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British Airways organizational structure. Figure: British Airways Organizational Structure British Airways has a unique organizational structure led by dissertation proposal, a general manager, who is answerable to the Board of Directors. Being a global company, the unisa electronic, British Airways has several branches across the globe. These branches are led by branch managers, who are in turn answerable to dissertation proposal expected results, the general manager. The branches are divided into a number of departments such as Settlement, Imports, Handing, Customer Service, Finance and Sales. British Airways General culture British Airways has been on the frontline in the creation of an history salutary neglect, all-inclusive culture among its employees. Dissertation Proposal? The culture env. Need essay sample on British Airways organizational structure ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $13.90/page. . isioned by dissertations, the airline is aimed at understanding and respecting individual differences among its employees. Expected? The airline has also embarked on a mission aimed at delivering services reflecting and responding to the various needs of the customers. The company has strived to papers, remain competitive by integrating diversity in all aspects of its services.
Since the airline operates globally, it has embarked on a venture aimed at attracting and retaining talented employees capable of reflecting on its customer base. The airline has employed a mixture of proposal, people from different backgrounds in order to boost innovation and potential new ideas. The airline’s strategy is driven via diversity champions who represent departments across the organization. Moreover, the are research papers italicized, airline has a culture where employee groups usually meet regularly with an aim of discussing various issues about dissertation expected results ethnicity, sexual orientation, flexible working, disability and religion. British Airways communicates its diversity issues to its employees through the company newspaper, diversity employee network, diversity forums, and are research papers italicized, the company’s corporate intranet site. Results? The airline also owns monthly newsletters titled ‘Religious Festivals and ‘Diverse Times’ that also help in the communication of diversity to the company’s employees.
British Airways has shown a lot of commitment towards customer satisfaction. Its high quality customer service has gone a long way in creating the company’s image. Although the are research papers, customer service department is presenting the entire airline’s branches, its employees are also trained to serve its customers in the best way possible. British airline’s management has been described as autocratic with very few people dominating the making of proposal expected, decisions that involve billions of pounds. For instance, the airline’s top executive Willie Walsh was once perceived as being at the centre of major decisions by unisa electronic, the company. Walsh’s leadership style has been described as autocratic and at the same time very charismatic. British Airways marketing features British Airways marketing is mainly through methods such as covert advertising, television commercials, infomercials, celebrity advertising, commercial advertising and proposal, newer media forms of advertising. The company’s marketing features mainly target the already existing and loyal customers. The company’s marketing strategies mainly target the up-market business class clients. Japan Pearl Harbor? The company therefore uses marketing media that are likely to reach this group of people. It forgets to use other forms of proposal expected, media that that can bring it other new clients.
The airline should start targeting a wider audience; it should also target the lower-end market since it may get some new clients from this market end. The company should also put more investment in the latest technology in management thesis, its marketing ventures. It should reduce its investment in the older forms of marketing in expected, favour of the newer forms. For instance, the Internet technology and the World Wide Web phenomenon should be given more attention than they are. This is the best way of reaching the new generation of clients, who are in their large numbers and ap us history essay, still growing.
Conclusion The paper analysed various aspects of two companies- Virgin Atlantic and dissertation proposal results, British Airways. From the PESTEL Analysis and SWOT Analysis of are research italicized, Virgin Atlantic Airways, many strengths and opportunities were discoveries alongside a few weaknesses and dissertation proposal, threats. After undertaking a primary research into Virgin Atlantic’s main competitor, British Airways, many opportunities were also discovered. The two companies generally have strong points with only a few areas in relationship, need of improvement. Expected? Virgin Atlantic seems more receptive to change than its competitor, British Airways. Branson, R (2006) Losing my Virginity The Autobiography, Virgin Books Limited, London Essen, Y (2007, May 30) Market report-British Airways soars on renewed takeover hopes, The Telegraph Kilbourne, J (2000) How Advertising Changes the Way We Think and photographic, Feel, Free Press. Korten, D (1995) When Corporations Rule the World, Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, California Leiss, W (1990) Social Communication in Advertising, Routledge Louw, E (2001) The Media and Cultural Production, Sage Publications, London Reeves, R (1961), Reality in dissertation, Advertising, New York: Alfred A. Comprehension Reading Strategy? Knopf, LCCN UK CAA (2006) 2006 UK Airline Statistics, retrieved from www. caa. Proposal Expected Results? co. Customer Relationship Banks? uk, on September 3, 2008 Virgin Atlantic (2009) Virgin Atlantic Airways – Company Overview, Virgin Atlantic Airways Williamson, J (1994) Decoding Advertisements, Marion Boyars Publishers Limited. Distinction between Microeconomics and Macroeconomics Distinction between microeconomics and Macroeconomics Microeconomics is the study of individual economic units of an proposal expected, economy whereas macroeconomics is the study of aggregates of an economy as a whole. For example, when we study of an individual sugar mill manufacturing sugar, our study is micro analysis but if we study #8230; Introduction Economic sociology is an customer, attempt by dissertation results, sociologists to redefine in sociological terms questions traditionally addressed by economists. It is thus also an answer to attempts by photographic assignments, economists to bring economic approaches in particular utility mastication and game theory to the analysis of social situations that are not obviously related to production or #8230; We are live streaming the Entrepreneur 360™ Conference.
Enjoy main-stage presentations, panel discussions and more. Final Exam Review Questions 1) A bill becomes a law by getting passed by both sides of congress and then getting approved by the president. 2)Civil- usually involve private disputes between persons or organizations Criminal- involve an action that is considered to be harmful to society as a whole 3) The three branches of proposal expected, government #8230;
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Research Assessment - Expected results
Guide to undergraduate dissertations in dissertation expected the social sciences. - qualitative or quantitative? Can my dissertation be entirely. The way you approach your question will have a profound effect upon essays attacked the way you construct your dissertation, so this section discusses the types of research you might undertake for your dissertation. Results? The use of literature and case studies is considered and the merits of primary research are debated and history neglect essay, advice is given on the use of existing research data. You may not be fond of expected statistics, but the potential relevance of a quantitative approach should be considered and similarly, the idea of qualitative analysis and conducting your own research may yield valuable data. Salutary Neglect? The possibilities of using quantitative and qualitative data are also discussed. What approach should I take - qualitative or quantitative? This video clip contains comments from the following academics:
Dr Iain Garner - Psychology Alan McGauley - Social Policy Shawna McCoy - Criminology Kevin Bonnett - Sociology. What approach should I take - qualitative or quantitative? Your approach, research design, and research question are all connected. 'Approach' means something more than the type of data you use €“ it refers to your overall orientation to research and the type of proposal expected results claims you will make for assignments, your study. Dissertations can be based on either quantitative or qualitative data, or on a combination of both. How you choose this may depend on your preferences and abilities, and the suitability of particular approaches to your topic. Dissertation Proposal Expected? You need to be able to justify why you have chosen to ap us history salutary essay, use such data. Quantitative data is particularly useful when you wish to discover how common particular forms of behaviour such as illegal drug use are for a particular age group. Qualitative data is particularly useful when you wish to expected results, find out why people engage in photographic assignments such behaviour.
Think about the Research Methods modules you have taken so far. Think about the different kinds of studies you have read for other modules. There is plenty of scope to use the approaches and methods that you are most comfortable with. You need to justify your approach and methods and to cite appropriate literature to help you do this. What if I want to find out about social trends, or the measurable effects of particular policies? You will probably want to use large datasets and dissertation, undertake quantitative data analysis, and you will be adopting a realist approach to the topic studied.
Quantitative dissertations are likely to be nearer to the lower end of the neglect, range of approved lengths for the dissertation (e.g. if the length is to be 5,000-8,000 words, dissertations based on quantitative analysis are likely to dissertation proposal, be closer to 5,000 words in length). They will also include tables and figures giving your important findings. Remember that all tables must be carefully titled and labelled and that sources of your data must be acknowledged. What if I want to record people's views on an issue, and give them a 'voice'? You will probably want to use in-depth qualitative data, and strategy thesis, you may wish to adopt a realist, a phenomenologist, or a constructionist approach to the topic. Qualitative dissertations will include descriptive material, usually extracts from interviews, conversations, documents or field notes, and are therefore likely to be nearer to the upper limit of your word range (e.g. 8,000 words). The types of method suitable for a dissertation could include content analysis, a small scale ethnographic study, small scale in-depth qualitative interviewing. Whether you choose qualitative or quantitative analysis will depend on dissertation proposal several things: Your preferred philosophical approach (realist, phenomenologist or constructionist). On Why Japan Pearl? Your skills and abilities with methods of data collection (if needed) and analysis.
The topic or issue you are interested in. How you frame your research question. Can I combine qualitative and quantitative methods? There are many ways in which qualitative and quantitative data and analysis can be combined. Here are two examples. You may be interested in doing an analysis that is primarily quantitative, looking at dissertation social trends, or policy implications. However you also want to introduce a 'human touch' by customer relationship management conducting one or several interviews asking what these trends mean to people or how particular individuals experience events.
After doing your quantitative analysis, you should include a chapter or section on dissertation expected results the qualitative data you have collected. In your discussion of on why attacked findings you can use the qualitative data to help you understand the patterns in the quantitative analysis. You may be interested in doing an evaluative case study of a process or policy. You will have a particular focus €“ a 'case' that you are looking at. You will triangulate methods €“ i.e. collect data in several different ways, and proposal expected results, some of these data may be quantitative. You will analyse each type of data and describe this, and then write a discussion that shows how each piece of analysis contributes to the overall picture of what is going on. Your supervisor or research methods tutor may be able to give you detailed examples of these or other ways to are research italicized, combine methods.
Can my dissertation be entirely literature-based? Yes. If you decide to dissertation results, do a primarily theoretical dissertation, it is unisa electronic dissertations almost certain that your dissertation will be entirely literature-based. This is likely to dissertation expected results, be the unisa, methodology of theoretical analysis: selection and discussion of theoretical material and descriptive material, in context, and detailed comparison of theories in proposal expected terms of their applicability. You might ask how useful certain concepts or theories are for understanding particular patterns of essays on why japan attacked behaviour. How useful is the concept of institutional racism? Is objectivity in the media possible? How useful is dissertation proposal subcultural theory for customer banks, understanding virtual communities? Here, the focus of attention is not so much to discover something about the social world, for example virtual communities, as to dissertation proposal expected results, reach a judgement about the value of key concepts or theories in understanding that world. How the study is approached and essays, how contrasting approaches are drawn upon needs to be stated very clearly.
A library-based or theoretical study is not necessarily 'easier' than an proposal expected results empirical study, indeed, it may well be harder. Remember that theoretical studies, like data-based studies, need to have their research design spelled out from the start. But even if your dissertation is more empirically focused, it could still be entirely literature-based. You might choose to conduct a review of a field of work. What does the research literature in relationship management thesis this field tell us about x? While all dissertations will include a literature review, it is possible to produce a dissertation that is entirely based on a review of the literature. If you do this, it is dissertation important to review the literature from an explicit angle and identify some themes to make the review distinctive. You might, for example, explore empirical debates in your chosen field across different countries or time periods. Whilst it is photographic possible for dissertations to be entirely literature-based, the most common form of dissertation takes the form of a case study.
Here the focus of attention is on a particular community, organisation or set of documents. The attraction of this kind of proposal expected results dissertation is that it stems from empirical curiosity but is at the same time practical. You may be interested in photographic a wider question but a case study enables you to focus on results a specific example. A major challenge in electronic dissertations case study dissertations is dissertation proposal expected results connecting your own primary research or re-analysis with the assignments, broader theoretical themes and empirical concerns of the existing literature. Most dissertations demand either primary or secondary research.
In other words, you usually have to analyse data that you have either collected yourself or data that is already available. The reason for this is that the dissertation proposal results, questions dissertations usually address take the following form: Is x happening? Is x changing? Why is x happening? Why is x changing? These questions demand primary or secondary analysis of data. Case Study 9 Think hard before you decide to undertake empirical research: a student's view. Secondary analysis is when you analyse data which was collected by another researcher. It allows the researcher to explore areas of essays japan attacked pearl interest without having to go through the process of collecting data themselves in the field. The problem with using fieldwork methods in an undergraduate dissertation, however, is that they are costly in terms of time (which is relatively scarce in your final year!) and possibly your own financial resources too. You may choose, therefore, to dissertation proposal, undertake secondary research, analysing existing data.
Where do I find existing research data? There are a range of documents that already contain research data that you can analyse. You may, for example, be interested in exploring whether gender stereotypes in the media are changing. This might entail content analysis of newspapers, magazines, video or other media over different time periods. Here you would not be collecting your own data but instead would be analysing existing documents. If you are interested, for example, in doing historical research, you may need to visit archives. Government reports and autobiographies may also be used as data. Other documents include official statistics, datasets (statistical data), and banks of interview transcripts which are all freely available to unisa, the academic community. Proposal Expected? Increasingly, documents, databases and archives are readily accessible online.
Research Methods tutors on pearl your course will be able to dissertation expected, advise on the availability and accessibility of such data sets. There are some advantages of doing secondary analysis, particularly if you are doing a quantitative study. You will be able to comprehension thesis, work with much larger datasets than you could have collected yourself. This has the proposal expected results, following advantages: They allow you to discuss trends and social changes. The data are often collected through a random sample, which allows you to generalise to assignments, the population under consideration. They may also allow you to make comparisons over time, as some datasets are products of longitudinal studies.
Examples of large datasets include the British Crime Survey, and the Youth Cohort Study. Smaller, more targeted datasets may also be available. Secondary analysis has disadvantages also: the data were collected for a purpose different from yours. Proposal Expected Results? You have to find out something about that purpose, as well as the methods of collection, in order to justify your use of a secondary dataset. Collecting you own data - primary research. Quantitative data may also result from non-participant observations or other measurements (e.g. in ap us history salutary neglect an experimental design). Also, sometimes data that are collected through qualitative processes (participant observation, interviews) are coded and quantified. Your research methods tutor can give you further information on expected these types of data, but here are some common quantitative data collection methods and their definitions: A series of questions that the respondent answers on their own. Banks? Self-completion questionnaires are good for collecting data on relatively simple topics, and for dissertation expected results, gaining a general overview of an issue. Assignments? Questionnaires need to proposal, have clear questions, an easy to follow design, and not be too long.
Similar to a self-completion questionnaire, except that the are research italicized, questions that are asked by an interviewer to the interviewee. Dissertation Expected? The same questions are read out in the same way to all respondents. There will typically be a fixed choice of answers for the respondents. Watching people and recording systematically their behaviour. Prior to history salutary essay, the observation, an dissertation observation schedule will be produced which details what exactly the researcher should look for and how those observations should be recorded. If you are conducting a qualitative analysis you are likely to wish to use at least some original material. This may be collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation recordings and electronic, fieldnotes, non-participant observation, or some combination of results these.
Below are some data collection methods that you might want to assignments, use for your dissertation: A way of dissertation proposal results asking questions which allows the interviewee to have more control of the interview. The interview could be semi-structured, which uses an interview schedule to keep some control of the interview, but also allows for some flexibility in terms of the salutary neglect essay, interviewee€™s responses. Dissertation Proposal? The interview could be unstructured, here the aim is to explore the interviewee€™s feelings about the issue being explored and the style of questioning is reading thesis very informal. Or the interview could be a life history where the interviewer tries to find out about the whole life, or a portion of the person€™s life.
A form of interviewing where there are several participants; there is an emphasis in the questioning on dissertation proposal a tightly defined topic; the accent is on interaction within the group and the joint construction of meaning. The moderator tries to unisa electronic, provide a relatively free rein to the discussion. This involves studying people in dissertation results naturally occurring settings. The researcher participates directly in the setting and collects data in a systematic manner. The researcher will observe behaviour, listen to conversations, and ask questions. Spend some time looking at general books about papers research - they will give you an expected results overview of the data collection methods available and help you to make the best choice for customer management, your project. Bryman (2004) would be a useful starting point. For any piece of research you conduct, be it empirically based (quantitative or qualitative) or library based, its methods must be justified. You need to show in the final dissertation how you have given consideration to different methods, and why you have chosen and eliminated these.
STUDENT VOICE: Findings from our research. Your supervisor will want you to offer convincing reasons as to why you€™ve chosen the approach you have - so be ready! If you€™re having difficulty making that choice, don€™t be afraid to dissertation, ask your supervisor for their advice. This was particularly useful for one of our respondents: Note: Research must be conducted in a sensible and ethical manner; data must be analysed and presented in a rational manner. It is important that students do not expose themselves or others to customer relationship thesis, dangers or risks when conducting research. Students need the approval of their dissertation supervisor before embarking on any type of dissertation proposal expected fieldwork (see the unisa dissertations, section on Research Ethics for more information). Will my research be inductive or deductive?
In general, deductive research is expected theory-testing and inductive research is theory-generating. Often people link deductive research with quantitative experiments or surveys, and unisa electronic, inductive research with qualitative interviews or ethnographic work. These links are not hard and fast €“ for instance, experimental research, designed to test a particular theory through developing a hypothesis and creating an proposal experimental design, may use quantitative or qualitative data or a combination. If your research starts with a theory and is driven by hypotheses that you are testing (e.g. that social class background and social deprivation or privilege are likely to affect educational attainment), it is, broadly speaking, deductive. However much research combines deductive and essays japan pearl harbor, inductive elements. What's all this about research design? Research design is vital to conducting a good piece of work. At the start of your research you need to results, set down clearly: Your research focus and photographic, research question . Expected? How you propose to reading strategy, examine the topic: approach methods of data collection methods of expected results data analysis The types and sources of japan harbor information you need. How you will access these sources of dissertation information (be they people, existing datasets, biographical accounts, media articles or websites, official records). The proposed outcome of this research (in your case, a dissertation) and history salutary, the form it will take.
A time-frame for all this. You and your supervisor will discuss your design and decide whether the research is 'do-able'. Your university may require you to produce a report (e.g. an 'interim framework report' or a short 'research proposal') that specifies your research design. Dissertation? Other people may have to look at the design to ascertain whether there are ethical issues that affect your research. Quantitative or qualitative?
A quantitative approach will mean you will need substantial datasets, as well as the inclusion of tables and customer relationship management, statistics in your final submission. This information could come from a variety of sources - remember to acknowledge them! A qualitative approach will probably mean conducting interviews or focus groups or observing behaviour. Ask yourself if you are prepared to results, do this, and italicized, think about the best way of getting the answers you want from dissertation proposal results people. Papers? Will you stop people in the street? Will you conduct telephone interviews? Will you send out survey forms and hope that people return them? Will you be a participant or non participant observer? Deductive or inductive? Deductive research is theory-testing, which is often linked to datasets, surveys or quantitative analysis.
Inductive research is theory-generating, and is often linked to qualitative interviews. Empirical or theoretical? An empirical study could involve close analysis of statistics or some form of qualitative research. However, a theoretical study brings its own challenges, and you may be called upon to compare theories in dissertation results terms of their applicability. Essays On Why Attacked? Once you have decided upon expected results your approach, you can write out a research design, i.e. how you are going to approach the project.
Now look a little at ap us neglect essay the research methods that you have studied. Dissertation Proposal Results? Apart from matching your research to your general sense of objective/subjective reality, it is assignments important to ensure that you match your methodology to the problem you are pursuing. What kind of data do you need to answer your question/test your hypothesis? How would you best be able to collect that data? Again, consider time and feasibility of the exercise. The ability to manage your time will be directly related to your ability to control the boundaries of the study €“ especially if it is closely linked to your workplace.
Now that you have got so far, try to dissertation proposal expected results, write up your research proposal as far as you can. History Essay? Make sure that you identify where your proposal needs further work and, at proposal expected the same time, where you will have to put your maximum effort. It may be helpful to draw a critical path so that you are clear which actions you need to take and in what sequence. You will find it helpful to plot your research questions on the chart on the next page and ensure that your plans for collecting data really answer the question as well as avoiding ethical problems. Customer Management Banks Thesis? At this stage you must be really ruthless with yourself.
How viable is it? What are the dissertation expected results, threats to the study? Try some 'what if?' questions on yourself. It will be better to go back to the drawing board now, than once the project is underway. Management? IMPORTANT : Whatever approach you settle on, you MUST be able to proposal, justify its appropriateness to your topic and question. Does the data required to answer your question already exist or will you have to generate your own data? Can you combine quantitative with qualitative methods? e.g. a survey which includes interviews or a case study that looks at a situation from comprehension numerous angles. Dissertation Results? What factors may limit the scope of relationship management banks thesis your research? (time, resources, etc.) Which method(s) best suit the questions and time you have available to do this study?
Do you know the differences between types of data, and types of analysis? Does your project have clear links between theory and practice? BRYMAN, A. (2004). Social Research Method . 2nd ed., Oxford, Oxford University Press. CRESWELL, J. (2002). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and dissertation results, Mixed Methods Approaches . 2nd ed., London, Sage. SEALE, C.(2006). Researching society and electronic, culture . London, Sage.
Here are some references for specific methods: ARKSEY, H and KNIGHT, P. (1999). Interviewing for social scientists: an introductory resource . London, Sage. DALE, A.; ARBER, S.; AND PROCTOR, M.(1998). Doing Secondary Analysis . London, Allen and Unwin.
HAMMERSLEY, M. and ATKINSON, P. (1995). Ethnography: Principles in proposal Practice . London, Routledge. OPPENHEIM, A. N. (1992). Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement . London, Pinter. Identifying a research topic:
A template for structured observation: A site devoted to survey design: A chapter on comprehension reading strategy thesis structured interviewing: A chapter on qualitative interviewing: An introduction to ethnographic research:
Materials for focus group interviews: 1. © Professor Chris Winch, Dr Malcolm Todd, Ian Baker, Dr Jenny Blain, Dr Karen Smith. © This resource has been developed in dissertation partnership by the Higher Education Academy and Sheffield Hallam University.
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Research Assessment - Expected results
Telecommuting: A Research Paper Essay Sample. Telecommuting is generally thought to refer to the completion of paid work in the home, although no standardized definition exists. The term is a well-known concept coined by Jack Nilles in 1973 (Jackson and Van Der Wielen, 1998, p. 22), defined by Cross and Raizman (1986, p. 3f) as ‘performing job-related work at a site away from the office, then electronically transferring the results to the office or to another location’. It reflects ‘periodic work out dissertation proposal results, of the principal office, one or more days per week either at home, a client’s site, or in a telework center…[via] the are research papers italicized partial or total substitution of telecommunications technologies…for the commute to work’ (cited in Vega, 2003, p. 4). Huws et al. suggest that an adequate definition should include three variables: the location of work; the use of electronic equipment; and the existence of a communications link to the employer or contractor, which, for the intention of making a coherent introduction, should be adopted by this paper. According to the latter, telecommuting is work, ‘the location of which is independent of the location of the employer or contractor and can be changed according to the wishes of the individual teleworker and/or the organization for results which he or she is working. It is work which relies primarily or to a large extent on the use of electronic equipment, the comprehension strategy thesis results of which work are communicated remotely to the employer or contractor. The remote communications link need not be a direct telecommunications link but could include the use of mail or courier services’ (cited in Avery and Zabel 2001, p. 10). For the dissertation purposes of this research paper, teleworking and telecommuting will be used interchangeably, as they have been found to be defined by are research papers, many as literally the same.
In this nine-page document, the human and economic costs and benefits of the physical travel to and from work were compared with the costs and benefits of staying at proposal, home and using a telecommunications link to communicate with the unisa dissertations employer will be discussed. The telecommuting literature suggests the following as potential benefits and expected, disadvantages of telecommuting – each item is discussed with a view to its applicability to the employee undertaking such work nature, assuming that some form of information and communications technology will be used to aid the individual in the associated tasks. These benefits and disadvantages involve issues that impact on different stakeholders, including, but not limited to the employees themselves, the employees’ families, and the respective organizations that they work for. It can be seen that teleworkers’ experiences can provide a unique challenge to traditional definitions of history, work. Both the women and men teleworkers that has been interviewed in studies done about telecommuting mention multiple reasons for wanting to work at home; most often, however, they say that they want to increase work productivity. Two central principles through which teleworkers organize their paid work activities and distinguish these activities from proposal expected their non-work are that they plan and exercise control over their work, and that they evaluate their work in terms of are research papers italicized, measurable work output (Jackson and Van Der Wielen, 1998). Likewise, the dissertation results lack of need for social interaction with co-employees in essays on why japan attacked pearl, the workplace is seen as the only way one can really achieve productivity enlargements, by having people work longer and or by doing less chit-chat. For companies, the social-economic factors driving the implementation of dissertation, telework has been the reading strategy adopted strategy in an effort to save office space, reduce real estate costs, overhead, and relocation costs, and have already been well documented in the telecommuting literature. Since telecommuters perform job-related work at a site away from the dissertation results office, telework has been promoted based on the notion that it is neglect essay technologically feasible and economically desirable to expected reduce office space. Likewise, the ability to reduce real estate costs can be a real incentive to companies located in high-rent cities, especially major European cities (Mahlon, 1998). The savings on overheads comes obviously, as employees do not have such high company expenses to carry on their duties and responsibilities.
Telecommuting is being used as a tool to recruit and retain highly skilled workers, especially information-technology workers. In a 1999 interview Nilles reported that the primary reason his clients developed telecommuting initiatives was to improve the recruitment and retention of workers (Ellison, 2004). It also gives companies the ability to relationship hire the best candidate for a job, regardless of where the company or employee is located. Dissertation! This can be a real advantage for small companies that might otherwise have difficulty recruiting talented workers. Telecommuting can also help small firms enlist the help of experienced professionals on a contractual basis. Moreover, higher skilled workers can market their talents in a worldwide labor market as freelance talent or within multinational organizations with telecommuting as a work vehicle. Telecommuting has been found to also reduce absenteeism. Teleworkers, without the hassle of going through the motions of preparing for work and actually taking on the road to go to work, has the tendency to perform all job-related work with better ease, and thus decrease the chances of missing a day at work. Since employees are able to care for their families while actually earning for a living, it increases their interest to work for the organization that has provided them with such an opportunity, thereby not only lessening the instances of absenteeism, but increasing employee loyalty as well (Olson and Primps, 1990).
Further, reasons that may keep an employee home, for instance mild personal illness or inclement weather, may not have any impact if there is no commute. In addition to the four aforementioned benefits, telecommuting also broadens the labor pool, since companies can attract a wider range of employees, including disabled workers, older workers and mothers who cannot leave their children at home who would benefit from such alternative arrangements (Bredin, 1996). Additionally, people who do not want to essays japan attacked work in large urban areas where most of today’s organizations are located can be included in the pool of dissertation proposal, workforce available with the advent of telecommuting, as there is no need to go to the actual place of reading, work with this type of arrangement. The last two decades have seen the steady realization of teleworking ideas in the world of expected, work. Bredin (1996) noted that in the 1970s, at the time when Nilles introduced the notion of telecommuting, research was aimed at giving public policy-makers technology-supported solutions for several societal problems, such as urban crowding, energy shortages, transportation congestion, environmental pollution and the peripheralization of economic regions. Unisa! The main idea here was that geographical dispersion of the labor force from central business districts would significantly decrease the number of dissertation proposal expected results, daily commuters, with IT used to neglect bridge distances because in traveling to work, they take part in additional networks, which involve a heterogeneous association of vehicles, travel fares, energy consumption and environmental damage (noise, pollutants, etc.). Expected! Teleworking could also result in photographic assignments, decreasing computer production and problems with the disposal of dissertation expected results, toxic material or from radiation through wireless telephone and japan pearl, mobile radio communication. One of the major concerns with telecommuting is that remote workers will feel lonely and isolated, especially those workers who like the expected results social aspects of the salutary essay workplace. Telework is often associated with isolation (both expected and actual) and this has been a key factor in the limited adoption of distributed work (Forester, 1989). The following sections are aspects of this social isolation which the teleworker is said to be disadvantaged against.
One activity teleworkers consistently excluded from the definition of work is dissertation expected social interaction at the office. Traditional office workers meet social needs at the office through informal channels, which may not be available to essays on why japan harbor those off-site. Dissertation Proposal Expected! Informal channels of communication—which are associated with proximity—are important for sharing organizational norms, for socializing new employees, and for encouraging collaboration (Avery and Zabel, 2001). Although computer-mediated communication can pose for strategy a semblance of social interaction, it is dissertation proposal expected results unlikely that it will ever completely replace face-to-face interaction for all social and task-related communication in the office environment. The same qualities that make it more appropriate for some types of management thesis, communication also make it less desirable for other purposes. Dissertation Proposal! Also, working at home blurs roles for reading strategy the telecommuters’ family as well.
Children, spouses, neighbors, and even pets may find it difficult to know when the telecommuter is available for dissertation proposal results family-related interaction versus when they are working. Thus social interaction in the context of the family is affected negatively as well. The effects of telework on organizational identification (which speaks to an employee’s level of commitment and attachment to the organization) are also taken down in literature. It is generally assumed that telework reduces organizational commitment since off-site employees are less likely to come into contact with organizational symbols and messages, an assumption supported by some research (Olson and Primps, 1990). As other authors have noted, organizations typically express and reflect organizational norms through physical aspects of the organization. Physical artifacts—like decorations and awards, furniture, and office size—serve to maintain organizational culture by strengthening organizational identification (Mahlon, 1998) and by customer relationship management thesis, indicating employee status and hierarchy. These visual communication devices are unavailable to dissertation expected results teleworkers, who may not spend time in essays on why japan, a centralized office. From the teleworker’s perspective, conformity, acceptance of organizational norms and customs, and predictability are rewarded in bureaucracies, and it is more difficult to demonstrate these qualities while working at home. Managers have consistently expressed concern over dissertation results the difficulty of managing remote workers and fear that key staff will not always be available as a result of remote work. Ellison (2004) asserted in a finding that a high level of telecommuting involvement may result in a lower participation due to physical absence, which in turn hinders their chances of promotion. Management Banks Thesis! Employees who like to work in a team or at least with others will find that teleworking will not provide them with the maximized ability to do so, and as such feelings of being left out or isolation from the rest of the organization (especially if the firm does not wholly operate on telecommuting) may potentially surface.
In addition to missing out on proposal ‘face time’ with supervisors, teleworkers may miss out on other career development opportunities, such as informal networks and mentoring and comprehension, the stimulation of sharing ideas with coworkers on a team (Vega, 2003). It is impractical that telecommuters become a part of a team, mainly due to the difficulty of coordinating work groups and teams. Thus, a teleworker is left out of the list of options when forming a team within the organization. Although the viability of proposal results, working with a team is still present, the unisa electronic chances that the telecommuter is dissertation proposal expected involved in all of the essential team activities are slimmer than that of the traditional office worker, for purposes of distance to the actual working place of the team. Since the notion of ‘office hours’ is are research italicized absent and since the worksite is highly convenient in telecommuting, the propensity to overwork is present, with others having a tendency to put in proposal results, too many hours since the line between work and photographic assignments, home blurs. Avery and Zabel (2001) argue that this is especially true for dissertation expected results workaholics, since in essays attacked, a sense they never leave work – it is always there, in the home office, nagging, while may ultimately lead to stress and eventually, burnout.
There are also findings that teleworkers’ sense of overwork is linked to feelings of pressure on the job, to feeling that they often have difficulty focusing on their work. Olson and Primps (1990) found that most telecommuters believed that their career advancement had been hindered due to decreased visibility. Especially for those who seek career advancement in the organization, this invisibility factor would not help much in their goal. Dissertation Expected! Since their physical presence is found wanting in the organization, most managers and supervisors are unable to essays harbor effectively and objectively judge their activities, thus the proposal expected results tendency to have a lower performance rating than those who work on-site, or even telecommuters who work in the traditional workplace from time to time. Cross and essays on why attacked pearl, Raizman (1986) noted that although teleworking has ways of communicating with their co-employees or superiors, the importance of face-to-face communication cannot be overemphasized.
Most misunderstandings occur when communication is facilitated through the Internet, as the context of communication is imperceptible to both the sender and the receiver. Likewise, there are still some forms of messages that cannot be effectively transmitted through technology-enabled applications such as instant messengers. Expected Results! Further, teleworking requires more communication between employee and superior, as replacement for close supervision that is present in an otherwise traditional working environment. Teleworkers who work off-site may find it difficult to re-create some of the salutary neglect social bonds from afar, although instant messaging—a synchronous technology around which informal communication norms have developed—appears to be promising in this respect (Forester, 1989). Being detached from the social scene for dissertation expected results even a while with nothing but the computer as everyday companion can sufficiently alienate a person from the real world and lead to the individual’s difficulty in getting back on the social track once opportunity presents itself. The last two issues are technology and security . Telecommuting that relied on the remote access to company files, while technically feasible, is cautioned against. Additionally, where such cases needed investment in equipment to support homework (especially where this only ap us history salutary neglect, occurred occasionally, with staff also needing office facilities) the likely costs involved were thought to outweigh the advantages.
This was hardly surprising, of course, given that the principal rationales for teleworking are issues of dissertation expected, productivity and flexibility, not savings in fixed resources. Benefits of on-site working which included: the availability of existing resources such as computers, photocopiers, faxes and furniture – much of which could be shared, especially between different shifts, are not accessible to telecommuters (Vega, 2003). In addition, while central workplaces provided for the maintenance of confidentiality and security and the fact that they also allowed for ap us history neglect the enclosure and surveillance of workers also meant that teleworkers are disadvantaged with regards to these aspects. Two conclusions have been reached by this paper. One, telecommuting is not for proposal expected results everyone. Two, telecommuting must be an integral part of any organization’s management strategy in are research italicized, the twenty-first century to reduce costs and address growing concerns of work and family life.
The first conclusion reached implies that due to the given advantages and disadvantages in expected, this paper, the nature of the business and the individual needs and capacities of employees depend on whether to ap us salutary neglect implement such program within the organization. It is important to dissertation look at job requirements and individual behavior first before determining whether a job or an individual is suitable for teleworking. New employees, particularly, are not the best prospects for telecommuting, since it is important for papers italicized employees working away from the principal office to have a good knowledge of their job. Without the five skills essential for the successful virtual worker including time management, the ability to expected results handle challenges, the ability to handle distractions, the ability to reading manage business support relationships, and the ability to balance work with non-work obligations as identified by Bredin (1996), the disadvantages mentioned in expected results, this research cannot be overcome. There is a practical side to telecommuting that has to thesis be anticipated and planned for as part of the organization’s management strategy in order to achieve some measure of success. Efficient telecommuting depends upon management of a number of human factors in tandem with the technical aspects of working from a remote site.
The very real problems of dissertation proposal results, handling distractions, coping with isolation, and avoiding overwork and burnout must be expected and treated with the same attention as the selection of essays japan attacked harbor, appropriate office equipment, software, and dissertation proposal, mastery of technical skills. The most important technical decisions faced by companies are related to network capabilities and data transmission. Most internal and external communication within organizations depends upon efficient use of the Internet as well as intranets. The pace of change in this area is staggering, but taking advantage of new technology as it becomes generally available is crucial to economic survival. Avery, C. Zabel, D. (2001). The Flexible Workplace: A Sourcebook of Information and Research . Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books. Bredin A. (1996).
The Virtual Office Survival Handbook . Unisa Electronic! New York: Wiley. Cross, T. Raizman, M. (1986) The Future Technology of Work. Expected Results! Homewood, Illinois: Dow Jones-Irwin. Photographic! Ellison, N. (2004). Telework and Social Change: How Technology is Reshaping the Boundaries between Home and Work. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.
Forester, T. Proposal Results! (1989). Computers in the Human Context, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. Jackson, P. Van Der Wielen, J. (1998). Customer Banks Thesis! Teleworking: International Perspectives from Telecommuting to the Virtual Organization . London: Routledge. Mahlon A. (1998). ‘The Alternative Workplace: Changing Where and How People Work’, Harvard Business Review, 76, no. Results! 3, pp. Management Banks Thesis! 121-130. Olson, M. Primps, S. Dissertation Proposal Results! (1990). Working at Home with Computers. In M Ermann, M. Williams, C. Gutierrez (Eds.), Computers, Ethics and reading strategy thesis, Society . New York: Oxford University Press. Vega, G. (2003).
Managing Teleworkers and Telecommuting Strategies . Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Telecommuting: A Research Paper. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!
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Writing the Thesis/Dissertation Proposal: Science, Technology
An Editor#39;s Guide to Perfecting Your Resume. Adrian Granzella Larssen. You know that you should edit your resume before you send it off in the world, making sure it’s error-free. But to proposal expected make sure that resume is in the best possible shape? You should really take the papers editing process a few steps further. Here’s the dissertation expected results thing: Editing is more than just giving something a once-over to eliminate egregious typos and papers grammar mistakes. It’s really about proposal expected results, looking at something with a critical eye, then making changes to ap us salutary essay ensure it’s the best it can possibly be.
And that’s what you want for your resume, right? From someone who edits all day, every day for a living, here’s a five-step editing plan that will take your resume from dissertation proposal expected, good to full-blown awesome (and—of course—eliminate the assignments typos, too). When I look at an article for the first time, I have to resist the urge to fix typos or make style changes (and believe me, as an editor, it’s hard). But it’s important—the first thing I need to determine is whether the expected results piece is working as a whole. Is this right for our publication?
Is the message of the article the relationship banks one we want to send? Are there any major gaps or sections that are superfluous? On that first read of results, your resume, try to do the comprehension reading thesis same thing. Proposal? Ignore typos or formatting issues, and think about the overall message your resume is sending : Does this sell you as the perfect candidate for the types of roles you’re seeking? Are there any gaps between the experience on the page and the experience required for the job? If so, are there ways in relationship banks thesis, which you could bridge those gaps ? What makes your experience stand out among other, similar candidates? Does the dissertation proposal expected results top third of your resume serve as a hook to get the hiring manager to read more? Is there anything on your resume that doesn’t need to be there? Pro Tip: Look at the LinkedIn profiles of people at your level in your field, and see how they tell their stories. Which ones are most compelling or stand out the most?
See what you can learn from them and how you can apply those lessons to your own resume. Step 2: Scrutinize the essays japan attacked harbor Bullets and Details. Dissertation Proposal? As editors, we ask constantly ask ourselves if each word is the photographic assignments best one, if a sentence structure is right, if there’s anything that could be said more clearly, effectively, or quickly. And oh, do we add examples! Why say something if you can show it? It makes for better writing and a more interesting read. Walk through your resume again. Proposal Expected? Your job at comprehension, this point is to look at every section, every sentence, and expected every word, and determine if there’s a better way to get your point across. For each bullet point, ask: Is this the strongest possible language you could use?
Can anything be said more clearly? Or in essays, fewer words? Is there any language that someone outside of your company or industry wouldn’t understand? Could anything benefit from examples? Can anything be quantified? Can you show a benefit ? Are any words used over and over? Can they be replaced with more creative language? Pro Tip: Have a friend who’s not in your field read your bullet points, and ask what he or she thinks your strongest achievements are.
Do you agree? If not, adjust so the most important ones really stand out. Dissertation Expected Results? Every so often, I’ll edit what I think is a great, well-written article—and realize suddenly that one of the source’s names is spelled wrong. I’ll take a closer look and unisa see that—wait—a book title is incorrect, research numbers are not quite right, and that other “facts” in the article need a second look. It’s a good idea to do this for your resume, too. It can happen even with the right intentions—I, for example, recently realized that my resume said “3 million” on a figure that most certainly should have been 1 million. Whoops. Dissertation Proposal Expected Results? Read every word on your resume again, this time asking yourself: Are the companies you worked for named the same thing? Still located in the same city? Are your position titles accurate?
Are your employment dates correct? Are all of the essays japan numbers and percentages you use to describe increases, quotas, budgets, savings, and achievements (reasonably) accurate? Pro Tip: In the editorial world, we have to make sure every number we print is 100% accurate, but you have a bit more leeway with your resume. As long as you’re reasonably sure that you increased customer satisfaction, fundraising numbers, or sales 25%, don’t worry about proposal, having the “official” numbers to prove it. Management Banks? As I well know, you can work intently on a document for three hours and somehow not notice that you’ve used “their” instead of “there” or mistaken “bran” for “brand.” So, proofreading one last time is a step you can’t skip. Proposal Expected? I do recommend having someone else look your resume over (even us editorial word nerds hire proofreaders). Photographic Assignments? But before you do, proof word by word, asking yourself: Are there any typos? Wrong word usage?
Does each bullet point end with a period (or not)? Either is fine, just be consistent. Are you using the serial comma (or not) throughout? Pro Tip: When proofreading, it’s helpful to temporarily change the font, or to read your resume from the bottom up—your eyes get used to proposal expected results reading a page one way, and can often catch new errors when you mix the format up. When I worked for a print magazine, I’d often submit what I thought was a perfect final draft of an unisa, article—until I’d get a proof from dissertation proposal, our designer. More often than not, my masterpiece would need some adjustments to customer relationship banks thesis look right on proposal results the page: shortening the copy so that it didn’t require a miniature-sized font, or lengthening a paragraph so that one word didn’t hang over on a line by itself, for example. Because part of great writing is making it look great, too. Papers Italicized? While you don’t have to send your resume off to a graphic designer, do keep in results, mind that presentation is dissertations important, and that a few adjustments to your text can make a big difference in dissertation proposal results, how it looks. Japan Attacked Pearl? Give it a final once-over with a designer’s eye, considering: Does the page look visually appealing? Is the page overly cluttered? Is the expected results font size too small?
Is it difficult to assignments read? Is the font size and format for each section consistent? Does the proposal results layout make sense? Is your contact information easily findable? Pro Tip: Make your document easier to skim by adding divider lines between sections. Check out customer management banks, section three of this great guide to dissertation expected results resume formatting from LifeClever for instructions. Photographic? Photo of pen and paper courtesy of Shutterstock . Adrian was The Muse’s very first employee (ask her about the early days!) who built the dissertation Muse editorial team from the photographic ground up. Now, she serves as Editor-at-Large, launching new content products and sharing expert career advice with Muse audiences online and off. When she’s not Musing, you’ll find her planning her next dinner party or international vacation. Say hi on proposal expected Twitter and Instagram. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
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Research Assessment - Expected results
CO-OP health plans: patients’ interests first. By Louise Norris healthinsurance.org contributor August 27, 2017. It’s been a rough few years for the ACA’s Consumer Operated and Oriented Plans. There were 23 CO-OPs when the first open enrollment period got underway in the fall of dissertation proposal expected 2013, but by photographic assignments, the beginning of 2016, only 11 of them were still operational. By July 2016, four additional CO-OPs – in Ohio, Connecticut, Oregon, and dissertation proposal Illinois – had failed. And in September, Health Republic Insurance of New Jersey stopped offering new plans and announced that their existing plans would terminate at the end of 2016 (unlike the other CO-OPs that have failed, state regulators in New Jersey were initially saying that it might be possible for Health Republic to be rehabilitated enough to return to the market in 2018, but that ultimately was not the unisa electronic dissertations case, and dissertation proposal results an order of liquidation was filed in February 2017). In December 2016, more than a month after open enrollment began for are research papers italicized 2017 coverage, Maryland regulators announced that Evergreen Health CO-OP would not renew or issue individual market plans for 2017, leaving just five CO-OPs offering coverage in 2017 (Maryland regulators made an administrative order in July 2017 that is expected to lead to receivership for Evergreen Health). In June 2017, Minuteman Health announced that they would no longer offer coverage as a CO-OP after the end of 2017. Dissertation Proposal Expected Results! Their intent at customer relationship thesis that point was to reopen in proposal results 2018 as Minuteman Insurance Company (and to have plans available for sale during open enrollment in the fall of 2017 under that name), which was to have been a for-profit insurer rather than a CO-OP.
But by mid-August, they had failed to raise enough capital by the deadline to secure a license to sell coverage for 2018, and would not be able to re-open as Minuteman Insurance Company in 2018. Assignments! Minuteman Health has been placed in receivership by the Massachusetts Division of Insurance, and their plans will terminate at the end of 2017. After all the closures, there are just four CO-OPs slated to offer coverage in 2018, in five states: Maine, Montana, Idaho, New Mexico, and expected results Wisconsin. The CO-OP failures have been due in large part to dissertations a combination of premiums that were too low, benefits that were too generous, enrollees who were sicker than anticipated, competition from bigger carriers with larger reserves, the risk corridor shortfall that was announced in dissertation results the fall of 2015, and the risk adjustment payment announcements that were made in June 2016 (see below for a timeline of the closures). The Trump Administration’s approach to health care reform, and GOP lawmakers’ efforts to repeal and photographic replace the ACA (via bills written in secret that bypass the results normal bipartisan committee process), have further increased the uncertainty that insurers are facing, making the situation even more precarious for small insurers like the remaining CO-OPs. 2018: 4 CO-OPs selling plans in 5 states. There are four CO-OPs that are expected to offer plans in five states in 2018. Although the vast majority of the original CO-OPs have failed, these four are showing signs of overall stability. It’s important to note, however, that if the Trump Administration continues to on why japan pearl cause uncertainty and instability in the insurance markets (including Trump’s recent threats to cut off federal funding for cost-sharing reductions), the remaining CO-OPs will be among the most vulnerable.
Community Health Options (CHO) This was originally called Maine Community Health Options, but the dissertation expected name was changed to electronic dissertations reflect the carrier’s expansion outside of Maine. 44,000 people enrolled in dissertation results coverage through the exchange in 2014, and photographic 83 percent of them selected Community Health Options, making the CO-OP’s first year an dissertation, amazing success. CHO expanded into New Hampshire for 2015, fueled by their initial success in 2014 and by a new loan from on why japan CMS. Proposal! During the second open enrollment period, CHO once again dominated the Maine market, securing about 80 percent of the exchange market share. They also enrolled about 5,000 people in New Hampshire. Comprehension Strategy! However, CHO reported significant losses in the third quarter of results 2015, and decided to limit enrollment in individual plans for 2016. Assignments! Enrollment directly through Community Health Options ceased December 15, 2015; enrollment in Community Health Options plans through Healthcare.gov ceased December 26. CHO ended 2015 with $74 million in losses – a far cry from the profitable year they had in 2014.
In early 2016, Maine’s Insurance Superintendent proposed putting the CO-OP in receivership and canceling a portion of its plans (about 20,000 members would have been transitioned to other coverage). But CMS didn’t allow that, saying that the dissertation plan cancellations would run afoul of the ACA’s guaranteed-renewable provision. Comprehension Reading Thesis! The CO-OP is under increased oversight from the dissertation proposal results Maine Bureau of on why Insurance, which puts out monthly reports that detail how the expected results CO-OP is faring relative to its business plan. According to the July 2017 report from the Bureau of Insurance, CHO’s net income in May 2017 was considerably lower than projected, but year-to-date claims were running just about japan pearl, as-projected. CHO is the only remaining CO-OP that received money—as opposed to having to pay out dissertation proposal money—under the risk adjustment program for 2015 and again for relationship thesis 2016. For 2017, Community Health Options had an average rate increase of 25.5 percent in Maine, where bulk of their members live. They exited New Hampshire entirely at the end of 2016, and reverted to operating solely in dissertation results Maine, as they did in 2014. Ap Us Neglect! They have proposed roughly a 20 percent average rate increase for proposal expected 2018 in the individual market, where they have about three-quarters of their membership. Their total membership was 67,539 at the end of 2016, and had dropped to on why attacked pearl 44,015 by the first quarter of 2017 (all in Maine, since they’re no longer offering plans in dissertation expected New Hampshire).
Mountain Health Cooperative Montana Health CO-OP started in Montana, and expanded to Idaho in 2015. The CO-OP seems to be on relatively solid financial ground. Italicized! CEO Jerry Dworak noted that the dissertation CO-OP didn’t expand too quickly, and reading strategy maintained substantial reserves; they were not relying as heavily as other CO-OPs on risk corridor payments to shore up their financial position. Average rates for Mountain Health CO-OP in dissertation proposal expected results Idaho increased by 26 percent for 2016. For 2017, Mountain Health CO-OP’s average rate increase is 29 percent in Idaho, and 31 percent in Montana. Strategy! As of December 22, 2016, the CO-OP ceased enrollments in Montana due to the “large number of new members for 2017.” The enrollment freeze was lifted in July 2017 for off-exchange enrollments; on-exchange enrollments in Montana were expected to dissertation proposal expected become available in the summer of 2017 as well. In both cases, this was ahead of schedule, as the CO-OP had originally expected the lift the enrollment freeze as of November 1, at ap us salutary the start of open enrollment. In another indication of the CO-OP’s increasing viability, their average proposed rate increase for 2018 is only 4 percent in Montana.
This demonstrates that the 31 percent average rate increase for 2017 may have been enough to stabilize the expected CO-OP and “right-size” the premiums. New Mexico Health Connections The CO-OP had net earnings of $420,000 in the first quarter of 2016, as opposed to a loss of $2.3 million in the first quarter of 2015. By the end of the 2016 open enrollment period, New Mexico Health Connections had more than 50,000 members, and the CO-OP had added several big-name employers, including Goodwill Industries of New Mexico, Youth Development Inc., and Heritage Hotels Resorts. NM Health Connections has said that they weren’t counting on significant payments from the risk corridor program in 2015, so the comprehension shortage didn’t hurt them as much as it hurt other carriers. New Mexico Health Connections dropped their PPO plans for 2016 in order to focus on dissertation proposal results plan designs that allow them to better control costs. Several big-name carriers around the ap us history neglect essay country took a similar approach in 2016, and PPOs are less common than they once were in the individual market. For 2017, New Mexico Health Connections had an average rate increase of 33 percent, before any exchange subsidies are applied. They have filed an average rate increase of 30.1 percent for proposal expected results 2018 (much lower than the 84 percent average rate increase they initially filed; the on why pearl harbor lower rate filing came about once it became clear that other insurers would not be exiting New Mexico’s market and dissertation results the CO-OP did not have to insulate themselves against a flood of new enrollees). But their average rate increase could be even lower still, and photographic assignments the CEO noted in July that the proposal expected CO-OP’s proposed rate increases were in are research italicized the 20 to dissertation results 25 percent range. Common Ground Healthcare Cooperative – The CO-OP offers coverage in relationship banks thesis 19 eastern Wisconsin counties.
The approved weighted average rate increase for Common Ground for 2016 was 18 percent. The CO-OP had 23,629 enrollees in Wisconsin in dissertation expected results 2015. For 2017, the CO-OP had an average rate increase of 12.6 percent. And after losing money from 2014 through 2017, Common Ground Healthcare posted a positive net income of assignments $2.7 million in the first quarter of 2017. 2015 risk adjustment: 9 of 10 CO-OPs owed payments. Under the dissertation ACA’s risk adjustment program, health insurers with lower-risk enrollees end up paying money to photographic assignments health insurers with higher-risk enrollees. The idea is to prevent insurers from designing plans that appeal only to healthy enrollees, and to ensure that premiums reflect benefit levels, rather than the overall health of a plan’s enrollees. On June 30, 2016, HHS released data on risk adjustment numbers for 2015.
Of the 10 CO-OPs that were still operational at that point, nine had to pay into the risk adjustment program for proposal expected 2015; only one remaining CO-OP – Community Health Options in Maine and assignments New Hampshire – received a risk adjustment payment. Community Health Options received about $710,000 in risk adjustment funds. Some of the remaining CO-OPs had begun to be profitable in early 2016 (details below), but all of the CO-OPs’ financial situations now have to be considered in conjunction with the fact that the CO-OPs will have to expected pay out the comprehension following amounts in dissertation risk adjustment payments, making their financial futures even more uncertain (of the nine CO-OPs that owed money in unisa 2016 for dissertation proposal expected the risk adjustment program, six have closed or are facing impending closure; only the are research papers italicized CO-OPs listed in results bold continue to be fully operational) Mountain Health CO-OP/Montana Health CO-OP (Idaho and Montana): $481,000 Oregon Health CO-OP (Community Care of Oregon): $914,000 ( closed; plans ended July 31, 2016 ) Common Ground CO-OP (Wisconsin): $1.9 million Minuteman (operates in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, but risk adjustment outlay was for NH; MA operates its own risk adjustment program): $11 million (Minuteman has filed a lawsuit against CMS in an effort to “invalidate the illegal Risk Adjustment methodology and institute necessary changes immediately.” Minuteman Health is in receivership, and will stop offering coverage at the end of 2017 ) New Mexico Health Connections : $14.6 million. NM Health Connections filed a lawsuit against HHS in August 2016 over the risk adjustment program, requesting that the program be halted until improvements could be made. Healthy CT: $13.4 million ( closed; plans ended December 31, 2017 ) Evergreen Health CO-OP (Maryland): $24.2 million (Evergreen filed a lawsuit to block the collection of the risk adjustment payments; a district judge denied the essays on why japan pearl harbor CO-OP’s request on July 21, and the CO-OP immediately appealed the decision; Between $2 million and $3 million of the risk adjustment payment was to be withheld by dissertation proposal expected results, CMS in mid-July from funds owed to the CO-OP for premium subsidies and cost-sharing reductions, and the remainder of the payment had to be remitted by Evergreen by customer relationship management banks thesis, August 15).
Evergreen notes that they would have profited between $2 million and $3 million in 2016 if it weren’t for the $24 million they had to pay into the risk adjustment program. As a result of the losses, they began the process of being acquired by private investors and converting to a for-profit entity (this process ultimately didn’t happen fast enough for Evergreen to be able to proposal sell or renew individual plans for 2017; in July 2017 the investors terminated the japan pearl acquisition, and Maryland regulators began the process that’s expected to lead to receivership for Evergreen Health ). Land of proposal results Lincoln (Illinois): $31.8 million (the state ordered Land of Lincoln to withhold payment until if and when the CO-OP receives the money they were supposed to get in 2015 for the 2014 risk corridors program. That tactic didn’t work however, and on July 12, Illinois regulators began the process of closing Land of Lincoln Health, and the CO-OP was placed in liquidation as of October 1, 2016 ). Freelancer’s CO-OP (Health Republic Insurance of italicized New Jersey): $46.3 million ( in proposal expected results September 2016, regulators placed Health Republic in rehabilitation, and the CO-OP stopped selling new plans ; the risk adjustment payment — which was much more than they had previously been advised it would be — was cited as a primary reason for the CO-OP’s financial instability). HHS has proposed changes to the risk adjustment program for 2018, to make it more equitable and less burdensome for are research papers new, smaller carriers. They’ve also indicated that states can make regulatory changes before 2018 to ensure a more functional risk adjustment program. 2016 risk adjustment: 4 out of 5 remaining CO-OPs once again owe money. On June 30, 2017, HHS published the dissertation proposal expected risk adjustment report for 2016. Maine Community Health Options was once again the japan pearl only remaining CO-OP that will receive funding under the risk adjustment program; they’ll get $9.1 million.
The report also details the amount that insurers owe or will receive for 2016 under the ACA’s temporary reinsurance program (2016 was the last year for the reinsurance program). All five of the dissertation proposal results remaining CO-OPs will receive money from the 2016 reinsurance program, but in most cases, it’s not as much as they’ll have to pay out under the risk adjustment program. Maine Community Health Options — the unisa only remaining CO-OP receiving funding under the risk adjustment program — will also receive $21 million under the 2016 reinsurance program, which is far more than any of the other CO-OPs will receive. Common Ground CO-OP has to pay $3.7 million in risk adjustment (but will receive $10.5 million in reinsurance) Mountain Health CO-OP/Montana Health CO-OP has to pay $8.3 million in risk adjustment (but will receive $2.9 million in dissertation expected results reinsurance) New Mexico Health Connections has to pay $8.9 million in risk adjustment (but will receive $3 million in reinsurance) NM Health Connections sued the federal government in essays on why japan attacked pearl 2016 over expected results the risk adjustment program, but so far, the system is still set up in customer relationship management banks a way that ultimately ends up taking money from smaller, newer insurers and giving it to larger, more established insurers. Minuteman, which is closing at the end of 2017, has to proposal pay $25.4 million in risk adjustment for 2016 (but will receive $3 million in reinsurance). Unisa Dissertations! Notably, they owed far more in 2016 risk adjustment than any of the other remaining CO-OPs. They explained in June, in dissertation expected conjunction with their announcement that they would no longer be a CO-OP after 2017 (at that point, they hoped to are research papers italicized re-open as a for-profit insurer, but that plan was scrapped when they were unable to proposal expected raise enough capital to secure a license for electronic dissertations 2018), that the amount they had been forced to pay into the risk adjustment program amounted to about a third of the premiums they had collected.
In May 2016, after extensive input from expected stakeholders, HHS issued new regulations in an effort to relationship management thesis help the remaining CO-OPs become financially viable. Due to proposal results the urgency of the electronic situation, the proposal expected regulations took effect almost immediately, on May 11. The new regulations make a variety of changes that make it easier for CO-OPs to seek outside investments and expand their coverage offerings beyond the individual and small group markets: In the comprehension reading thesis past, there were relatively strict rules governing the make-up of CO-OP boards. CO-OP board members could not be representatives or employees of any federal, state, or local government entity, and they could also not be representatives or employees of any health insurance carrier that was operational as of July 2009. Dissertation Expected Results! These rules were established to essays on why harbor prevent conflicts of interest among CO-OP board members (for example, an employee of a competing insurance company might have a conflict of interest and might not make decisions solely based on the best interests of the dissertation proposal CO-OP). Assignments! The new regulations relax these rules, as HHS has discovered that the rules were too strict, and were preventing well-qualified experts from joining CO-OP boards. Proposal! The new regulations allow government employees and representatives to be on essays on why japan pearl CO-OP boards as long as they’re not in senior or high-level positions in proposal expected results the government. And employees or representatives from already-established insurers can be on CO-OP boards as long as they’re affiliated with insurance carriers that don’t compete in the individual and small group markets where CO-OPs operate.
The old rules also required all of are research italicized a CO-OP’s board of directors to be elected by CO-OP members, and also required all members of the board of dissertation proposal results directors to also be members of the CO-OP. The new regulations allow for some leeway here too. Only a majority of the italicized board members must be elected by CO-OP members, and board members are no longer required to be members of the CO-OP. This allows outside entities that are providing loans, investments, and services to proposal results the CO-OP to have representatives on customer relationship management thesis the board of directors, and will – in theory – make it easier for proposal CO-OPs to attract new investments . HHS notes that including investor representatives on boards of directors is a common practice in the private sector. The old rules made it difficult for comprehension reading strategy CO-OPs to find willing and qualified individuals to expected serve on their boards of directors, and the old rules allow them to seek outside experts to provide assistance via being on the board of directors. The CO-OPs will still be member-driven though, as the majority of history essay board members must still be elected by CO-OP members. New Mexico Health Connections announced in dissertation proposal results 2016 that they planned to work with Raymond James, a New York based investment firm, to raise “a substantial amount” of funding for New Mexico Health Connections. Maryland’s CO-OP, Evergreen Health , was working to raise $15 million by August 2016, and by July, the CO-OP had come to agreements with eight guarantors to front more than half of that $15 million. But Evergreen Health later opted for the ultimate private investor arrangement, with plans for private investors to photographic acquire the CO-OP in 2017. If that had worked out, the insurer would still have been called Evergreen Health, but would have been a for-profit entity and no longer a CO-OP.
Ultimately, the new arrangement didn’t receive federal approval in time to continue to offer coverage for expected 2017, and Maryland’s Insurance Commissioner announced on December 8 that Evergreen would not sell or renew any individual plans for 2017. They had planned to return to the individual market in 2018, but the private investors terminated the acquisition in July 2017, and Maryland regulators imposed an administrative order that is expected to lead to the CO-OP entering receivership. Banks! The ACA requires that at least two-thirds of a CO-OP’s policies must be issued in the individual and dissertation proposal expected results small group markets in the state where the CO-OP is customer relationship management banks licensed. Dissertation Expected! Originally, the rule was that CO-OPs that ran afoul of that provision would have to repay their federal loans immediately. The new regulations allow for more leeway: CO-OPs that aren’t meeting the two-thirds rule don’t necessarily have to relationship repay their loans immediately, but they do have to proposal results demonstrate a plan for getting into compliance with the two-thirds rule, and be acting in good faith to achieve that standard (most CO-OPs only ap us history salutary neglect operate in dissertation proposal the individual and comprehension strategy small group markets thus far, but HealthyCT in Connecticut is an exception – they offer large group plans in addition to individual and small group plans). The new flexibility allows CO-OPs to enter into other markets – including large group, Medicare, Medicaid, and ancillary products such as dental and vision, without having to be overly concerned with running afoul of the dissertation results two-thirds rule and triggering an immediate payback requirement for federal loans. Under prior rules, CO-OPs weren’t allowed to sell their policies to another insurer.
So when 12 CO-OPs failed by the end of 2015, the customer banks only option was to expected results send their members back to the general market – on or off-exchange – to ap us neglect essay seek new coverage. The new HHS regulations allow insolvent CO-OPs to sell their policies to another insurer, although the transaction would have to be approved by CMS. Dissertation! The idea here is to preserve coverage for existing members if additional CO-OPs fail. Membership surpassed a million enrollees by 2015, but has declined sharply with CO-OP closures. During the 2014 open enrollment period, just over 400,000 people enrolled in CO-OPs nationwide. That climbed to over a million by italicized, the end of the 2015 open enrollment period – despite the fact that CoOpportunity (Iowa and Nebraska) stopped selling policies in December 2014, and their once-robust enrollment (120,000 members) had dropped to about 2,000 people by mid-February 2015. Proposal Results! While enrollment in private plans through the italicized exchanges increased by 46 percent in 2015 (from 8 million people in the first open enrollment period, to 11.7 million in proposal the second open enrollment period), enrollment in CO-OPs increased by 150 percent.
At the end of on why japan attacked harbor 2015, however, more than 500,000 of those enrollees had to switch to a different plan, as 11 of the dissertation expected 22 remaining CO-OPs closed at the end of 2015. In May 2016, Ohio regulators announced that InHealth Mutual would be liquidated, leaving just ten remaining CO-OPs nationwide. Are Research! And only three of them are not currently subject to enhanced federal oversight: New Mexico Health Connections, Mountain Health Cooperative (Montana and dissertation Idaho), and Minuteman Health, Inc (Massachusetts and management banks New Hampshire). The other eight CO-OPs still in operation are all under “corrective action plans” from the federal government. Seven of the eleven CO-OPs that were still operational at the end of 2015 had at least 25,000 enrollees as of dissertation mid-2015, which is the minimum number that CMS says is comprehension thesis necessary for financial solvency. The other four had not yet achieved that benchmark by early 2016, and two of them—in Oregon and Ohio—were among the four CO-OPs that had failed by July 2016.
Of the expected remaining six CO-OPs, five had membership in relationship thesis excess of 25,000 people as of mid-2015. CMS recognized that, in a competitive marketplace, CO-OPs would face challenges. The agency acknowledged that more than one-third of the CO-OPs would likely fail in the first 15 years. CMS projected a 40 percent default rate for the planning loans and a 35 percent default rate for the solvency loans. But with only five of 23 CO-OPs slated to still be in business by the end of 2017, the failure rate is 78 percent, after three and a half years of operations.
In terms of dissertation proposal results recent enrollment totals for unisa dissertations the remaining CO-OPs: Common Ground CO-OP had 19,300 members in 2016 Mountain Health CO-OP/Montana Health CO-OP had roughly 15,000 members in proposal results Montana in 2016, and added 10,000 new members for 2017. They also have members in Idaho. Attacked Harbor! New Mexico Health Connections membership had grown to 50,000 by 2016 Community Health Options: 44,015 members as of the expected results first quarter of 2017. In addition, Minuteman Health (which will no longer exist as a CO-OP after the end of 2017) has 37,000 members in Massachusetts and New Hampshire in 2017, and Evergreen Health (which is under an administrative order that is expected to lead to receivership) has 25,000 members in Maryland. A look at the CO-OPs that are facing impending closure. In addition to the four CO-OPs described above that intend to continue to offer coverage in 2018, two other CO-OPs are still operational in 2017, but will no longer exist as CO-OPs in 2018: MASSACHUSETTS and NEW HAMPSHIRE Minuteman Health Inc. ( will close at ap us history salutary essay the end of 2017 ) Enrollment exceeded 22,500 in the first quarter of proposal results 2016, and the CO-OP ceased its advertising campaign in an effort to avoid enrolling too many members. The CO-OP had a profitable first quarter of 2016, as opposed to photographic the $3.8 million loss they suffered in the first quarter of 2015. By April 2016, Minuteman’s enrollment had reached about 26,000 people, which was an 85 percent increase over dissertation proposal results 2015 enrollment.
More than 21,000 of Minuteman’s QHP enrollees are in New Hampshire, and the state also has more than 3,400 Premium Assistance Program (privatized Medicaid) members with Minuteman coverage. All Minuteman Health enrollees in New Hampshire and papers Massachusetts will need to secure new coverage for 2018, as the CO-OP is closing at the end of 2017. MARYLAND Evergreen Health Cooperative Inc. (group coverage only in 2017; (no longer allowed to sell or renew any policies under an administrative order that is “a preliminary step to an anticipated receivership”) Enrollment was under 30,000 at the end of dissertation expected results 2015, and had grown to ap us salutary essay 40,000 by March 2016. Dissertation Results! Evergreen had its first-ever profitable quarter in unisa dissertations the beginning of 2016, with a net income of $547,000. Dissertation Proposal Results! That’s compared with a loss of $2.3 million in the first quarter of assignments 2015. Dissertation Proposal Results! For 2015, Evergreen Health CO-OP lost money, as did all of the CO-OPs.
But their loss was the smallest of the 11 remaining CO-OPs, at $10.8 million. In 2016, Evergreen would have been profitable for the full year, except for the $24 million they had to electronic dissertations pay into the risk corridor program for 2015. For 2017, Evergreen had proposed an average rate increase of just 8 percent, but regulators ultimately approved an average rate increase of more than 20 percent. Evergreen owed CMS $24.2 million in risk adjustment funds for 2015, which is more than a quarter of the carrier’s total revenue. They had worked out an arrangement under which they would be acquired by private investors and converted to a for-profit (ie, not a CO-OP) insurance company, but the investors terminated the acquisition in dissertation proposal expected results July 2017, leading state regulators to determine that the CO-OP was no longer financially viable. The following CO-OPs had already closed by 2017: ARIZONA CLOSED Meritus Health Partners In a deviation from the norm, Meritus offered year-round enrollment outside the exchange until late summer 2015; tax credits were only available inside the exchange, and regular open enrollment dates applied to plans purchased in the exchange. Meritus was among the worst-performing CO-OPs in terms of 2014 actual enrollment as a percentage of projected enrollment. The HHS report showed just 869 people enrolled through Meritus as of the end of 2014, out of a projected 24,000. Meritus claims that the actual enrollment total at the end of 2014 was higher (3,500) but still well short of the target number. By August 2015, enrollment in Meritus plans had skyrocketed to papers italicized almost 56,000 people.
But just two days prior to dissertation results the start of the relationship management thesis 2016 open enrollment period, the proposal expected results Arizona Department of Insurance announced that Meritus could no longer sell or renew policies, and that existing plans would terminate at neglect the end of 2015. COLORADO CLOSED Colorado HealthOP – The CO-OP got roughly 13 percent of the exchange market share in 2014 (the second highest of dissertation expected any carrier in assignments the exchange), but they lowered their prices considerably for 2015, and proposal expected results garnered nearly 40 percent of the exchange’s enrollees during the second open enrollment period. For 2015, they had the lowest prices in eight of Colorado’s nine rating areas. Are Research Italicized! Colorado Health OP was also facing a shortfall from the risk corridors program, and immediately began working hard to overcome it. But their efforts were not sufficient, and the Colorado Division of Insurance decertified them from the dissertation proposal expected exchange on ap us salutary October 16, 2015. Expected Results! CONNECTICUT CLOSED HealthyCT – The CO-OP had 15.6 percent of the market share in 2015, but dropped to just under 12 percent for 2016. The CO-OP raised their premiums by an average of 7.2 percent for 2016.
Unlike many other CO-OPs, HealthyCT wasn’t counting on the risk corridors payout that they were owed for 2014, so the shortfall wasn’t as significant for HealthyCT as it was for some of the other CO-OPs. Unlike most CO-OPs, HealthyCT also sold coverage in the large group market, so they had a stronger off-exchange presence than carriers that only offer individual and small group plans. HealthyCT also built its own provider network, instead of relationship banks thesis having to rent an already-established network from another carrier, as many CO-OPs did. But ultimately, the expected results CO-OP succumbed to the $13.4 million bill that they received for the 2015 risk adjustment program. In July 2016, state regulators ordered HealthyCT to unisa dissertations stop writing new policies or renewing existing policies. Dissertation Proposal Expected! The CO-OP’s 13,000 individual market insureds (most of electronic whom had coverage through the state’s exchange) were insured through December 31, 2016, but needed to pick a new plan during open enrollment. The CO-OP’s 27,000 employer-sponsored group enrollees continued to have coverage through the CO-OP until their renewal date in 2017 if their 2016 renewal date was July or earlier. Groups that renewed in August or later had to switch to a different carrier as of their 2016 renewal date. ILLINOIS CLOSED Land of Lincoln Health The CO-OP in Illinois weathered the initial risk corridor storm, as they weren’t counting on a full payment from CMS. But they limited small group enrollments for the last two months of 2015, and they also capping 2016 enrollment at about 65,000 to 70,000 people (roughly a 30 percent increase over dissertation results their 2015 membership) in order to sustainably manage their growth.
Enrollment for the year had ceased by early January, as the CO-OP had met their membership target. During the first quarter of 2016, Land of Lincoln lost $7.1 million, up from the $5.3 million they lost in the first quarter of 2015. Ap Us History Neglect Essay! An AP analysis of ten of the remaining 11 CO-OPs found that all of them lost money in 2015, but Land of Lincoln Health lost the most, at $90.8 million. Nevertheless, the CO-OP is on the hook for a $31.8 million payment for 2015 risk adjustment. In late June, state regulators ordered Land of proposal results Lincoln to withhold payment until if and when the CO-OP receives the papers italicized $73 million they were supposed to get in results 2015 for the 2014 risk corridors program. Comprehension Reading! This move was made in an effort to keep the dissertation CO-OP solvent, but it was unsuccessful. Ap Us Salutary Neglect Essay! On July 12, regulators in Illinois announced that they were beginning the dissertation proposal results process of shutting down Land of Lincoln Health; the CO-OP will close on September 30, 2016. On Why Pearl Harbor! A special enrollment period will allow the CO-OP’s 49,000 enrollees to pick a new plan. If a plan selection is made between August 2 and September 30, coverage under the new plan will take effect October 1, with no gap in coverage.
If a plan selection is dissertation proposal expected made between October 1 and November 29, normal effective date rules will apply and there will be a gap in coverage. IOWA and NEBRASKA CLOSED CoOportunity Health (Iowa and Nebraska) – EDIT, 1/5/15, and 7/30/2015 : CoOportunity Health was taken over by Iowa state regulators in banks late December 2014. Once federal funding ran out, it became clear that the carrier didn’t have enough money to remain viable, as reserves had dropped to about $17 million by December. Expected Results! At the harbor time, HHS said that the other 22 CO-OPs appeared to still be financially viable early in 2015. Dissertation Expected Results! CoOportunity had raised their rates considerably for 2015, although they covered about 120,000 members in comprehension strategy Iowa and Nebraska. Proposal! Most existing policy holders transitioned to other carriers by February 15, but there were still about 2,000 members as of mid-February. Early in 2015, there was some hope that regulators would be able to successfully rehabilitate the carrier. History Essay! But by February 18, the Insurance Division announced that they would begin the process of liquidating the carrier before the end of the month, and the remaining insureds had to expected results transition to other carriers by March 1. KENTUCKY CLOSED Kentucky Health Care Cooperative Near the end of the 2014 open enrollment period, Kentucky Health Cooperative had garnered 75 percent of the exchange enrollments in papers Kentucky . By the end of 2014, Kentucky Health Cooperative was covering 55,852 people in dissertation proposal expected the state. The CO-OP had planned to expand into West Virginia for 2015, but backed out just a week before open enrollment over worries that their infrastructure wasn’t ready for the new influx of electronic dissertations members. They had planned to move forward with their expansion to West Virginia in 2016, but the West Virginia Insurance Commissioner’s office confirmed in early September 2015 that the Kentucky CO-OP no longer had plans to expand into dissertation expected, West Virginia. As of June 2015, Kentucky Health Cooperative still had more than 55,000 members, despite the are research italicized fact that their premiums increased by an average of proposal expected results 15 percent in 2015.
But Kentucky Health Cooperative also had the distinction of being the CO-OP with the most red ink in 2014, losing $50.4 million by italicized, the end of dissertation expected 2014 (although losses had diminished considerably in 2015; by the end of the first half of the year, losses totaled just $4 million). The losses from 2014 would have been offset by the risk corridors payment if it had been paid as owed ($77 million). Ap Us History! Instead, the CO-OP was going to receive less than $10 million from the risk corridors program, and that simply wasn’t enough to sustain them. Kentucky Health CO-OP announced in early October that they would cease operations at the end of 2015. LOUISIANA CLOSED Louisiana Health Cooperative Inc. – EDIT, 7/30/2015: On July 24, the Louisiana Department of Insurance announced that the CO-OP would be winding down its operations this year, and would not participate in the upcoming open enrollment for 2016. Proposal Results! The existing 17,000 enrollees can remain with the carrier for comprehension strategy thesis the rest of 2015, and there are still enough cash reserves to cover claims for the rest of the year. Dissertation Proposal Results! MICHIGAN CLOSED Consumers Mutual Insurance of Michigan Nearly 80 percent of the CO-OP’s enrollees in 2015 were off-exchange. Michigan’s CO-OP was the last to announce failure in 2015, doing so on history salutary neglect essay November 2, the day after open enrollment began for dissertation expected results 2016 coverage. NEVADA CLOSED Nevada Health Cooperative – In late August 2015, officials at Nevada Health CO-OP announced – amid mounting financial losses and “challenging market conditions” – that the carrier would be ceasing operations by the end of the year. The CO-OP had about a third of the individual enrollments in the Nevada exchange for 2015, but they had to switch to customer relationship banks another carrier for 2016.
NEW JERSEY CLOSED Health Republic Insurance of dissertation proposal New Jersey (Freelancer’s CO-OP) – The CO-OP ended 2014 with 4,254 members. Customer Management! By July 2015, the CO-OP’s enrollment had exceeded 60,000 people, thanks to new plan designs and lower premiums. Rate increases for dissertation expected results 2016 ranged from 9 percent to 18 percent. For 2017, Health Republic of NJ proposed an average rate increase of just 8.5 percent, but ultimately the neglect essay carrier was placed in rehabilitation in mid-September, and had to stop offering new plans at that point. State regulators initially said that it was possible the CO-OP could return to the market in 2018, but that ultimately was not the case, and an order of liquidation was filed in February 2017). Dissertation Proposal Results! All existing Health Republic plans in New Jersey terminated on December 31, 2016. NEW YORK CLOSED Health Republic Insurance of New York – The CO-OP enrolled 19 percent of the people who purchased plans through NY State of Health (the state-run exchange) during the 2014 open enrollment period. Their membership had grown to 112,000 by April 2014, and relationship thesis 155,000 by the end of dissertation proposal 2014 – far surpassing their initial 2014 goal of italicized 30,000 members. In 2015, they again garnered 19 percent of dissertation proposal expected NY State of photographic assignments Health’s private plan enrollees, and had total enrollment of expected results about 200,000 people by the time regulators announced in September 2015 that the CO-OP would be closing.
There were 16 carriers offering plans through NY State of Health, and only one had slightly higher market share than the CO-OP. But Health Republic of NY lost $35 million in history salutary essay 2014, and proposal expected $52.7 million in the first half of assignments 2015; their high enrollment was not a financial panacea – they enrolled far more people than expected, but that ultimately translated into losses that far exceeded projections. On September 25, state and federal regulators, along with NY’s state-run exchange, announced that they had ordered Health Republic to stop issuing new policies and prepare to proposal expected terminate existing individual plans at essays pearl the end of 2015. It was subsequently determined that the CO-OP was simply losing too much money to continue as a viable insurer, and coverage was terminated on November 30. OHIO InHealth Mutual CLOSED InHealth Mutual enrolled just 11 percent of their target membership for 2014. But that was partly because the carrier got licensed too late in 2013 to dissertation proposal be sold on Healthcare.gov. So instead, InHealth Mutual mainly sold off-exchange small group plans in 2014. But for the 2015 open enrollment period, InHealth Mutual was available through the comprehension thesis exchange, and enrollment had more than doubled to dissertation results 16,000 by salutary neglect, mid-January. However, during the first six months of 2015, InHealth reported $9.1 million in expected net losses.
Ultimately, state regulators announced in assignments late May 2016 that the dissertation proposal CO-OP would be liquidated, and that the current 21,800 enrollees would have a 60 day special enrollment period during which they would be able to switch to a different carrier. Enrollees who remained with InHealth Mutual had coverage through the attacked pearl harbor end of 2016, but it was through the state guaranty fund, which means it had a cap of results $500,000 and would subject the enrollees to the ACA’s penalty for not having minimum essential coverage. OREGON CLOSED Health Republic Insurance of Oregon Health Republic’s failure was blamed in relationship management banks large part on the risk corridor shortfall, as was the case with many of the CO-OPs that failed in late 2015. In February 2016, Health Republic of dissertation proposal Oregon announced that they were suing the federal government over the risk corridor shortfall. Unisa Electronic Dissertations! Their hope is to make the suit a class action case so that other insurers who were shorted by the risk corridor program can join in the lawsuit. OREGON CLOSED Oregon’s Health CO-OP Oregon Health CO-OP is officially called “Community Care of Oregon”.
It had just 1,582 members at the end of 2014. By January 2015, their membership had grown to 10,000 people, and by April 2015, they said they were on track to hit 20,000 by the end of the dissertation proposal expected results year, and had “healthy financial reserves.” But they were expecting to strategy thesis receive $5 million via the 2015 risk adjustment program, and ended up owing $900,000 instead. That pushed the CO-OP into insolvent territory, and the state announced on July 8 that they were placing the CO-OP in receivership. All Oregon Health CO-OP plans terminated on July 31, 2016. The CO-OP had 20,600 members—11,800 in the individual market, and 8,800 in the small group market. Individuals had a special enrollment period beginning July 11 to dissertation expected enroll in papers italicized a new plan, with coverage effective August 1. To get an dissertation proposal results, August 1 effective date, members had to are research italicized pick a new plan by July 31. Small groups worked with brokers or carriers to secure a new plan with an August 1 effective date. The state also worked out an arrangement to ensure that CO-OP members get credit for their out-of-pocket spending during the first seven months of 2019, even after transferring to a new carrier starting in expected results August. SOUTH CAROLINA CLOSED Consumer’s Choice Health Insurance Company Consumers Choice had the same CEO as neighboring Tennessee’s Community Health Alliance Mutual Insurance Company, which also closed at the end of 2015. Consumer’s Choice had 67,000 members in 2015. TENNESSEE CLOSED Community Health Alliance Mutual Insurance Company (Tennessee) – Community Health Alliance had just 2,287 members at the end of 2014 – out of a projected 25,000 – and experienced a loss of $22 million in 2014.
But they lowered their premiums for 2015 and experienced a surge in salutary essay enrollment (35,761 members as of May 2015). Enrollment grew so quickly during the 2015 open enrollment period that Community Health Alliance suspended enrollment in their plans as of January 15, noting that they had already met their enrollment goal for the year. Expected! They proposed a 32.6 percent rate increase for 2016, although regulators ultimately increased it to 44.7 percent in order to preserve the CO-OP’s viability. The CO-OP had planned to resume selling coverage during the 2016 open enrollment period, but regulators announced in mid-October 2015 that the carrier would instead be closing at the end of the comprehension reading strategy year, and expected results all members would need to photographic transition to another carrier for 2016. UTAH CLOSED Arches Mutual Insurance Company Arches insured roughly a quarter of Utah’s exchange enrollees in 2015. The CO-OP’s on-exchange enrollment was about 32,000 people, all of whom had to find alternate plans for 2016. In July 2015, HHS released financial and enrollment data for results the 23 CO-OPs, as of December 2014. The outlook based on the report was not particularly great: all but one of the CO-OPs operated at a loss in pearl harbor 2014, and 13 of the CO-OPs fell far short of their enrollment goals for 2014. Dissertation Proposal! The audit called into question the CO-OPs’ ability to repay the loans that they received from the federal government under Obamacare.
The risk corridor shortfall has been directly implicated in the failure of unisa dissertations CO-OPs in expected Kentucky, Tennessee, Colorado, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, Arizona, and Michigan. There is ap us history no way around the fact that such a significant financial blow is hard to overcome, particularly for carriers that were new to the market in proposal expected 2014. Eight CO-OPs failed in the weeks following the risk corridor shortfall announcement. Those eight CO-OPs were in serious financial jeopardy as a result of the ap us risk corridor shortfall and other factors, and proposal state Insurance Commissioners made the difficult decision to shut them down prior to the start of open enrollment, or shortly thereafter. It’s much less complicated to wind down operations in an orderly fashion in on why pearl the last couple months of a year than it is to have a carrier become financially insolvent mid-year. That, coupled with the late announcement regarding the risk corridors shortfall, explains the rash of CO-OP failures announced in late 2015 (It should be noted that it’s not just CO-OPs feeling the pain from the dissertation proposal expected results risk corridor shortfall; in Wisconsin, Anthem exited the exchange market in three counties and scaled back operations in neglect 34 other counties, partially as a result of the risk corridor shortfall. Dissertation! And in Wyoming, WINhealth has exited the individual market because of the risk corridor shortfall; in Alaska and Oregon, Moda nearly exited the market, due in large part to the risk corridor shortfall.) But with 12 out of 23 CO-OPs going under in ap us history essay 2015, it wasn’t surprising that the mood in late 2015 was relatively pessimistic regarding the CO-OP model. In his press release about the demise of Arches Health Plan, Utah Insurance Commissioner Todd E. Kiser noted that “ It is regrettable that the co-op model has not worked across the country .” That didn’t bode well for the remaining 11 CO-OPs, and ultimately only four of them intend to offer coverage for 2018. All 11 of the remaining CO-OPs suffered losses in 2015, amounting to a total of proposal about $400 million (Evergreen lost the least, at $10.8 million; Land of Lincoln lost the most, at $90.8 million).
The bulk of the losses were in the fourth quarter, indicating that consumers are trying to assignments get as much value as possible from their coverage before the end of the plan year. Dissertation Results! So although a few of the remaining CO-OPs are in the black so far in essays japan pearl harbor 2016, their profits are very modest, and it’s unclear how the dissertation expected results rest of the year might go. The fact that lawmakers decided at papers italicized the end of 2014 to retroactively require the risk corridors program to proposal be budget-neutral was a significant blow to the CO-OPs. The CO-OPs – along with the rest of the carriers – had set their premiums for 2014 (and by that time, for 2015 as well) with the reading expectation that risk corridors payments would mitigate losses if they experienced higher-than-expected claims. Clearly, that has not panned out, and it certainly put the CO-OPs in dissertation results a tough spot. To clarify, HHS said in 2013 that the risk corridor program would NOT be budget-neutral, and that federal funds would be used to make up any short-falls; carriers set their rates for 2014 based on customer banks that.
But then in 2014, HHS announced in dissertation proposal expected results 2014 that they had made several adjustments to the risk corridor program, and that they projected “that these changes, in unisa electronic combination with the changes to the reinsurance program finalized in this rule, will result in dissertation net payments that are budget neutral in 2014. We intend to implement this program in a budget neutral manner, and dissertations may make future adjustments, either upward or downward to this program (for example, as discussed below, we may modify the ceiling on allowable administrative costs) to the extent necessary to achieve this goal.” But this was after rates for 2014 were long-since locked in, and enrollment nearly complete. At the end of 2014, congress passed the Cromnibus Bill, requiring risk corridors to expected be budget neutral, with no wiggle room for HHS. We do have to keep in customer relationship banks thesis mind, however, that CMS knew from the get-go that some CO-OPs would fail. They expected at least a third of them to fail in the first 15 years, and that was long before the risk corridors program was retroactively changed to be budget neutral. What are CO-OPs and proposal results how are they different? Consumer Operated and unisa electronic Oriented Plans (CO-OPs) were created under a provision of the Affordable Care Act. CO-OP plans were proposed by Senator Kent Conrad (D-ND) when the original public plan option was jettisoned during the health care reform debate.
Lawmakers added the dissertation proposal expected CO-OP provision to the Affordable Care Act to placate Democrats who had pushed for a government-run, Medicare-for-all type of health insurance program. At the ap us salutary time, progressives who preferred a public option derided CO-OPs as a poor alternative because they can’t utilize the proposal expected results efficiencies of scale that would come with Medicare For All, nor do they have the market clout that a single payer system would have when negotiating reimbursement rates with providers. But supporters noted that because CO-OPs are neither government agencies nor commercial insurers, they can put patients first, without having to focus on investors or Congressional politics. Instead of paying shareholders, CO-OP profits are reinvested in the plan to lower premiums or improve benefits (in 2014, only one CO-OP, Maine Community Health Options, had revenue that exceeded claims and administrative expenses – but the reinvestment of profits is the plan for all CO-OPs, once they become profitable). And customers’ health insurance needs and concerns become a top priority because the photographic CO-OP’s customers/members elect their own board of directors. And a majority of these directors must themselves be members of the expected results CO-OP. CO-OPs are private, nonprofit, state-licensed health insurance carriers. Their plans can be sold both inside and relationship management thesis outside the health insurance exchanges, depending on the state, and can offer individual, small group, and large group plans. But they’re are limited to having no more than a third of dissertation proposal their policies in the large group market (a more lucrative market than individual or small group).
Lawmakers had originally planned to provide $10 billion in unisa electronic grants to get the CO-OPs up and running in every state. But insurance industry lobbyists and fiscal conservatives in Congress succeeded in reducing the total to $6 billion, and turning it into loans – with relatively short repayment schedules – instead of grants (and CO-OPs are not permitted to use federal loan money for marketing purposes). Then, during budget negotiations in 2011, those loans were cut by another $2.2 billion. Proposal Expected Results! And in 2012, during the unisa dissertations fiscal cliff negotiations, CO-OP funding was reduced even further – and applications from proposal expected 40 prospective CO-OPs were rejected. To be approved to establish a CO-OP, applicants underwent background checks that included public records searches at the local, state, and national level as well as searches of federal debarment databases. Loan recipients are subject to strict monitoring, audits, and reporting requirements for the length of the loan repayment period plus 10 years. Ultimately, the Centers for on why harbor Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) awarded about $2.4 billion in loans to 23 CO-OPs across the country (there were 24 CO-OPs, but Vermont Health CO-OP never became operational. CMS retracted their loan in September 2013 – before the exchanges opened for the first open enrollment – because there were doubts that the program could be viable with Vermont’s impending switch to single-payer healthcare in 2017; ironically, Vermont pulled the plug on their single payer vision in late 2014). Focus on cost savings and reinvested profits.
How do CO-OPs increase cost efficiencies? CMS has laid out guidelines for CO-OPs to results use “private purchasing councils” through which CO-OP carriers can use collective purchasing power to obtain lower costs on a variety of items and services, including claims administration, accounting, health IT, or reinsurance. But private purchasing councils are allowed to use their collective purchasing power to negotiate rates or network arrangements with providers and health care facilities, as antitrust issues could otherwise arise. But the on why pearl Kaiser Family Foundation notes that CO-OPs can emphasize Patient Centered Medical Home models to keep costs down. (the PCMH model allows physicians to use health information technology and care managers to provide a full spectrum of care that’s coordinated among each patient’s various providers. The goal is to dissertation expected keep patients healthy – and out of the ap us history salutary neglect hospital – by using best practices and evidence based medicine. If PCMH doctors are successful, they qualify for bonuses). CO-OPs generally emphasize preventive care in an effort to proposal expected keep their members healthy. Photographic! A challenge for CO-OPs has been developing their provider networks. At least 15 CO-OPs are renting networks from other insurers, which adds to their administrative expenses. In Maine, Community Health Options (the one profitable CO-OP in 2014) built its own provider network from the ground up, a move that CEO Kevin Lewis notes as one of the reasons CHO has been successful. CO-OPs also have the dissertation results option to hire doctors directly, rather than contract with them through provider networks (the upside for the doctors is essays on why harbor that the dissertation CO-OP then handles the administrative details, and the doctor can focus on healthcare instead).
Will the few remaining CO-OPs survive? It’s too soon to unisa electronic dissertations tell. In many states, the CO-OPs started out in a David and Goliath situation, competing with carriers that have dominated the health insurance landscape for dissertation proposal expected years. There are some promising signs from assignments some CO-OPs that may ultimately survive long-term. Dissertation Proposal Expected! And even among the CO-OPs that struggled early on, long-term sustainability is possible. Premiums that carriers – including CO-OPs – set for 2014 and 2015 were little more than educated guesses from comprehension reading thesis actuaries, since there was very little in the way of actual claims data on which to rely (there was no data at all when the 2014 rates were being set, and only a couple months of expected early data available when 2015 rates were being set). Unisa Dissertations! Once the CO-OPs had more than a year of proposal results claims history in the books, they were able to be more accurate in pricing their policies for 2016, and unisa that will again be the case for results 2017.
CO-OP supporters had hoped that the new carriers would disrupt existing markets, driving down premiums and shaking up the market share among commercial insurers. Although CO-OPs struggled financially in their first year, average premiums market-wide were lower in both 2014 and 2015 in states that have CO-OPs than in states without CO-OPs. A GAO report found that average CO-OP premiums in assignments 2014 and 2015 in most states tended to be lower than the average premiums across all carriers in those states. And enrollment in CO-OPs increased at a much faster pace than overall enrollment growth (across all carriers) from 2014 to 2015. CMS acknowledged from the start that not all of the CO-OPs would be likely to succeed – just as a crop of new for-profit health insurance carriers wouldn’t all be expected to succeed. But over the next few years, the remaining CO-OPs will have an opportunity to results refine their business models, reinvest any profits they make, and grow their enrollment – especially as grandmothered plans cease to exist by the end of 2018, increasing the number of customer management banks people who need to purchase ACA-compliant plans. The retention of grandmothered plans has benefited health plans that were already in place prior to 2014, since enrollees on grandmothered plans had to go through underwriting to dissertation expected results obtain their coverage; on the other hand, new insurers like CO-OPs have had to contend with a population that’s less healthy than expected, partly because people with grandmothered plans have not yet all transitioned to ACA-compliant plans. In short, it’s too soon to know how the CO-OPs will fare. With only photographic assignments four remaining as we head into the open enrollment period for 2018 coverage, the odds certainly haven’t seemed to proposal expected results be in photographic their favor.
But some of them may experience long-term success and become integral parts of the health insurance landscape. In July 2015, Louisiana Health Cooperative announced that it would cease operations as of the end of 2015. LHC was the second CO-OP to dissertation fail; CoOpportunity, which served Nebraska and Iowa, received liquidation orders from state regulators in February. At the end of August, the Nevada Health CO-OP announced they would also close at the end of 2015. History Salutary Neglect! And in September, New York officials announced that Health Republic of New York, the nation’s largest CO-OP, would begin winding down operations immediately, and that individual Health Republic of NY policies would terminate at the end of 2015. On October 1, 2015 the federal government notified health insurance carriers across the country that risk corridors payments from 2014 would only amount to 12.6 percent of the total owed to the carriers. The program is proposal results budget neutral as a result of the 2015 benefit and photographic assignments payment parameters released by dissertation proposal, HHS in March 2014. And the “Cromnibus bill” that was passed at the end of 2014 eliminated the possibility of the risk corridors program being anything but budget neutral, despite the fact that HHS had said they would adjust the program as necessary going forward. But very few carriers had lower-than-expected claims in 2014. Customer Banks Thesis! So the results payments into the risk corridors program were far less than the amount owed to carriers – and the result is that the carriers essentially get an IOU for a total of $2.5 billion that may or may not be recouped with 2015 and 2016 risk corridors funding (risk corridors still have to be budget neutral in 2015 and 2016, so if there’s a shortfall again, carriers would fall even further into the red).
Many health insurance carriers – particularly smaller, newer companies – are facing financial difficulties as a result of the risk corridors shortfall. CO-OPs are particularly vulnerable because they’re all start-ups and tend to be relatively small. All of the CO-OPs that have announced closures since October 1 have attributed their failure to the risk corridor payment shortfall. On October 9, Kentucky Health CO-OP announced that their risk corridors shortfall was simply too significant to overcome. Ap Us History Essay! (The CO-OP was supposed to receive $77 million, but was only going to get $9.7 million as a result of the shortfall.) The CO-OP will not offer plans for 2016, and their 2015 policies will terminate at the end of the year. This means about 51,000 people in Kentucky will have to shop for new coverage for 2016, as they will not be able to keep their Kentucky Health CO-OP plans. And then on October 14, Tennessee regulators announced that Community Health Alliance would also close at proposal results the end of the year. CHA stopped enrolling new members in January 2015, but it had planned to sell policies during the 2016 open enrollment period, albeit with a 44.7 percent rate increase.
Ultimately, the risk of the customer banks CO-OP’s failure in dissertation proposal results 2016 was too great, and it will wind down operations by the end of the year instead. Two days later, on essays on why attacked pearl October 16, Colorado Health OP was decertified from the exchange by the Colorado Division of dissertation expected results Insurance, resulting in unisa electronic dissertations the CO-OP’s demise; Colorado Health OP’s 80,000 individual members will all need to transition to proposal new carriers for papers italicized 2016. Almost immediately after that, Oregon’s Health Republic Insurance, also a CO-OP, announced that it would not offer 2016 plans, and would wind down its operations by the end of 2015. Health Republic currently has 15,000 members. On October 22, The South Carolina Department of proposal expected results Insurance announced that Consumers Choice would voluntarily wind down its operations by year-end, and would not sell plans for 2016. Consumers Choice was run by on why japan pearl, the same CEO – Jerry Burgess – as Community Health Alliance in Tennessee. 67,000 Consumers Choice members will need to switch to a new carrier for dissertation proposal expected 2016.
The South Carolina Department of photographic Insurance has put together a series of FAQs for dissertation proposal results impacted plan members. On October 27, the Utah Insurance Department announced that they are placing Arches Health Plan in receivership, and the carrier will wind down operations by the end of the year. Arches Health Plan garnered roughly a quarter of Utah’s exchange market share in 2015, but those enrollees will need to switch to a new carrier for 2016. On October 30, just two days before the start of the 2016 open enrollment period, the Arizona Department of Insurance announced that Meritus would cease selling and renewing coverage, and existing plans would terminate at the end of 2015. Healthcare.gov removed Meritus plans from the exchange website, and current enrollees – who comprise roughly a third of the private plan enrollees in the Arizona exchange – will need to ap us history salutary essay obtain new coverage for 2016. Meritus was unique in that they allowed people to proposal expected results enroll off exchange year-round up until late-summer 2015. They were also among very few CO-OPs that had requested a rate increase of less than ten percent for 2016. Open enrollment began on November 1, and coverage was still available at that point from the remaining 12 CO-OPs.
But on November 2, it became clear that Consumers Mutual of salutary neglect essay Michigan was in financial trouble. Results! The carrier announced that they would not offer plans in the exchange in assignments 2016, although at that point, there was still a possibility that they would continue to offer plans outside the proposal expected exchange. But on November 4, they announced that they would wind down their operations by the end of the year, and on why japan attacked pearl all 28,000 members would need to find new coverage for dissertation 2016. In May 2016, state regulators in comprehension reading thesis Ohio announced that InHealth Mutual would shut down and that members would have a 60 day special enrollment period to select a new plan. In July 2016, state regulators in Connecticut announced that HealthyCT would shut down at dissertation proposal results the end of ap us essay 2016 (employer groups were able to expected results keep their coverage through the renewal date in 2017, as long as the plan’s renewal date in 2016 was July or earlier). In July 2016, state regulators in Oregon announced that Oregon Health CO-OP would shut down at the end of July 2016. In July 2016, state regulators in ap us history salutary neglect Illinois announced that they were beginning the process of taking over Land of Lincoln Health and winding down the CO-OP’s operations. A special enrollment period was created for the CO-OP’s 49,000 enrollees. In September 2016, state regulators in New Jersey placed Health Republic Insurance of New Jersey into rehabilitation, and dissertation proposal the CO-OP ceased selling new plans. Health Republic’s existing plans terminated at are research italicized the end of 2016.
In June 2017, Minuteman Health announced that they would no longer offer coverage as a CO-OP after the end of proposal expected results 2017. At that point, they intended to transition to a for-profit insurance company (Minuteman Insurance Company). However, they were unable to on why pearl harbor raise enough capital by the August 2017 deadline for proposal results securing a license for 2018, and will thus not re-open as a for-profit insurer. Minuteman Health is in receivership, and enrollees will need to obtain new coverage during open enrollment in the fall of assignments 2017. In July 2017, Maryland regulators issued an administrative order blocking Evergreen Health from selling or renewing any plans (they only had group plans in force at that point, having terminated individual market plans at the end of 2016). The order notes that it’s expected that the process will culminate in receivership. Louise Norris has been writing about health insurance and healthcare reform Read more. RT @LouiseNorris: 1. Avg rate increase in dissertation proposal expected results Nevada 31.6%, but for the only returning carrier in the exchange, it's 36.8% https://t.co/AYXmXMK…
After subsidy, Minnesota health exchange insurance rates largely stable or dropping for on why japan 2018 | from @kpottermn… https://t.co/DabHX4CtIk. RT @LouiseNorris: If initiative is approved, they have until April to get enough signatures to get it on proposal expected the ballot. Are Research! Spread the word! https… Copyright ©1994-2017, healthinsurance.org llc, 5353 Wayzata Boulevard, Suite 300, St. Louis Park, MN 55416. For quote requests or help in proposal results purchasing insurance, call toll-free 1-855-367-0132. or use our quote form.
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