves in indigenous languages in order to reach the African masses. Among Ngugi's most important works is MATIGARI (1987), in which the author builds his narrative on a famous Gikuyu folktale. In the satirical moral fable Martigari, a freedom fighter, emerges from the forest in the political dawn of post-independence Kenya.

Searching for essay of the american his family and freud papers, a new future, he finds little has changed and vows to use force of arms to achieve his true liberation. According to a rumor, Matigari was taken seriously by midterm, Kenyan authorities as a revolutionary agitator plotting to overthrow the government, and a warrant was issued for his arrest. Papers! Ngugi became in 1992 professor of comparative literature and performance studies at New York University, where he held the Erich Maria Remarque Chair. Writing! He has taught at the University of Bayreuth and anna freud, the University of Auckland, New Zealand; and Yale, Smith, and at and south essay Amherst. For further reading: Ngugi wa Thiong'o by Clifford B. Robson (1979); An Introduction to the Writings of freud, Ngugi wa Thiong'o by word for essays, G.D.

Killam (1980); Ngugi wa Thiong'o: An Exploration of His Writings by David Cook and Michael Okenimkpe (1983); Ngugi wa Thiong'o's A Grain of Wheat by Muchigu Kiiru (1985); Ngugi wa Thiong'o: The Making of a Rebel by papers, Carol Sicherman (1990); Ngugi wa Thiong'o: L'homme et l'ouvre by Jacqueline Bardolph (1990) Ngugi Wa Thiong O: A Bibliography of Primary and Secondary Sources, 1957-1987 by connection, Carol Sicherman (1991); The Words of papers, Ngugi by C. Nwandwo (1992); The World of Ngugi wa Thiong'o, ed. by Charles Cantalupo (1993); The Novels of Achebe and Ngugi by K. Indrasena Reddy (1994); Ngugi was Thiong'o: Text and Context, ed. by Charles Cantalupo (1995); Ngugi wa Thiong'o: The Ideology of creative program, Form by Simon Gikandi (1998); Critical Essays: Achebe, Baldwin, Cullen, Ngugi, and Tutuola by Sydney Onyeberechi (1999); Ngugi wa Thiong'o by Patrick Williams (1999); Ngugi wa Thiong'o by anna freud papers, Oliver Lovesey (2000) - For further information: Ngugi wa Thiong'o: An Overwiev, The Global Education Project: Ngugi wa Thiong'o Selected works: • The Black Hermit, 1963 (play) • Weep Not, Child, 1964 • The River Between, 1965 • A Grain of Wheat, 1967 • This Time Tomorrow (three plays, including the title play, The Reels, and The Wound in the Heart), c. 1970 • Homecoming: Essays on African and Caribbean Literature, Culture, and Politics, 1972 • Secret Lives, and Other Stories, 1976 • The Trial of Dedan Kimathi, 1976 (with Micere Githae Mugo) • Ngaahika ndeenda (I Will Marry When I Want), 1977 (play; with Ngugi wa Mirii) • Petals of Blood, 1977 • Caitaani mutharaba-Ini (Devil on the Cross), 1980 • Writers in Politics: Essays, 1981 • Education for a National Culture, 1981 • Detained: A Writer's Prison Diary, 1981 • Barrel of a Pen: Resistance to Repression in Neo-Colonial Kenya, 1983 • Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature, 1986 • Mother, Sing For Me, 1986 • Writing against Neo-Colonialism, 1986 • Njamba Nene and the Flying Bus (Njamba Nene na Mbaathi i Malhagu),1986 (children's book) • Matigari ma Njiruungi, 1986 • Njamba Nene and the Cruel Chif (Njamba Nene na Chibu King'ang'i), 1988 (children's book) • Matigari, 1989 (translated into writing summer, English by anna, Wangui wa Goro) • Njamba Nene's Pistol (Bathitoora ya Njamba Nene), 1990 (children's book) • Moving the Centre: The Struggle for Cultural Freedom, 1993 • Penpoints, Gunpoints and Dreams: The Performance on Literature and Power in psy 101 midterm, Post-Colonial Africa, 1998. Africans working abroad gives more money to Africa than Foreign Direct investment. These figures are contained in a report Resource Flows to Africa: An Update on Statistical Trends just released by the United Nations Office of the papers, Special Adviser on Africa in New York.The report draws on official data from the World Bank, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, UNCTAD, OECD and IMF. It analyses resource flows to Africa from three main sources namely official development assistance, remittances, FDI, as well as provides data on Africa external debt. It notes that official development assistance remains the main source of external financing, increasing from north differences essay US$15.6 billion to about US$25 billion between 1999 and 2003- a net increase of 67 per cent.Official aid.

Official development assistance is still the main external resource flow for freud papers Africa. Reflecting the the great essay american dream, commitments made at the Monterrey Conference on Financing for freud Development in 2002, net official aid from all donors increased by psy 101, US$10.2 billion, from freud papers US$15.6 billion to about US$25 billion between 1999 and 2003. Being Edition Essay Five! This represents a net increase of freud papers, 67 percent. There is consensus that Africa would need twice as much as the current levels of aid by word, 2010 to enable it meet the MDGs and implement NEPAD. This need to double aid to Africa has been restated in freud papers, the reports of the Commission for Africa, United Nations Millennium Project and the UN Secretary-General's Advisory Panel on International Support for NEPAD. For a continent like Africa in great need of substantial capital, workers remittances boost disposable incomes, produce multiplier effects, and make education more affordable.Private transfers are large and stable sources of foreign exchange for poor countries and are more likely to reach poor households than other capital flows. The average per capita remittance by migrants in north and south essay, developed countries is freud, around US$ 200 per month.In the light of this it is becoming imperative that the cost of transmitting remittances needs to be reduced to allow African countries receive larger private capital flows. Although FDI flows to Africa have increased in value terms during the last few years, total flows to the whole continent represent only a small percentage of total flows to word for essays developing countries. Anna Freud Papers! While the average annual FDI has increased from about US$ 2.2 billion in the 1980s to around US$15 billion during the period 2000-2003, Africa's share of total global flows has declined to 1.8 percent during 2000-2003 from an psy 101 midterm average of 2.3 percent in the 1980s.Furthermore, Africa's share of anna freud papers, total FDI flows to essay job uk developing countries decreased from freud papers about 10 percent in the 1980s to 7 percent for the period 2000-2003.

With respect to FDI flows per capita, the gap between the continent and other developing countries also widened in recent years.Evidence seems to indicate that the connection word for essays, composition of papers, FDI flows to Africa is changing. Connection For Essays! Over the anna freud, past few decades the largest recipients of FDI have been countries with large mineral and petroleum reserves and growing natural resources industries. However, the last five years have witnessed a shift of iowa creative writing, investors' focus to papers industrial and service sectors, including telecommunications, banking and textiles. Eventually the new trend may lead to the emergence of north essay, new comparative advantages in Africa.External debt Despite the HIPC Initiative's objective to reduce Africa's total debt, total external debt and the burden of debt service payments still remains high. In 2003 African countries owed a total of anna, US$307 billion to creditor countries and institutions, of which $218 billion was owed by the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. This debt more than doubled from iowa writing summer program US$120 billion in 1980 to US$307 billion in 2003. Anna Freud! Almost 80 percent of Africa's debt is owed to official institutions, of which approximately 33 percent is writing summer program, multilateral debt owed mainly to the IMF and the World Bank. At the same time, total debt service paid by the continent increased from US$3.3 billion in the 1970s to a peak of US$28 billion in 2003, of which Sub-Saharan Africa's share was US$15 billion. In this context, the decision by anna papers, the G8 countries to grant a 100 percent multilateral cancellation of the debt owed to the IMF, the World Bank, and the African Development Bank by 14 African countries that have reached the HIPC Initiative completion point could reduce the heavy debt burden and boost pro-poor growth by connection, freeing resources for social and anna freud papers, productive sectors. Until July 7, 2005, suicide bombing was just the stuff of news in the UK; it was thought to be a region-specific phenomenon that would never happen here.

We had read about it and seen horrific, and at times graphic, TV footage about essay it. Yet still, it felt so distant. It was something that went on in far-off lands like the Middle East – in Israel and anna freud papers, most recently, Iraq. Suddenly however, on a day marked by absolute horror, it was here in our midst – a new brand of terror. Although Londoners had in the past been subjected to a sustained terror campaign by the IRA, these bombings were such that they instilled a new kind of fear in everyone. Because this time the perpetrators were more than prepared to trade off their lives for the success of their cause – no matter how warped it may have been. Long after the papers, initial horror had passed, the after-effects are still felt by anna freud, all of us who have made London our home. It was sickeningly tragic that the lives of many innocent people were wasted so violently. These were regular people who woke up that day and set about their daily lives; they all had plans for the evening and beyond.

I am sure the last thing they had in essay american, mind was to imagine falling victim to a murderous act at the hands of heartless killers. Despite Tony Blair and Jack Straw’s protestations, it is now becoming increasingly evident that the freud, bombings were in fact linked to essay writing Britain’s involvement in the invasion of Iraq. Mohammad Sidique Khan, one of the bombers, posthumously declared in a video that the bombings were meant to avenge the killings and papers, suffering of their brothers and sisters in Iraq – quite ironic, really, since none of the bombers were Iraqi. There is, of course, a danger in viewing the bombings as a logical conclusion of the being essay essence second, invasion of Iraq as some people have done. Whatever reasons the suicide bombers may have had, their acts of anna, terror can never be justified. However, asking questions is not an attempt to justify these acts of wanton violence. If relevant questions are asked in the spirit of understanding why people commit such acts, then that would mark the first stage in offering a solution to such problems. No doubt that Britain’s role in Iraq, alongside the US, has given fundamentalists a sense of job uk, grievance which they have exploited effectively in recruiting human bombs. Especially considering the fact that the reasons for invading Iraq were shrouded in lies that have subsequently come to anna freud shame the British government.

And it is then understandable that people, including the British public, have been angered by the government’s behaviour. Midterm Papers! But be that as it may, what of the terrorists? Terrorists do not care about who they kill – so long as they kill. What’s more, their targets are mainly, if not wholly, innocent people. The purpose of terrorism is to terrorise the defenceless. Anna Papers! This is the solid fact. This is why everyone should be united against terrorists or those who preach it.

I remember, for instance, the attacks in gatsby essay of the, Kenya and Tanzania in anna papers, August 1998 in which 32 Kenyans and 8 Tanzanians were killed – all innocent people. Bin Laden’s Al Qaeida claimed responsibility for that act of pure barbarism as if it were something to writing be proud of. Many people had then called for freud a united front against those who live and die by terrorism – but the essay, US and British efforts in the fight against terrorism were half-hearted even then except when it came to defending their own interests. The London attacks have now made people in Britain understand that these terrorists are not restricted to certain geographical areas of the anna freud, world anymore. They have brought their violence here and, in a way, this will make the connection word, British people realise that they are not immune to such mindless carnage. And may be now, hopefully, people will call for unity against terrorism beyond the rhetorical versions of the same call by politicians such as Tony Blair. There is a need for a universal unity against any terror campaign wherever it happens. The British government needs to work with countries that have declared war against terrorism not just to protect British interests but humanity in general. We must also accept that aspects of British foreign policy need to be re-examined. The British government needs to recognise that its policies abroad do give some fundamentalist groups the necessary tools with which they justify their acts of violence against innocent people.

The July bombings have not just spread terror in the UK but they also threaten to divide the country. The Muslim community in the UK is said to be feeling under siege – sandwiched between the terrorists and papers, the suspicious looks from the mainstream population. Five days after the London bombings, a Pakistani man was killed by the great essay american, a gang of youth in Nottingham. The Muslim Council of Britain (MCB) has also reported that there has been an increase in assaults against Muslims in the UK as a result of the anna papers, bombings. A YouGov poll conducted on July 9 found that 10% of the iowa creative writing, British public think that the majority of British Muslims condone terrorism. 60% also thought that British intelligence should concentrate on the Muslim community in the fight against terrorism. Overall, the survey makes a depressing reading in which 32% of Muslims, numbering a total of 16,000, indicated their willingness to commit violence in order to bring about an end to Western society. Ultimately, thinking about the atrocities of July 7 and the attempted bombings two weeks later, all of us, irrespective of our religious convictions or otherwise, have to stay united in anna papers, condemning what happened. We need to being edition spiritual unite not in the fashion of freud papers, a catchphrase like the one coined by the Evening Standard, ‘London Stands United’, but genuinely.

We need to connection for essays re-examine our view of anna papers, each other and the society we live in. It is up to all of the great american, us to ensure that Britain remains a tolerant society in which violence for any end is anna, a non-option. I am listening to the Mooto music download streamed on the new gospel band official web site. Mooto Africa’s new gospel musical sensation is officially releasing its debut video on MTV (Africa) in March. I am hooked on their new Block Buster sound model which simply will work anywhere in a world where people have access to a greater diversity of essay five spiritual, music. This new African gospel sound is headed for a major market revival hopefully it will continue to freud papers inspire other up-coming African artists with good causes.

At the same time I learn Mooto is a non-profit project founded to help less fortunate people through music. The band is made up of four lads Timothy Rukundo (aka) T-Mo who is Mooto’s leading singer explains to north and south differences me that they have all lived their passions. Timothy is a trained sound technician, stage manager and performing artist. Freud Papers! Stephen Sekitende, AM Michaels and essay, Hosea Ntaborwa make up the Mooto Project for Africa. We have evolved and transitioned well with a lot of cultural changes, Timothy said, and that's great because that is what we do. We do cover culture, gospel and we are attuned to papers that so it keeps us going. It keeps us on the forward edge. On Saturday, October 21, over 300 Ugandans and friends of the Gulu walk initiative joined in midterm papers, a 10 mile walk from papers Aston University on GuluWalk Day, with over 30,000 people, in 82 cities and 15 different countries took to the streets to essay of the american dream urge the world to support peace in northern Uganda. Northern Uganda has long been affected by violent conflicts and insecurity. The brutal and relentless war between Uganda government forces and the rebel group, the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), has lasted for freud papers 20 years. The results have been gross violations of human rights, especially on women and job uk, children, destruction of infrastructure, paralysis in economic activities, and a general social and cultural breakdown.

As a result the Northern region remains the papers, poorest area of Uganda with an estimated 66% of the population living below the poverty line for the last 19 years. This is much higher than the national average of 46%. 75% of the job uk, population is unemployed, even those who have completed their education with good qualifications have no job. With the papers, continual failure to achieve peace, life in Northern Uganda remains bleak. Claire Short MP lent her name to writing job uk the walk in the UK while Concy Aciro Woman MP for Amuru District in Northern Uganda attended on behalf of the displaced children of Gulu. And Peter Quaranto of Uganda CAN a charity based in Boston attended on behalf of the organisers of Gulu walk international based in Toronto. Gulu Walk UK was Organised by anna freud, Rachel Toussaints and sponsored by Safari Bar Birmingham. Below are extracts of iowa creative writing, Concy Aciro’s MP speech. Within Northern Uganda, the situation is far worst in Acholiland, which comprises the districts of Gulu, Amuru, Kitgum and Pader. During the 20 years of freud, war in Northern Uganda, Gulu District has 53 camps, Pader 23 and Kitgum 21.

The population of papers, each of these camps range between 20,000 and 50,000. The camps are over-congested. A family of anna freud papers, six to eight persons has to pack themselves into a tiny hut of 4.5 square metres; the minimum standard for such emergencies is 3.5 square meters per person. And contrary to traditional culture, three generations of a family -- parents, children and grandparents -- are all forced to share the same living space, with loss of all privacy and dignity.In a society renowned for its deep-rooted and rich culture, traditional values and systematic family structure—all have been destroyed under the conditions imposed in the camps. This loss is colossal and edition essay five, virtually irreparable; it signals the demise of a people and their civilization.

Effects of war on anna, Women. Among the population in the camps, 85% suffer from severe trauma and depression. In the face of relentless cultural and personal humiliations and abuse, suicide incidents have risen to unprecedented levels. Suicide is highest among mothers who feel utter despair at creative writing summer their inability to provide for their children or save them from starvation and death from preventable diseases.As several reports have documented, rape and generalized sexual exploitation of women in the camps are rampant. Women in a number of camps have told Human Rights Watch how they had been raped and/or molested, as they have nowhere to turn. Education and sports. The conflict in Northern Uganda has been a blow to the education system. There are not enough secondary schools in existence to absorb all the anna freud papers, children who want to continue after primary school. Unlike primary education, secondary education is not free.

The Government of Uganda has launched a program to connection word for essays provide 47,000 Ugandan Shillings per freud term to each of the children living in camps who want to essay american join secondary school. Freud Papers! This is a positive step, but in reality the amount given is only about job uk 7,700 Shillings and is not even given to all children. Table 1: Primary Education Statistics, 2003. Rates of failure in examinations at leaving primary school, % Dropouts as a percent of anna papers, total enrolment, % The rate of the great gatsby essay american dream, HIV infection among the rural communities living in freud papers, camps has galloped to iowa creative writing summer program staggering levels; a recent survey found 30% infection in Kitgum district compared with a national level of 5%. In June 2006, the anna freud, medical superintendent of Gulu Hospital reported that 27% of children who were tested there were found to be HIV-positive; 40% of pregnant women attending Lacor Hospital for routine prenatal visits tested HIV-positive. It is connection for essays, instructive to note that, although they are in the greatest need, the facilities. and programs under the Global Fund for distribution of anti-retroviral drugs (ARV) have not been made available to the populations in the camps. MalariaThis is the anna, number one killer, especially of children in the region.

A recent survey by international agencies reported that 1,000 people are dying in the camps in Acholi every week, that is, about midterm 50,000 each year. The survey also estimated that, in the first half of this year, around 30,000 died in the camps in Acholi, of which over papers 11,000 were children under five. Today, these camps have the worst infant mortality rates as compared to anywhere else in the world. The infant mortality rate in Northern Uganda is 172 per 1000 live births; the north and south, situation is anna freud papers, worse for children under five years old where 276 per 1000 die in the region. The maternal mortality ratio is papers, about 700 per 100,000 live births in the north; the anna, national figure is 506 per 100,000. For example, assessments carried out in the IDP camps of Gulu and north and south differences, Kitgum indicate that malnutrition rates of children under-five are 32.6% and papers, 13.5%, respectively. Psy 101 Midterm Papers! In October 2006, 2438 people in Anaka camp in freud papers, Amuru district suffered from writing program malnutrition because of lack of food. The result from Anaka hospital shows that every month 473 pregnant women, 571 lactation mothers and 1394 children suffer from malnutrition despite the fact that the World Food Programme is distributing food to people in these camps. About 2500 to 3000 persons share a water source. On average it takes four to six hours (with a peak of freud papers, 12 hours) of waiting in a queue to connection collect water; the standard waiting time in such emergencies should be 15 minutes. Access to latrines is abominable.

A recent survey found that 85% of anna freud, camp population in Gulu district did not have access to latrines. The minimum requirements for such emergency situations are one toilet for 20 adults and one toilet for 10 children. In Otuboi camp, there is one latrine for 1,566 persons -- this translates on average into papers, access of 30 seconds per person per day. In camps such as Orom and Lugoro, the situation is worse: over 4,000 persons share one latrine. (Source: Ministry of Health, 2005). There is also the possibility of pollution of anna freud papers, water sources from the north and south differences, pit latrines that have not been suitably located.

There are many reasons why the creation of papers, camps in Northern Uganda has affected the environment. · Congestion – Because of “security” barriers, people have to operate within a defined restricted radius. · Need for essay essence fuel – People have been cutting down trees to anna papers provide themselves with firewood for cooking. · Shelter – People have been destroying vegetation to build shelter. · Rivers and streams have been drying up as a result of environmental degradation. · Timber – Rogue traders have been destroying forests to obtain timber and sell. We urge that international community to do all it can to support the peace talks currently taking place between the LRA and government of north, Uganda in Juba, Southern Sudan.

This is the only way and opportunity through which peace can return to Northern Uganda to allow people to go back to their respective homes to begin living normal lives. Removal of culture of violence through promoting and developing a system of education that combines traditional values and modernity, sports and recreational centres. Supporting educational programmes in Northern Uganda should be a priority to all Ugandans and the international community involved in helping Northern Uganda. Direct appeal goes to all Acholi in the Diaspora to give more support even beyond their family boundaries to support education at home. We urge the international community to direct resources aimed at improving the situation in Northern Uganda directly to community based projects rather than through the government to avoid mismanagement of resources. The recent mismanagement of anna papers, Global Fund meant for fighting malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis by officials of the great american, Ministry of health in Uganda clearly demonstrates such a problem. Women should be involved in programmes that can salvage, restore and protect the environment. This may include a forestation programmes.

We appeal to the international community to provide Anti-retroviral drugs (ARV) directly to the population in freud papers, the camps. Instead of creating more camps under the iowa creative writing summer program, government decongestion strategy, camps should be dismantled to allow people to go back to their respective homes. We appeal to the international community to influence Ugandan authority to recognise the plight of the freud, people of Northern Uganda. Since 2002, under the VARRP (Voluntary Assisted Return and Reintegration Programme) IOM offered anyone who had been in the asylum system - applied, appealing, refused - who wished to return to their home country, reintegration assistance. This is in addition to help with obtaining travel documentation, purchasing flight tickets and domestic transportation in this country and the country of return. The reintegration assistance package is worth about ?1000 to assist with business set-ups, vocational training and education. IOM will pay the bills for equipment and services agreed upon with the word for essays, returnee as a part of his reintegration strategy, but will not give cash directly to the beneficiary.

The programme is co-funded by the European Refugee Fund and the UK Home Office. According to a review of existing literature on migrant decision-making processes and concepts of sustainability conducted by anna freud papers, the home office. Job Uk! And also fieldwork conducted in the UK included seven focus groups and anna, forty-three individual interviews with asylum seekers and refugees. Most respondents had secure status in the UK and the great essay of the, had lived here for three or more years. The individual interviews were qualitative and in-depth. A total of anna, seven national and ethnic groups were chosen for the focus groups and essay writing job uk, individual interviews so that the enquiry could be focussed and the issues explored in more depth within specific communities. Individual interviews were carried out with stakeholders who have experience in and/or a vision of voluntary assisted return. A total of sixty-four interviews were carried out with individuals who had already returned to anna freud papers Bosnia or Kosovo. The study found that the three key factors that affect the decision of asylum seekers and the great gatsby essay of the, refugees to papers return to their country of origin; structural conditions in home and host countries [which in turn could be divided in to political, social and economic factors]; the iowa program, individual and family characteristics of refugees and asylum seekers themselves; and incentives that exist in public policy that would persuade [or dissuade] people from returning. There was evidence that conditions in papers, the country of origin, rather than the host country [especially political factors] were of primary importance.

Certain categories of people appear to have distinct issues determining whether or not they return. Examples of these categories include those people who are settled in midterm papers, the UK and have children here or those who have a specific goal that they want to achieve before returning [usually related to income or education]. Targeted policies to promote return appear to be relatively ineffective because many potential returnees do not know about return assistance and do not necessarily trust the UK government to support voluntary return in a meaningful way and not to force people to go back to anna freud papers their home countries. Many respondents conceptualised potential return using a 'staged' response and edition essay second spiritual, would only consider some factors when other criteria, such as security, had already been satisfied. Two definitions of sustainability are suggested.

The first relates to individual sustainability; 'return migration is sustainable for individuals if returnees' socio-economic status and fear of violence or persecution is no worse, relative to anna freud the population in the place of origin, one year after their return.' The second relates to 'aggregate sustainability'; 'return migration is essay job uk, sustainable for the home country or region if socio-economic conditions and levels of freud, violence and persecution are not significantly worsened by return, as measured one year after the return process is complete.' It is also suggested that for both these cases the desire to re-emigrate may represent a proxy indicator for and south differences whether a return process has been sustainable. potential returnees should be allowed to make their own decisions rather than being encouraged towards one or other option; excluding people from employment does not necessarily encourage them to return home; granting permanent status does not necessarily preclude people from returning home; return assistance does not encourage return but is seen as useful once a decision to return has been made; and. more could be done to disseminate information about return programmes. a system measuring the sustainability of return could be put in anna freud papers, place as part of any future voluntary assisted return programme; ideally sustainability would be measured against a control population of those who never left the country; and in-depth interviews with key informants in country of return is likely to be the connection for essays, most sophisticated and yet practical model for measuring 'aggregate sustainability'. The following points on encouraging sustainable return are made: voluntary return appears more sustainable than involuntary return; education, training and employment in country of anna, asylum would appear to encourage sustainable return; and. return and reintegration assistance may encourage sustainable return. It is suggested that more research needs to be carried out on the negotiation process between individuals, families and communities. Other suggestions are also made for north and south essay how the research in this area can be developed.

The enhanced package will be available under the following conditions: 1) To be eligible, an asylum seeker must apply to return by anna freud, 31 st October 2006. 2) They must travel by 31 st December 2006. 3) They must have applied for asylum before 31 st December 2005. [NB. Being Edition Five Second Spiritual! These conditions mean that no new applicants for asylum (post 31/12/05) will be eligible for the enhanced package. Freud! Those who apply for asylum this year (2006) and choose to return will receive the standard ?1,000 worth of assistance.

Although the cut-off date for essence five second spiritual applications to return is 31 st October 2006, to benefit from the enhanced package applicants must travel by 31 st December 2006. For some countries travel documentation may be hard to obtain swiftly. It is therefore vital that returnees apply as early as possible and do not wait until 31 st October 2006.] Recipients of the enhanced package will receive ?500 in cash at the airport as a relocation grant. The remainder will be disbursed, as is normal practice, following discussions between individual returnees and 10M field officers, to ensure that the money is targeted in a way which best contributes to freud papers a sustainable return. If it is thought appropriate in this context to make further cash payments they will be phased over a six-month period. Under no circumstances will a cash lump sum be given.

International Organization for Migration (IOM) Tel: 0800783 2332 http://www.iomlondon.org/ This programme is co-financed by the European Refugee Fund.

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A for and against essay about the freud internet. Look at writing, the essay and do the exercises to papers improve your writing skills. Do the of the preparation exercise first. Then read the text and do the other exercises. What's your opinion?

Do you think the anna papers internet is bad for gatsby of the, young people? For young people it is. They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is anna papers, not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults. As in the essay, the young people get addicted to online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. Word For Essays? As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for anna papers, young people.

I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the rules of age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. I think Internet is very useful in connection word schools and in work. It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate. On the anna freud other hand a lot of people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram.

I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is very usefull . North And South Differences? So in conclusion internet is possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of you, but what about learning how to anna play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for north differences, essays, projects and papers, homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464. I'm glad to essay writing job uk hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is freud papers, it? in Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it! I think the internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person. One bad aspect of internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime.

That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out there, but a good person is able to avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is north, very good and useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. Anna Freud Papers? I totaly agree. It all depends from parents. If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up.

You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is gatsby essay american dream, useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. Anna Freud? !! :) In my opinion, Internet is differences, one of the greatest people created. Anna Freud? You have an access to billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the connection for essays world. Many people work using the Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and web-technologies. Anna Papers? Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for more than an psy 101, hour without computer or smartphone. They need to publish their photos in anna social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and read new posts in their favourite online communities. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about for essays, hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the big company. It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets.

To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for freud, searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. Essay? I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . Anna Freud Papers? everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is included. Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. It is said that the Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in differences essay the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to freud use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation.

I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the being edition essay spiritual internet is bad or not,which depends on users. I think the Internet is freud papers, something that we have to know, and we should know what is good and bad for us, and psy 101, keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in freud any way. I think it is the same for young people, we have to be responsible, because the being essay essence five Internet is a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is anna freud, useful for everyone. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world.

Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of information, and gatsby essay, a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to freud papers games, that depends on each family. Papers? Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do. It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and hours looking for few informations? Internet is useful for everyone, for young and freud papers, old people.

There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Psy 101? Almost, there#039;s no home without the anna freud internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on writing the Internet. We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. Anna Freud? We can learn a lot of gatsby of the dream, things (English, French. ) and a lot of other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. Freud Papers? There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in the world. To sum up, I completely agree with essay.

No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is many information in the internet. In my opinion, I dont think Internet is bad for being edition essence five spiritual, people. Without the freud papers Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by connection word myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to access to lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. On the other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely. If young people use the Internet for studying and relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the Internet plays an important role in the communicating barrier.

As you can see, people all around the world are using the Internet, including the elderly. We communicate with each other using the internet and anna, it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the internet, how are the countries going to develop? Our knowledge and the view to the outside world, the perspective to the outside of psy 101 midterm, our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well. So, why not? The internet is the anna papers best connection between an individual to being essence five second the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is very usefull for us. Internet is anna freud, particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it.

Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for learning English, reading news and doing research for my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and everything they should do. Word? I completely disagree that internet is bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on the way people use the anna freud papers internet. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for it? . Look carefully. What's this everyday object?

Play Wordshake and being essay essence five second spiritual, see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. © British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and educational opportunities. A registered charity: 209131 (England and anna papers, Wales) SC037733 (Scotland).

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essay dated tazuma An Essay on anna freud, Radiometric Dating. By Jonathon Woolf. Radiometric dating methods are the strongest direct evidence that geologists have for the age of the Earth. All these methods point to Earth being very, very old -- several billions of years old. Young-Earth creationists -- that is, creationists who believe that Earth is no more than 10,000 years old -- are fond of attacking radiometric dating methods as being full of inaccuracies and riddled with sources of error.

When I first became interested in the creation-evolution debate, in late 1994, I looked around for sources that clearly and simply explained what radiometric dating is and why young-Earth creationists are driven to discredit it. I found several good sources, but none that seemed both complete enough to being essay essence spiritual stand alone and simple enough for a non-geologist to anna freud understand them. Thus this essay, which is my attempt at producing such a source. What is radiometric dating? Simply stated, radiometric dating is a way of determining the age of a sample of material using the decay rates of radio-active nuclides to provide a 'clock.' It relies on three basic rules, plus a couple of critical assumptions. The rules are the same in all cases; the assumptions are different for each method. To explain those rules, I'll need to word for essays talk about some basic atomic physics. There are 90 naturally occurring chemical elements. Elements are identified by their atomic number , the number of protons in the atom's nucleus. All atoms except the simplest, hydrogen- 1, have nuclei made up of freud papers protons and neutrons. Hydrogen-1's nucleus consists of only a single proton.

Protons and neutrons together are called nucleons , meaning particles that can appear in the atomic nucleus. A nuclide of an element, also called an isotope of an element, is an atom of that element that has a specific number of nucleons. Since all atoms of the same element have the same number of protons, different nuclides of an element differ in the number of neutrons they contain. For example, hydrogen-1 and iowa creative summer hydrogen-2 are both nuclides of the element hydrogen, but hydrogen-1's nucleus contains only a proton, while hydrogen-2's nucleus contains a proton and a neutron. Papers. Uranium-238 contains 92 protons and 146 neutrons, while uranium-235 contains 92 protons and 143 neutrons. Psy 101. To keep it short, a nuclide is anna freud usually written using the element’s abbreviation. Writing Summer. Uranium’s abbreviation is U, so uranium-238 can be more briefly written as U238.

Many nuclides are stable -- they will always remain as they are unless some external force changes them. Some, however, are unstable -- given time, they will spontaneously undergo one of the several kinds of radioactive decay, changing in the process into another element. There are two common kinds of anna radioactive decay, alpha decay and beta decay . In alpha decay, the radioactive atom emits an iowa creative writing program, alpha particle . An alpha particle contains two protons and two neutrons. After emission, it quickly picks up two electrons to balance the two protons, and becomes an freud, electrically neutral helium-4 (He4) atom. When a nuclide emits an psy 101, alpha particle, its atomic number drops by 2, and anna papers its mass number (number of nucleons) drops by north essay, 4. Thus, an papers, atom of U238 (uranium, atomic number 92) emits an creative summer program, alpha particle and becomes an atom of Th234 (thorium, atomic number 90). A beta particle is an electron. When an atom emits a beta particle, a neutron inside the nucleus is transformed to a proton. Anna Papers. The mass number doesn't change, but the atomic number goes up by 1. Thus, an atom of carbon-14 (C14), atomic number 6, emits a beta particle and becomes an atom of nitrogen-14 (N14), atomic number 7. A third, very rare type of radioactive decay is psy 101 midterm papers called electron absorption . In electron absorption, a proton absorbs an electron to become a neutron. In other words, electron absorption is the exact reverse of beta decay.

The mass number doesn’t change, while the atomic number goes down by 1. So an atom of potassium-40 (K40), atomic number 19 can absorb an anna freud papers, electron to edition become an atom of argon-40 (Ar40), atomic number 18. The half-life of anna freud a radioactive nuclide is defined as the time it takes half of a sample of the element to decay. A mathematical formula can be used to connection for essays calculate the half-life from the anna number of breakdowns per second in a sample of the nuclide. Psy 101 Midterm Papers. Some nuclides have very long half-lives, measured in billions or even trillions of years. Others have extremely short half-lives, measured in tenths or hundredths of a second. The decay rate and therefore the half-life are fixed characteristics of anna freud a nuclide. They don’t change at creative summer program all. That’s the first axiom of radiometric dating techniques: the half-life of a given nuclide is a constant. (Note that this doesn’t mean the half-life of an element is a constant. Different nuclides of the same element can have substantially different half-lives.)

The half-life is anna freud papers a purely statistical measurement. It doesn’t depend on the age of edition essay individual atoms. A sample of U238 ten thousand years old will have precisely the same half-life as one ten billion years old. So, if we know how much of the nuclide was originally present, and how much there is anna freud now, we can easily calculate how long it would take for the missing amount to decay, and therefore how long it’s been since that particular sample was formed. That’s the essence of radiometric dating: measure the amount that’s present, calculate how much is missing, and figure out how long it would take for job uk, that quantity of the nuclide to break down.

Because it’s a statistical measure- ment , there’s always a margin of error in the age figure, but if the procedure is done properly, the margin is very small. Obviously, the major question here is anna freud how much of the nuclide was originally present in our sample? In some cases, we don’t know. Such cases are useless for radiometric dating. We must know the original quantity of the parent nuclide in order to being spiritual date our sample radiometrically . Fortunately, there are cases where we can do that. In order to do so, we need a nuclide that’s part of anna freud a mineral compound.

Why? Because there’s a basic law of chemistry that says Chemical processes like those that form minerals cannot distinguish between different nuclides of the same element. Psy 101 Midterm. They simply can’t do it. Anna Freud. If an element has more than one nuclide present, and a mineral forms in gatsby of the american a magma melt that includes that element, the element’s different nuclides will appear in the mineral in precisely the same ratio that they occurred in anna freud papers the environment where and edition essence spiritual when the mineral was formed. This is the second axiom of radiometric dating. The third and final axiom is that when an atom undergoes radioactive decay, its internal structure and freud also its chemical behavior change. Losing or gaining atomic number puts the atom in a different row of the periodic table, and elements in word different rows behave in different ways. The new atom doesn’t form the same kinds of chemical bonds that the old one did. It may not form the same kinds of compounds. It may not even be able to hold the freud papers parent atom’s place in north differences essay the compound it finds itself in, which results in an immediate breaking of the chemical bonds that hold the atom to the others in the mineral. Why not? you might ask.

Well, an atom’s chemical activity pattern is a result of its electron shell structure. (The exact details of this are rather complicated, so I won’t go into them here.) When the number of electrons change, the shell structure changes too. So when an atom decays and anna freud changes into an atom of north a different element, its shell structure changes and it behaves in a different way chemically. That’s it. That’s the sum total of the chemical and physical basis of radiometric dating. That’s all you really need to anna know to understand radiometric dating techniques. How do these axioms translate into useful science?

In the next part of this article, I’ll examine several different radiometric dating techniques, and show how the axioms I cited above translate into useful age measurements. This section describes several common methods of radiometric dating. To start, let's look at the one which almost everyone has heard of: radiocarbon dating, AKA carbon-14 dating or just carbon dating. Method 1: Carbon-14 Dating. The element carbon occurs naturally in job uk three nuclides: C12, C13, and C14. The vast majority of carbon atoms, about 98.89%, are C12.

About one atom in 800 billion is C14. The remainder are C13. Of the anna papers three, C12 and iowa creative writing summer program C13 are stable. C14 is radioactive, with a half-life of 5730 years. C14 is also formed continuously from papers, N14 (nitrogen-14) in the upper reaches of the atmosphere. And since carbon is an essential element in essay living organisms, C14 appears in all terrestrial ( landbound ) living organisms in anna the same proportions it appears in the atmosphere. Plants and protists get C14 from the environment. Animals and fungi get C14 from the plant or animal tissue they eat for food. When an essay writing, organism dies, it stops taking in C14. The C14 already in the organism doesn’t stop decaying, so as time goes on there is freud papers less and less C14 left in the organism’s remains.

If we measure how much C14 there currently is, we can tell how much there was when the edition essence five spiritual organism died, and therefore how much has decayed. When we know how much has decayed, we know how old the sample is. Many archaeological sites have been dated by applying radiocarbon dating to samples of anna bone, wood, or cloth found there. Radiocarbon dating depends on several assumptions. One is iowa creative program that the thing being dated is organic in origin. Radiocarbon dating does not work on anything inorganic, like rocks or fossils. Only things that once were alive and now are dead: bones, teeth, flesh, leaves, etc. The second assumption is that the papers organism in question got its carbon from the atmosphere.

A third is that the thing has remained closed to C14 since the organism from which it was created died. The fourth one is that we know what the concentration of atmospheric C14 was when the organism lived and died. That last one is more important than it sounds. When Professor William Libby developed the C14 dating system in 1949, he assumed that the amount of C14 in the atmosphere was a constant. However, after a few years a number of iowa creative writing program scientists got suspicious of this assumption, because dates obtained by anna freud papers, the C14 method weren’t tallying with dates obtained by program, other means. A long series of studies of C14 content produced an equally long series of anna freud corrective factors that must be taken into connection, account when using C14 dating. So the dates derived from C14 decay had to be revised. One reference on radiometric dating lists an entire array of corrective factors for the change in papers atmospheric C14 over time. C14 dating serves as both an illustration of iowa creative writing program how useful radiometric dating can be, and of the pitfalls that can be found in untested assumptions. Method 2: U238/U235/Th232 Series.

U238 and freud papers U235 are both nuclides of the for essays element uranium. U235 is well known as the major fissionable nuclide of uranium. It’s the primary active ingredient of nuclear power plant reactor cores. It has a half-life of roughly 700 million years. U238 is more stable, with a half-life of papers 4.3 billion years. Th232 is the writing summer most common nuclide of the element thorium, and has a half-life of 13.9 billion years.

All three of these nuclides are the starting points for what are called radioactive series . A radioactive series is a sequence of nuclides that form one from another by radioactive decay. Anna. The series for U238 looks like this: Th234 -- Pa234 + B. Th230 -- Ra226 + A. Ra226 -- Rn222 + A. Rn222 -- Po218 + A. Po218 -- Pb214 + A.

Pb214 -- Bi214 + B. Bi214 -- Po214 + B. Po214 -- Pb210 + A. Pb210 -- Bi210 + B. Bi210 -- Po210 + B. Po210 -- Pb206 + A. (Chemical symbols: U = Uranium; Th = Thorium; Pa = Protactinium; Ra = Radium; Rn = Radon; Po = Polonium; Pb = Lead; Bi = Bismuth. A indicates alpha decay; B indicates beta decay.) We can calculate the half-lives of all of these elements. All the the great gatsby of the dream intermediate nuclides between U238 and Pb206 are highly unstable, with short half-lives. That means they don’t stay around very long, so we can take it as given that these nuclides don’t appear on Earth today except as the anna papers result of uranium decay.

We can find out the essay job uk normal distribution of lead nuclides by looking at a lead ore that doesn’t contain any uranium, but that formed under the same conditions and from the same source as our uranium-bearing sample. Then any excess of Pb206 must be the result of the decay of U238. When we know how much excess Pb206 there is, and we know the current quantity of U238, we can calculate how long the U238 in our sample has been decaying, and therefore how long ago the freud papers rock formed. Th232 and U235 also give rise to radioactive series -- different series from that of connection for essays U238, containing different nuclides and ending in different nuclides of lead. Chemists can apply similar techniques to all three, resulting in three different dates for the same rock sample. Anna. (Uranium and thorium have similar chemical behavior, so all three of these nuclides frequently occur in the same ores.) If all three dates agree within the edition essay essence second margin of error, the date can be accepted as confirmed beyond a reasonable doubt. Since all three of these nuclides have substantially different half-lives, for all three to agree indicates the technique being used is sound.

But even so, radioactive-series dating could be open to question. It’s always possible that migration of anna freud nuclides or chemical changes in the rock could yield incorrect results. Essence Five Second. The rock being dated must remain a closed system with respect to uranium, thorium, and their daughter nuclides for the method to work properly. Anna. Both the uranium and thorium series include nuclides of radon, an inert gas that can migrate through rock fairly easily even in the few days it lasts. To have a radiometric dating method that is unquestionably accurate, we need a radioactive nuclide for which we can get absolutely reliable measurements of the original quantity and psy 101 midterm papers the current quantity. Is there any such nuclide to be found in nature? The answer is yes.

Which brings us to papers the third method of radiometric dating . . Being Edition Essay Five Spiritual. . Method 3: Potassium-Argon Dating. The element potassium has three nuclides, K39, K40, and K41. Only K40 is radioactive; the other two are stable. K40 is unusual among radioactive nuclides in that it can break down two different ways. It can emit a beta particle to become Ca40 (calcium-40), or it can absorb an electron to become Ar40 (argon-40). Argon is a very special element. It’s one of the group of elements called noble gases or inert gases. Anna Freud Papers. Argon is a gas at Earth-normal temperatures, and in differences essay any state it exists only papers as single atoms. It doesn’t form chemical compounds with any other element, not even the most active ones. It’s a fairly large atom, so it would have trouble slipping into north, a dense crystal’s molecular structure. By contrast, potassium and calcium are two of the anna papers most active elements in nature.

They both form compounds readily and hold onto other atoms tenaciously. What does this mean? It means that potassium can get into minerals quite easily, but argon can’t. It means that before a mineral crystallizes, argon can escape from it easily. It also means that when an atom of argon forms from an atom of potassium inside the mineral, the argon is trapped in the mineral. Psy 101 Papers. So any Ar40 we find deep inside a rock sample must be there as a result of K40 decay. We know K40’s half-life, and we know the probability of K40 decaying to anna Ar40 instead of gatsby of the american Ca40. That and some simple calculations produce a figure for how long the K40 has been decaying in our rock sample.

However, again it’s important to remember that we’re dealing with assumptions , and we always have to keep in mind that our assumptions may be wrong. What happens if our mineral sample has not remained a closed system? What if argon has escaped from the mineral? What if argon has found its way into the mineral from some other source? If some of the radiogenic argon has escaped, then more K40 must have decayed than we think -- enough to produce what we did find plus what escaped.

If more K40 has decayed than we think, then it’s been decaying longer than we think, so the anna freud mineral must be older than we think. In other words, a mineral that has lost argon will be older than the creative summer program result we get says it is. Anna Freud Papers. In the other direction, if excess argon has gotten into the mineral, it will be younger than the result we get says it is. An isochron dating method ( isochron dating is described in the next section) can also be applied to potassium-argon dating under certain very specific circumstances. When isochron dating can be used, the result is a much more accurate date. Method 4: Rubidium-Strontium Dating. Yet a fourth method, rubidium-strontium dating, is even better than potassium-argon dating for old rocks. The nuclide rubidium-87 (Rb87) decays to iowa creative writing summer strontium-87 (Sr87) with a half-life of 47 billion years. Strontium occurs naturally as a mixture of several nuclides. If three minerals form at the same time in different regions of a magma chamber, they will have identical ratios of the different strontium nuclides. (Remember, chemical processes can’t differentiate between nuclides). Anna Papers. The total amount of strontium might be different in edition five the different minerals, but the ratios will be the same.

Now, suppose that one mineral has a lot of Rb87, another has very little, and the third has an in-between amount. That means that when the minerals crystallize there is a fixed ratio of Rb87:Sr87. Anna. As time goes on, atoms of Rb87 decay to Sr-87, resulting in a change in the Rb87:Sr87 ratio, and also in a change in the ratio of Sr87 to other nuclides of strontium. The decrease in being the Rb87:Sr87 ratio is exactly matched by the gain of anna papers Sr87 in of the the strontium-nuclide ratio. Freud Papers. It has to be -- the two sides of the equation must balance.

If we plot the change in the two ratios for these three minerals, the resulting graph comes out as a straight line with an ascending slope. This line is called an connection word, isochron . The line’s slope then translates directly into a figure for the age of the rock that contains the different minerals. The power of the Rb/Sr dating method is enormous, for it provides multiple independent ways of verifying the accuracy of the isochron . When every one of four or five different minerals from the same igneous formation matches the isochron perfectly, it can safely be said that the isochron is correct beyond a reasonable doubt. Contaminated or otherwise bad samples stand out like a lighthouse beacon, because they don’t show a good isochron line. There are numerous other radiometric dating methods: the samarium-neodymium, lutetium-hafnium, rhenium-osmium, and lead isochron methods just to name a few. Anna Freud. However, I simply haven’t time or room to deal with all of them. For further information on all methods of radiometric dating, please refer to Gunter Faure’s textbook PRINCIPLES OF ISOTOPE GEOLOGY. A full cite for this book is given in the bibliography. III . Possible Sources of Error. Now, why is differences all this relevant to the creation-vs.-evolution debate? Every method of radiometric dating ever used points to anna an ancient age for connection word for essays, the Earth.

For creationists to destroy the old-Earth theory, they must destroy the anna papers credibility of writing radiometric dating. They have two ways to freud papers do this. They can criticize the science that radiometric dating is based on, or they can claim sloppy technique and experimental error in the laboratory analyses of writing job uk radioactivity levels and nuclide ratios. Option 1: Criticize the papers Theory. Is there any way to criticize the theory of radiometric dating? Well, look back at the axioms of radiometric dating methods. Are any of those open to question. Answer: yes, two of them are.

Or at least, they seem to be. Do we know, for a fact, that half-lives are constant (axiom 1)? Do we know for a fact that nuclide ratios are constant (axiom 2)? Regarding the first question: There are sound theoretical reasons for accept- ing the constancy of nuclide half-lives, but the reasons are based in the remote and creative summer program esoteric reaches of quantum mechanics, and I don’t intend to get into anna, that in this article. Essay Writing Job Uk. However, if all we had were theoretical reasons for believing axiom 1, we would be right to be suspicious of it. Anna Freud Papers. Do we have observational evidence? The answer is yes. On several occasions, astronomers have been able to analyze the writing job uk radiation produced by supernovas. In a supernova, the vast amount of papers energy released creates every known nuclide via atomic fusion and fission. Some of these nuclides are radioactive. We can detect the presence of the various nuclides by spectrographic analysis of the supernova’s radiation.

We can also detect the midterm characteristic radiation signatures of radioactive decay in those nuclides. We can use that information to calculate the half-lives of those nuclides. In every case where this has been done, the measured radiation intensity and the calculated half-life of the nuclide from the supernova matches extremely well with measurements of anna freud that nuclide made here on Earth. Now, because light travels at a fixed rate (a bit under 300,000 kilometers per second), and because stars are so far away, when we look at being essay essence five second a distant star we’re seeing it as it was when that light left it and anna papers headed this way. When we look at a star in the Andromeda Galaxy, 2,700,000 light-years away, we’re seeing that star as it was 2,700,000 years ago. And when we look at a supernova in the Andromeda Galaxy, 2,700,000 years old, we see nuclides with the exact same half-lives as we see here on Earth. Not just one or two nuclides, but many. For these measurements to all be consistently wrong in exactly the same way, most scientists feel, is beyond the realm of possibility. What about nuclide ratios? Are they indeed constant? Well, let’s think about it: Minerals form by iowa summer, recognized chemical processes that depend on the chemical activity of the anna freud papers elements involved.

The chemical behavior of an element depends on its size and the number of for essays electrons in its outer shell. Anna. This is the foundation of the periodic table of the job uk elements, a basic part of chemistry that has stood without challenge for a hundred and anna papers fifty years. The shell structure depends only on the number of electrons the nuclide has, which is the same as the american dream number of protons in its nucleus. So the shell structure doesn’t change between different nuclides of the same element. K39 is chemically identical to K40; the only way we can distinguish between them is to use a nonchemical technique like mass spectrometry. (Note: It’s true that some natural processes favor some isotopes over freud others. Water molecules containing oxygen-16 are lighter and dream therefore evaporate faster than water molecules with oxygen-18.

However, as far as is known such fractionation occurs only with light nuclides: oxygen, hydrogen, carbon. The atoms used in radiometric dating techniques are mainly heavy atoms, so we can still use the axiom that mineral-forming processes can’t distinguish between different nuclides.) So the anna freud processes that are involved in iowa writing summer program mineral formation can’t distinguish between nuclides. Anna. Sr86 atoms and Sr87 atoms behave identically when they bond with other atoms to form a mineral molecule. If there are ten Sr86 atoms for every Sr87 atom in the original magma melt, there will be ten Sr86 atoms for word for essays, every Sr87 atom in the minerals that crystallize from that melt.

Option 2: Criticize the Techniques. So, we’ve seen that radiometric dating techniques are built on a sound theoretical basis. The only anna papers other possible source of writing job uk error is in laboratory technique. Anna. To translate theory into dream, useful measurements, the lab procedures must be accurate. A contaminated rock sample is anna useless for dating. A sample that is essay writing taken from the surface, where atoms could get in and out freud easily, is also useless.

Samples must be taken by coring, from edition essay essence five second, deep within a rock mass. To date a rock, chemists must break it down into its component elements using any of several methods, then analyze nuclide ratios using a mass spectrometer. If the lab technique is sloppy, the anna freud papers date produced isn’t reliable. There’s no way to eliminate the possibility of for essays error. It can’t be done. Mistakes can always happen -- Murphy’s Law rules in science as much as in any other field of human endeavor. (For those who have never encountered it, Murphy’s Law is the simple rule that in any field of human endeavor, anything that can go wrong will go wrong.) But we can try to minimize error. And when we do, the dates produced can be accepted as accurate. When samples taken from different parts of anna freud papers a given igneous rock formation are dated by different people at different labs over many years, the connection possibility that all those measurements could be wrong is vanishingly small.

Some may well be wrong. If nine analyses agree, and a tenth produces radically different results, the odd-man-out is usually considered a result of some kind of error and anna papers discarded. If the essay american researcher doing the work can find and document a specific problem in anna freud papers analysis that could produce precisely that observed wrong result, then it’s virtually certain the odd-man-out is an error. A 90% success ratio in a technique that requires such delicate, accurate work is very impressive. Connection Word. And some radiometric techniques have a much better success ratio than that. In any case, while it’s true that there are numerous possible sources of error, there is anna freud no source of error that could account for north and south, the enormous difference between the 6000-year age demanded by freud, young-Earth creationists and the 3.5-billion-year radiometric age for the oldest known rocks on north and south, Earth. It’s completely illogical to think that these techniques could be wrong by that much. Creationist objections to radiometric dating techniques basically fall into three categories: 1) Creationists often claim that radiometric dates are unreliable because the entire theory is based on invalid assumptions. We’ve already seen that this doesn’t hold up under examination.

The assumptions that are used in radiometric dating techniques are perfectly justified given current physics. 2) Creationist geologists compile long lists of dates obtained by radiometric techniques that deviate widely from the anna papers normally accepted values. Creationist geologist John Woodmorappe is the north best known of the creationists who attempt this approach. He’s compiled a list of several hundred radiometric dates that are widely divergent from the values accepted by papers, conventional geology. Based on this, he claims that radiometric dating methods don't produce consistent results, that geologists conceal radiometric dates which don't match what's expected, and that therefore the whole methodology of creative summer program radiometric dating is worthless.

In general, such claims are revealed as flawed by what they don’t say more than by what they do say. In an article for the creationist journal Creation Science Research Quarterly , Woodmorappe listed 350-odd aberrant dates, and claimed that there are many, many more. What he did not say is that those 350 were winnowed out of tens of freud papers thousands of radiometric dates which do give more reasonable results. If we run dating tests on 500 samples and 350 (70% of the total tests) are scattered all over the place, with only a few anywhere near the expected values, then we clearly have a serious problem. But if we run dating tests on 10,000 samples and word get 350 aberrant results (3.5% of the total), that could easily be simple experimental error. If we test fifty samples from the same rock formation and we get 2 ages of 1 million years, 2 ages of 500 million years, and 46 ages all clustered around 175 million years, it’s not a great leap of logic to conclude that the 4 aberrant results were in error, and the 46 clustered results are probably correct. 3) Some creationists produce radiometric dates of their own that show that radiometric dating produces illogical, contradictory results. A classic example of this tactic is a claim by creationist geologist Steve Austin that rocks taken from Recent lava flows on the Uinkaret Plateau at the top of the Grand Canyon produce older dates than rocks taken from the bottom of the canyon, when both samples are dated using the Rb87/Sr87 isochron method. This appears to be a serious blow against the Rb/Sr isochron technique, but in his article A Criticism of ICR's Grand Canyon Dating Project, Chris Stassen points out that Austin made a critical error in his work.

The samples he took from the Plateau are from different rock formations. Freud Papers. For any type of connection word radiometric dating to anna papers work properly, all samples must come from the same formation. So it’s not surprising that Austin ’s results make no sense. We’re still not done, though. Differences Essay. If all we had was the anna freud papers radiometric techniques that I’ve described, there would remain a possibility (a miniscule one, but a real possibility nonetheless) that the entire idea is grievously wrong, that some as-yet-undetected factor is throwing off all the hundreds and thousands of radiometric dates that have been produced based on being edition essay essence five, rock samples from all around Earth and even beyond it. But we have more than that.

We have several methods completely unrelated to radioactivity which serve as independent checks on the radiometric dating techniques. For example, in 1838, the American geologist James Dwight Dana made a systematic survey of the Hawaiian Islands . He noted that the anna freud papers islands become more heavily eroded as you move from Hawaii toward the northwest. He interpreted this to mean that the islands become older as you move northwest along the chain. The Great Essay American Dream. When rock samples were taken from the Hawaiian Islands and dated radiometrically , they agreed with Dana’s conclusions of over freud a century before. The islands do indeed become older as you move northwest. And the degree of erosion corresponds roughly with the radiometric dates. No island in for essays the chain is dated as being significantly older than the erosion rate implies, nor is freud any island in the chain dated as being significantly younger than the the great gatsby essay erosion rate indicates.

Both modern corals and fossil corals deposit daily and annual growth bands. By careful analysis of these bands, we can tell how many days there were in a year when the coral was growing. For modern corals, this technique yields 365 day-bands per year, more or less, just as it should. For corals that grew in formations identified as Early Devonian, the technique shows a little over 400 day-bands per year. Astronomers can measure the anna rate at job uk which Earth’s rotation is slowing. Assuming the rate of slowing has remained constant, a day-count of anna freud papers 400 days per year indicates an age of roughly 400 million years. And when Early Devonian rocks are dated radiometrically , we get dates of job uk roughly 400 million years.

Yet another cross-check on radiometric dating is provided by freud, plate tectonics. The plates that form the Earth’s surface are moving at a measurable rate. There are several ways of measuring this movement that themselves have nothing to the great gatsby dream do with radiometric dating. The plate that forms the Pacific Ocean basin is moving northwest at at a known rate. Geologists generally accept that the papers Hawaiian Islands have been formed by upwelling of magma from a ‘hot spot’ in the Earth’s mantle, below the seafloor. The Pacific Plate is moving; the writing hot spot remains fixed; and the result is a series of volcanic islands growing upward over the hot spot. Papers. Between Hawaii and Midway Island (2400km northwest of Hawaii ) are some thirty volcanoes, active and essay writing job uk extinct. Many of these volcanoes have had lava flows dated by the potassium-argon method. In all these cases, the papers radiometric date agrees substantially with the date derived from extrapolation of plate motion. Particularly striking is the correlation for Midway Island itself. Writing Job Uk. By drift rate it should be about 27 million years old.

By K- Ar dating, the papers volcanic rock that forms Midway's core is 27.7 million years old. Two other island chains that are located over the great of the american Pacific Plate hot spots show substantially similar patterns of motion to the Hawaiian Islands . Anna Freud Papers. They both correlate well with other measurements of the Pacific Plate’s motion. And their radiometric dates match as well. Three independent methods of dating these islands, and essay second spiritual they all agree within acceptable ranges of error. What are the chances of all three being wrong in such ways as to produce the anna same wrong answer?

There’s no way to calculate them, but I’d say they’re so miniscule that you’d have better odds of hitting the state lottery five times in a row. One more example, just to edition essay wrap things up. In the papers late sixties, two geologists identified a specific reversal of the Earth’s magnetic field using the rocks in essay writing job uk Olduvai Gorge in Africa . ( Olduvai Gorge is freud papers famous as one of the best sites in the world for early hominid fossils.) They called this reversal the Olduvai Event. A few years later, another geologist, Neil Opdyke , was taking samples of sea-floor rock and found that he could identify the north essay Olduvai Event in his cores. Anna Freud Papers. Sea-floor sediments often preserve evidence of magnetic field reversals. After carefully analyzing the sedimentation rates in his cores, Opdyke concluded that the Olduvai Event had spanned a period from essay five, roughly 1.85 million to about 1.5 million years ago.

Obtaining radiometric dates from Olduvai Gorge is difficult for several reasons, but one of the few dates that’s considered solid comes from a specific layer of volcanic tuff called ‘Tuff 1B’. This tuff occurs near the papers bottom of the Olduvai Event. It was dated in 1959 using the potassium-argon method. The date produced was approximately 1.8 million years ago. Far from being rickety constructs full of psy 101 midterm sources of error and unproven assumptions, radiometric dating techniques are actually on a very sound theoretical and procedural basis.

To destroy that basis, creationists would have to destroy much of chemistry and a lot of atomic physics too. Freud Papers. The periodic table is the summer bedrock on which modern chemistry is anna papers built. The constancy of the velocity of word light is a basic axiom of Einstein’s theories of relativity, theories which have passed every test physicists could devise. Anna Freud Papers. The constancy of psy 101 midterm radioactive decay rates follows from quantum mechanics, which has also passed every test physicists can create. Anna Freud. In short, everything we know in essay chemistry and in physics points to papers radiometric dating as being a viable and valuable method of calculating the ages of gatsby essay of the american igneous and anna papers metamorphosed igneous rocks. To question it seems to connection be beyond the anna papers bounds of reason. To charge thousands of chemists all over iowa creative writing summer the world with mass incompetence also seems to be beyond the bounds of reason. Radiometric dating has been used ever more widely for the past forty years. The dates produced have gotten steadily more precise as lab techniques and freud papers instrumentation has been improved. Writing. There is simply no logical reason to freud throw this entire field of the great gatsby american dream science out the window.

There is freud papers no reason to believe the edition essence spiritual theory is anna freud papers faulty, or to believe that thousands of different chemists could be so consistently wrong in the face of every conceivable test. Further, radiometric dates can be checked by other dating techniques. The Great Gatsby Essay Dream. When they are, the dates almost always agree within the range of expected error. In cases where the dates don’t agree, it’s always been found that some natural factor was present which selectively affected one or the other dating method being used. Creationists are forced to challenge radiometric dating because it stands as the anna freud most powerful and most damning evidence against their idea of a young Earth.

But in the end, they are reduced to saying that radiometric dating must be wrong, because we know it happened this way. And that is not a scientific position. If theory says it happened this way and evidence says it happened that way, theory must be revised to fit the essay writing job uk evidence. Creationists won’t do that. That reveals creation ‘science’ to be a sham, and not any kind of science at all. Information on the nature of atoms, half-lives, and types of anna freud radioactive decay was taken from ATOM : Journey Across the Subatomic Cosmos, by Isaac Asimov (c. Nightfall, Inc., 1991). Information on radiometric dating techniques comes from a variety of sources, including the Asimov book cited above, and these: PRINCIPLES OF ISOTOPE GEOLOGY, 2nd Ed. c. John Wiley Sons, 1986.

EARTH THEN AND NOW , 2nd Ed. Carla W. Montgomery and David Dathe. c. Wm C. Brown, Publishers, 1994. Scientific Creationism vs. Evolution: The Mislabeled Debate Kenneth R. Miller. Essay in essay SCIENCE AND CREATIONISM. Edited by Ashley Montagu.

c. Oxford Press, 1984. (This essay contains an excellent explanation of the rubidium-strontium isochron dating method.) GROLIER’S ACADEMIC AMERICAN ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1994 ed. Articles on Carbon-14, Radiometric Dating, and related subjects. Multimedia CD-ROM distributed by anna, Grolier Electronic Publishing.

Information on psy 101 midterm, creationist critiques of radiometric dating, and the flaws in those critiques, comes primarily from these sources: The Unreliability of Radiometric Dating Uploaded to CompuServe’s Dinosaur/Paleontology Forum Library 13 as JDATIN. Anna Papers. TXT. Evaluation of iowa writing summer program ICR Grand Canyon Research Project. This paper is available on the World Wide Web at the talk.origins FAQ Archive, File uploaded to CompuServe Religion Forum. (Note: Glenn Morton is an old-Earth creationist, not an evolutionist. I’m using him as a source because his criticisms of Woodmorappe’s claim are quite valid regardless of his personal position.) Information on the independent cross-checks for anna, radiometric dates comes mainly from these sources:

On the Hawaiian Islands chain: ‘The Evolution of the Pacific’ Heezen , Bruce and MacGregor , Ian. c. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Nov. 1973. Reprinted in CONTINENTS ADRIFT AND CONTINENTS AGROUND, Scientific American Press, 1976. On the Olduvai Event: LUCY ’S CHILD: The Discovery of a Human Ancestor.

Donald Johanson and James Shreeves. c. 1989, Wm Morrow and north essay Company, Inc. On the length of the year as shown by coral growth patterns: A TRIP THROUGH TIME: Principles of Historical Geology, 2nd Ed . John Cooper, Richard Miller, and Jacqueline Patterson. c. Merrill Publishing, 1990. A Calendar in the Coral, pp. 307-8.

These sources are supplemented by references in freud other books, numerous threads on several CompuServe forums, and other papers and articles downloaded from CompuServe and the World Wide Web.

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How to anna, delete a “blank page” in for essays, Word. Users often ask how to get rid of a blank page that is being printed at the end or in the middle of a document. Papers. How to approach this problem depends on whether or not the page is actually blank. A simple test will help you decide: Can you see the gatsby of the page? That is, in Print Layout view or Print Preview, does Word display the empty page? If so, it is not really “blank.” Read the next section to find out how to deal with it. Anna Freud. If the page is not displayed, even in and south differences essay, Print Preview, unless you’re displaying facing pages, then the page really is freud, “blank” and is being created by Word; see “True blank pages.” Important Note: If your problem document is a rsum based on a Microsoft template, skip immediately to edition essence spiritual, “Table at the end of the document.” “Blank” pages that aren’t really blank.

Except for freud papers, the blank even or odd pages that Word inserts as needed before an north and south Odd or Even Page break (see “True blank pages”), most “blank” pages aren’t really blank. If a page “prints,” it’s because there is something on it. Obviously, that something is invisible to the user. The first line of attack in diagnosing the freud problem is therefore to for essays, make it visible by displaying nonprinting characters. Word 2003 and earlier: Press Ctrl+* or click on the Show/Hide ¶ button on the Standard toolbar.

Figure 1a. The Show/Hide ¶ button on anna papers, the Standard toolbar. Word 2007 and above: Press Ctrl+* or click on iowa writing summer program, the Show/Hide ¶ button in the Paragraph group of the Home tab on the Ribbon. Figure 1b. The Show/Hide ¶ button on the Home tab. When you do this, you’ll suddenly see a lot of freud, markings that may be unfamiliar to you if you’ve never before displayed nonprinting characters (or “formatting marks”). You can get more information about them in the article “Word’s nonprinting formatting marks.” The one you want to concentrate on is the paragraph mark: ¶. Every time you see that mark, it indicates an empty paragraph. Delete all the iowa creative summer empty paragraphs and you’ll most likely get rid of your “blank page.” The following sections will explain a few situations in which deleting empty paragraphs will not work or will not suffice. Important Note: Users often believe that a header or footer is causing Word to print an otherwise blank page. The truth is papers, actually the reverse: the for essays presence of content is causing Word to generate an apparently empty page that has the default header or footer; get rid of papers, what is causing the north differences page, and the header/footer will vanish with it.

If your problem document is a rsum based on a Microsoft template, it will almost certainly be created using a (borderless) table. In Word 2007 and above, this is easy to anna papers, diagnose because, when you click anywhere in the document, the contextual Table Tools tab is added to the Ribbon. In earlier versions, you may have no such clue. To make the table easier to visualize and work with, you need to display the table gridlines (which show the word cell boundaries: Word 2003 and earlier: Click View Gridlines on the Table menu. Word 2007 and above: Click View Gridlines in the Table group on the Table Tools | Layout tab.

If there is a table at papers the very end of your document (of if, in the case of a rsum, the iowa whole document is a table), Word will insist on freud, having an empty paragraph after the iowa creative writing program table. You will not be able to delete this paragraph because the paragraph holds the formatting for the entire document (or the last section if there is anna, more than one). The end-of-table marker cannot hold this information because it contains information about the formatting of the table. If your table completely fills the “last” page, the empty paragraph will result in a “blank” page following it. Although you cannot remove this paragraph, you can make it disappear. One way to do this is to make it very small. Select the paragraph mark and format the the great essay of the american dream font size to 1 point.

You may need to make the paragraph line spacing 1 point as well. Usually this will make the paragraph small enough to fit on the previous page. If it does not, you will need to make the paragraph Hidden (see below). Anna Freud Papers. If you make the paragraph Hidden, it will not disappear until you again hide nonprinting characters (by pressing Ctrl+* or clicking the Show/Hide ¶ button). To format the paragraph mark (or any text) as Hidden, select it and press Ctrl+Shift+H ; sometimes this doesn't take for paragraph marks, so you will need to use one of these other methods: Word 2003 and earlier: Click Format on the Menu Bar, then Font ; then check the box for Hidden and click OK . Word 2007 and job uk above: Access the Font dialog by clicking the dialog launcher (small curved arrow) in the bottom right corner of the Font group on the Home tab. Check the box for Hidden and freud papers click OK . In any version, you will usually find Font… on word, the context menu if you right-click. Check the box for Hidden and click OK . Blank page in the middle of a document. If your blank page occurs in the middle of a document (and is not caused by an Odd/Even Page section break), there is a remote chance that it is caused by a plethora of empty paragraphs, but more often it is the result of a manual page break. Papers. This is one reason manual page breaks are discouraged: when formatting changes (either because of editing or because the midterm papers document is opened on a system using a different printer), the manual page break may immediately follow a natural page break, causing a blank page. Word 2003 and freud papers earlier: A manual page break is inserted using Ctrl+Enter or Insert | Break: Page break . Word 2007 and above: A manual page break is inserted using Ctrl+Enter or through the Breaks gallery in the Page Setup group on the Page Layout tab on the great essay american, the Ribbon.

In order to papers, see a representation of a manual page break, you must display nonprinting characters. In Word 2003 and earlier, the break is displayed as a dotted line across the page. Edition Five Second Spiritual. In Word 2007 and anna later, it is a shorter line. Figure 2a. How a manual page break is represented in Word 2003 and earlier. Figure 2b. How a manual page break is psy 101, represented in Word 2007 and above. Partially blank page in the middle of a document.

Sometimes the problem is not an entire page that is blank but just a large empty space at the bottom of a page that you can’t get Word to fill. If you don’t see a manual page break, the likelihood is that the page break is being caused by paragraph formatting. Whenever a page ends short for no apparent reason, examine the formatting of the paragraph(s) at the top of the following page to see whether “Page break before” or “Keep with next” is checked. Word 2003 and earlier: Go to Format | Paragraph and select the Line and Page Breaks tab. Word 2007 and freud above: Access the Paragraph dialog by clicking on essay of the, the dialog launcher arrow at the bottom right corner of the anna papers Paragraph group on essay writing job uk, the Home tab of the Ribbon and select the Line and Page Breaks tab. In any version, right-click in the paragraph and anna papers select Paragraph. from the context menu, then select the Line and Page Breaks tab. In any version, if either “Page break before” or “Keep with next” is checked, there will be a small square bullet in the margin next to the paragraph. The Great Gatsby Of The Dream. Double-click on freud, that to open the and south Paragraph dialog with the Line and freud Page Breaks tab selected. Figure 3. The Line and Page Breaks tab of the Paragraph dialog in Word 2010. Although “Page break before” or “Keep with next” formatting alone will not result in a blank page, it frequently accounts for a partially empty page and could result in a blank page if the “blank” page contains a single paragraph mark formatted as “Page break before,” followed by another “Page break before” paragraph on the next page. Does your document have more than one section?

You can find this out by pressing Ctrl+End (to go to the end of the the great document) and looking at the status bar. If the number following “Sec” or “Section” is greater than 1, you have more than one section. Anna Freud Papers. (In Word 2007 and above, the status bar does not display the section number by default; to see it, right-click on the status bar and choose Section from the menu.) When your document has more than one section, they are separated by section breaks. You can see the different kinds of section breaks as follows: Word 2003 and earlier: Click Insert | Break to open the Break dialog. Figure 4a. The Break dialog in Word 2003. Word 2007 and for essays above: Access the Breaks gallery from the Page Setup group on the Page Layout tab on the Ribbon. Figure 4b. The Breaks gallery in Word 2010.

A Continuous section break does not cause a page break. Papers. A Next Page break causes the following text to start a new page. An Odd Page break causes the following text to start a new odd page. If the text before the break ends on an odd page, Word will insert a blank even page between the two odd pages. Connection For Essays. This page is completely invisible to anna papers, the user (except in Print Preview with facing pages displayed) but will be “printed” by the printer.

Similarly, an Even Page break may cause Word to insert a blank odd page. Sometimes a Next Page break will be converted to an Odd Page break. This frequently happens when a landscape page appears on the back of a portrait one, or vice versa. The reason for this is that most printers really don’t like to print landscape; rotating text and connection for essays graphics is freud papers, apparently a more complex operation for them. It seems to be especially difficult for them to duplex (print both sides of) pages with different orientations. Word accommodates this reluctance by changing Next Page breaks to Odd Page so the printer can print the pages on writing, separate sheets. But you don’t have to put up with this laziness; you can make the freud printer shape up and psy 101 do what you want!

If you find that your Next Page break has morphed into an Odd Page break, don’t make the mistake of anna freud, trying to delete and reinsert it. This may result in loss of formatting and rarely accomplishes what you want. Instead, with the insertion point below the section break (in the section that begins with the wrong kind of break), go to the Layout tab of Page Setup : Word 2003 and earlier: Use File | Page Setup or double-click at being edition the top of the horizontal ruler. Anna Papers. Select the Layout tab. Word 2007 and above: Access the Page Setup dialog by connection word clicking the dialog launcher arrow at the bottom right corner of the anna freud papers Page Setup group on the Page Layout tab or double-click at the top of the horizontal ruler.

Select the Layout tab. Change the “Section start” back to “New page.” Figure 4. The Page Setup dialog showing the essence five spiritual Section start dropdown. Important Warning: Another situation in which Word may change a Next Page break to Odd Page can be much more insidious. If you are restarting numbering in anna freud, each section (so that the first page of each section is 1), and you have either Mirror margins or Different odd and even (headers and footers) enabled (or possibly even if you don't), Word will assume that you are intending to duplex the document and north and south essay will force an anna papers Odd Page break because it knows that page 1 is an iowa odd page, and it will insist that the odd page be printed on the front (recto) side of a sheet. What makes this situation particularly insidious is anna freud, that the the great american Layout tab of Page Setup may still show the break as New page, and the section break marker may still say Section Break (Next Page), but the anna papers next page will be a recto one, preceded by a blank verso (even) page if necessary. This can be especially difficult to iowa creative summer, troubleshoot if the document is one you did not create, even more so if the anna papers page number is not displayed (printed) on the page, so that you may not realize that numbering has been restarted. The most disastrous result of all this, however, is that, despite the fact that, in your view, the new section begins with page 1, Word considers that preceding blank page part of the papers new section, so if you try to use Page X of Y numbering in anna freud, that section, you will get a Y value that is one larger than the connection word for essays last page number; for example, in a section with pages numbered 1 to 6, you'll get Page 1 of 7, Page 2 of 7, all the anna freud papers way to Page 6 of 7 on the last page. Whether this is an argument against restarting numbering or against using Page X of Y or just against not trying to combine them with an Odd Page section start I leave it to you to being essay five, decide! Helpful Tip: You may well be using Odd Page breaks intentionally and want to be able to anna freud papers, see the blank pages that Word inserts.

These pages are never displayed in Print Layout view, but you can see them in writing, Print Preview if you have more than one page displayed. The problem is papers, that Word shows pages 1 and 2, then 3 and 4, and so on. If you are laying out a book and want to see true facing pages (1 alone, then 2 and the great gatsby american 3, and so on), these conditions must be met: You have enabled either “Mirror margins” (on the Margins tab of Page Setup ) or “Different odd and even” (on the Layout tab of Page Setup or in the Options group on the Header Footer Tools | Design tab in Word 2007 and above), and. You display two or more pages in Print Preview.

Although you can display multiple pages on the Print tab of the Backstage in Word 2010 and above (by reducing the Zoom), you may prefer the anna freud classic Print Preview, which can be accessed by psy 101 papers adding Print Preview Edit Mode to the Quick Access Toolbar. Blank pages not caused by Word at all. If you are getting a blank page at the end of every document you print and have exhausted all other explanations, check the freud printer Properties to see whether there is a “separator page” option that has been enabled. This article copyright © 2004, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2016 by Suzanne S. Barnhill.