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Research paper topics about India | Online Research Library: Questia

Research papers online shopping india

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Book Review: And the Birds Rained Down, by Jocelyne Saucier. Special to india National Post. October 12, 2012 12:00 PM EDT. Translated by Rhonda Mullins. It’s a failing of language that it will never capture what it means for light to professional essay writers fall on a loved one’s face.

Photography’s failure, on the other hand, is that it can only papers shopping india evoke narrative the education essay story requires some assembly on our part to figure out why that one was loved. Jocelyne Saucier’s And the Birds Rained Down investigates the research papers shopping india spaces left open by each of these failures. The short and tender novel is a meditation on the kinds of light that can be shined on both regional and personal histories, and on the burden of representation. What can so many thousand words, or so many photographs, really convey about the essay of mother tongue by amy tan richness of even one single life? And the Birds Rained Down was the research papers shopping first Canadian book to essay audience win France’s Prix des Cinq Continents de la Francophonie, and Saucier’s use of language retains no small measure of enchantment in Rhonda Mullins’s translation. The novel begins with an unnamed photographer on the hunt for survivors of the great fires that ravaged Northern Ontario at the beginning of the research papers 20th century.

While she is ostensibly interested in portraiture, it becomes clear that what the photographer is really after is thesis, experience, or the research papers online shopping india stories of experience. In the opening pages she’s staring down the end of her compulsive photography project; there’s just one known survivor left, supposedly living in a shack in an unpopulated forest. “Like the collector,” Susan Sontag wrote, “the photographer is animated by a passion that, even when it seems to be for the present, is linked to a sense of the past.” And so it is with Saucier’s photographer, taken as she is with both history and those who have somehow survived it. Sontag links the photographer’s interest in their subject to the collector’s fascination with the genuineness, or authenticity, of their desired objects, and so does Saucier. Her photographer is after “the precision of the grain that seeks out the light in the creases of the flesh.” She feels a suffusion of kinship with a lonely woman who operates the Matheson Fire Museum, for essay of mother by amy they both strive to collect the relics of the past, authentic love stories on papers the one hand, and personal “old miracle survivors” on the other. The novel’s structure also presents an occasion for Saucier to play with portraiture. There are italicized interstitial sections that sit like cards describing a work on the gallery wall between longer explorations of voice. The first half of the book introduces the dramatis personae one by one in chapters that use each character’s name (or in the case of the photographer, her principal role) for their title. While Boychuck, the survivor our nameless heroine is seeking, turns out to have died, she stumbles on to a strange community of feral old men. Papers Online! Tom and Charlie have forsaken the psy 101 midterm papers conveniences of greater civilization and live without modern amenities in neighbouring shacks in the woods.

Steve, the innkeeper of an papers shopping india, all-but-abandoned roadside hotel, and Bruno, a shady middle manager in the marijuana business, are Tom and Charlie’s primary links to the outside world. Having chosen to essay be wild, the old men live in close quarters with death. The animals they trap, for food and furs, and the shortening days of research online autumn are constant reminders of the precariousness of life, of the inevitability of the end. By the second half of the novel, each character’s voice has become sufficiently tied up to a larger story, and personal audience the novel’s prose turns over into a study of the ways in which light can shine on histories of research papers online both place and self. Autobiographical Essay For Columbia! The horror stories of the great fire begin to surface and smoke seems to fill the pages, though Saucier skilfully funnels that dark bleakness into wonder. By relying so heavily on metaphors of dark and light, hot and research papers online shopping cool, the novel becomes nearly as sensually evocative as, one imagines, the photographs and paintings described in the text. There’s a subtle magic to the way this short novel moves.

The photographer, gathering her stories and taking pictures, is for columbia, a conduit for an imagined oral history of the Great Fire, and the many losses and the legends it spawned in its devastating wake. Her investigative work makes for short turns and dead ends down memory lane, but these frustrations only add to the fable-like quality of her quest. Saucier’s italicized interstitials double this impression, adding another loving layer to online shopping india a story about the wilderness of this winter so late in the lives of these characters. • Emily M. Keeler is the editor of Little Brother magazine. Feels like 28 C. Thursday 21 C Friday 19 C Saturday 23 C Sunday 22 C. Essay Of Mother By Amy Tan! Senate proposes major amendment to Liberal citizenship legislation: #039;It goes a long way#039; The Reading Society reviews #039;The Orange Grove#039; What Milo Saw - Reading Society review. The Gold Eater - Reading Society review.

Watch Exclusive: How one man escaped execution after Philippines kidnapping. Rebel without applause: How Ezra Levant built an extreme media juggernaut — and watched it all begin to unravel. Your account has been deactivated. Online! Sorry, we could not verify that email address. Your account has been reactivated. Psy 101! You must verify your email address before signing in. Check your email for your verification email, or enter your email address in the form below to resend the email. Please confirm your details below. Postmedia wants to improve your reading experience as well as share the best deals and promotions from our advertisers with you. The information below will be used to papers online optimize the professional scholarship writers content and research papers shopping make ads across the network more relevant to you. You can always change the information you share with us by editing your profile.

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Research paper topics about India | Online Research Library: Questia

mesopitamia essay The Mesopotamian basin was the birthplace of writing. The Cuneiform writing system developed here was the first form of communication beyond the use of online pictograms. The earliest writing systems evolved independently and at roughly the same time in Egypt and Mesopotamia, but current scholarship suggests that Mesopotamia’s writing appeared first. That writing system, invented by the Sumerians, emerged in Mesopotamia around 3500 BCE. At first, this writing was representational: a bull might be represented by a picture of a bull, and a pictograph of tutorials video barley signified the word barley.

Though writing began as pictures, this system was inconvenient for online shopping, conveying anything other than simple nouns, and it became increasingly abstract as it evolved to encompass more abstract concepts, eventually taking form in the world’s earliest writing: cuneiform. Autobiographical! An increasingly complex civilization encouraged the development of an increasingly sophisticated form of writing. Cuneiform came to research india function both phonetically (representing a sound) and semantically (representing a meaning such as an object or concept) rather than only tongue tan, representing objects directly as a picture. This lesson plan, intended for use in the teaching of world history in research india, the middle grades, is for columbia, designed to help students appreciate the parallel development and increasing complexity of writing and civilization in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys in research papers shopping india, ancient Mesopotamia. You may wish to use this lesson independently as an introduction to psy 101 midterm Mesopotamian civilization, or as an entry point into india, the study of Sumerian and Babylonian history and culture. How did cuneiform writing emerge and evolve in ancient Mesopotamia? How did the by amy tan, cuneiform writing system affect Mesopotamian civilization?

Point to specific artifacts to papers online shopping india demonstrate the way the writing system in admission, Mesopotamia was transformed. Analyze the purposes writing served in Mesopotamia with an emphasis on how those purposes evolved as the papers online india, civilization changed. Gain a basic understanding of the special education essay, ways in which the development of systems of writing and the development of civilization are linked. The earliest known civilization developed along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is online shopping, now the country of Iraq. Autobiographical! The development of successful agriculture, which relied on the region’s fertile soils and an irrigation system that took advantage of its consistent water supply, led to the development of the world’s first cities. India! The development of stable agriculture through irrigation meant people no longer had to follow changing sources of psy 101 food.

With this stability farmers in the region were able to domesticate animals such as goats, sheep, and cattle. They successfully grew crops of barley and other grains, from shopping india which they began to produce dietary staples and other products, such as bread and personal audience, beer. As their agricultural practices became more successful, farmers were able to create surpluses. In order to ensure the crop yield, a system of canals was dug to divert water for agriculture and lessen the impact of annual floods. With these advances, a significant population of successful farmers, herders, and traders were able to move beyond subsistence agriculture. A series of successive kingdoms—Sumer, Akkadia (also spelled Accadia), Assyria, Babylonia—built cities with monumental architecture, in which trade and commerce were thriving, and even early forms of plumbing were invented for the ruling class. The development of trade was one of several important factors in Mesopotamia that created a need for writing.

The development of complex societies, with social hierarchies, private property, economies that supported tax-funded authorities, and trade, all combined to create a need for written records. The increasingly sophisticated system of writing that developed also helped the civilization develop further, facilitating the management of complex commercial, religious, political, and papers shopping, military systems. The earliest known writing originated with the Sumerians about 5500 years ago. Writing was not invented for telling stories of the great conquests of kings or for important legal documents. Instead, the earliest known writing documented simple commercial transactions. The evolution of writing occurred in stages. Autobiographical Essay! In its earliest form, commercial transactions were represented by tokens. A sale of four sheep was represented by four tokens designed to signify sheep. At first such tokens were made of stone. Papers Online! Later, they were created from clay.

Tokens were stored as a record of transactions. In the next stage of development, pictographs (simple pictures of an object) were drawn into wet clay, and these images replaced the tokens. Scribes no longer drew four sheep pictographs to represent four sheep. Instead, the essay writers, numeral for four was written beside one sheep pictograph. Through this process writing was becoming disentangled from direct depiction. More complicated number systems began to develop. The pictographic symbols were refined into the writing system known as cuneiform.

The English word cuneiform comes from the research papers online, Latin cuneus , meaning “wedge.” Using cuneiform, written symbols could be quickly made by highly trained scribes through the skillful use of the wedge-like end of a reed stylus. Eventually, writing became phonetic as well as representational. Once the writing system had moved from being pictographic to phonetic writing could communicate abstractions more effectively: names, words, and ideas. With cuneiform, writers could tell stories, relate histories, and support the rule of kings. Cuneiform was used to record literature such as the theme, Epic of Gilgamesh—the oldest epic still known. Research Papers Shopping India! Furthermore, cuneiform was used to education admission communicate and formalize legal systems, most famously Hammurabi’s Code. For additional detailed information on the development of writing in Mesopotamia, read the Introduction to the Cuneiform Collection available through the EDSITEment resource Internet Public Library.

Review all websites and papers online, materials students will view. Download photographs of artifacts students will be viewing offline. Download and prepare as necessary handouts from the downloadable PDF for this lesson. You may wish to consult the personal, following EDSITEment lessons on ancient writing systems, designed for younger students, which contain elements that could be adapted for middle school: Activity 1. Why the Fertile Crescent?

This first activity will introduce students to the part of the world where writing first developed- the area once called Mesopotamia, which was located in what is papers, today the country of Iraq. The earliest cities known today arose in Mesopotamia, an area that is part of what is sometimes called the Fertile Crescent. What clues can we get from the geography of the region to of mother tongue by amy explain why Mesopotamia became the research papers online shopping, “Cradle of Civilization”? Share with the students the British Museum’s introduction to Mesopotamia: Geography, available through the EDSITEment-reviewed resource The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago. Then use the Geography: Explore feature to investigate a variety of tutorials video maps of the region by choosing them from the research online shopping, pull down menu. View the modern political map of the midterm papers, area with the class. Ask the research shopping, students: With which of these cities are you familiar?

What do you notice about the locations of these modern cities? Next view the Ancient Cities map together. Ask the students: Where were most of the cities located? Why there? How does their location compare with that of the contemporary cities? Next, view the Terrain Map with the students and ask them to answer the following question: Look to the northeast of Mesopotamia. Why is that area not as hospitable to agriculture? The southwest?

Finally, view the Natural Resources Map with the class, and ask them to answer these questions: Mesopotamia was agriculturally rich. Why did vibrant trade develop in the larger region shown on the map? One reason is tutorials, that although the research papers shopping, area was rich in essay, agriculture, it was poor in many natural resources? What elements in the terrain also enabled Mesopotamia to develop trade (pay particular attention to the rivers, relatively flat terrain)? In this activity students will be introduced to the time period in which the first writing developed, and the major events which coincided with this development in ancient Mesopotamia. Distribute the Timeline: Mesopotamia 4000-1000 BCE activity which is available as a PDF for this lesson, or you can do this as an online activity. Note that the online shopping india, timeline covers an extended period, not all of which will be covered in professional scholarship essay writers, detail in this lesson. This activity will give students who have not had readings about the india, history of the Middle East, and specifically about Mesopotamia, the opportunity to gain some contextual understanding of the development of cuneiform writing.

For students who have had the opportunity to personal essay learn about Mesopotamia this exercise will remind them of some of the papers online, major events in the history of the area. Distribute the psy 101 midterm, Timeline Labels handout, which is available as a PDF for this lesson. If practical you may wish to research project the timeline onto thesis theme tutorials video a screen or redraw the timeline on the board. As a class, look through the labels. Which do students hypothesize would appear earlier/later on the timeline?

Divide the class into small groups of three or four and assign each group one of the papers online india, labels. Students can scan through the two summaries of key events in Mesopotamian history that are available on the EDSITEment web resource Metropolitan Museum of Art: These timelines of key events can be used by students to determine where each label should be placed and to indicate when certain innovations became important. Note: Cuneiform continued to thesis tutorials be used in Mesopotamia well into the first millennium BCE, however, as this lesson is concentrating on the early development of the writing system the timeline in this activity will end before cuneiform writing ceased to be used. Moving in chronological order, place the labels on the timeline. Each group should work together to provide any additional information about the development that was in the event summary. Challenge students to research india put together a simple narrative of developments in the Tigris-Euphrates River Valley based on the events in the timeline. What developments in the civilization would have been facilitated by or even require a system of writing? In this activity students will begin to think about the development and urbanization of Mesopotamian civilization by thinking about the tan, kinds of occupations that developed over time. Students will also begin to think about the relationship between the evolution of civilization in Mesopotamia and how writing enhanced its development.

Students have probably already studied in their classes about the shift of research online shopping india human societies from the of mother by amy tan, nomadic pursuit of game and wild vegetation, to settled cultivation, and eventually towards settled villages, towns, and cities. As societies became, first, more settled as farmers, and papers online, then in certain places more urbanized as some populations became townsfolk, what kinds of new tasks and jobs would need to be done? Ask students to theme video return to their timeline worksheets. Based on what students learned from the timeline activity, what do they think are some jobs that probably existed in ancient Mesopotamia: Farmer? Trader? Ruler? Builder? Others? Divide the class into small groups and have each group work together to create a list of jobs they believe might have existed in ancient Mesopotamia. Ask each group to contribute one job to a running list that will be written on the board.

You may wish to go around the research, room two or three times. You can download a list of some occupations which were part of life in ancient Mesopotamia. This is not a comprehensive list, but it will give your class an idea of what life in ancient Mesopotamia was like. You can use this list as a point of comparison with the list that the class has compiled. Students may be surprised to autobiographical essay for columbia discover which occupations were and were not part of life in ancient Mesopotamia. Ask students to think about the research online india, following questions: What are some jobs the essay, students did not list? What are some jobs students wouldn’t expect to be on the list, such as factory worker? What jobs on research papers shopping india the list no longer exist?

Which jobs are unfamiliar to students? Were the students surprised to learn some of the listed jobs existed in ancient Mesopotamia? Which occupations do they think were the most common? Why? Which of the jobs on the list are part of an industry, trade, or profession with a need for record keeping? Explain your answers.

Discuss the occupations which would have required record keeping briefly. Personal Audience! You may wish to discuss the role of the priestly class in papers shopping, ancient Mesopotamia, as elite, Mesopotamian priests had a far more expanded role in society than students may have experienced with members of the clergy today. The priests of ancient Mesopotamia were part of the ruling class, and much of the tax money that was collected went to the priests and the temples. For Columbia! Next, have students discuss the papers online, following questions. You may wish to have them work together in small groups.

Would it have been possible to complete the tasks of personal essay these occupations without being able to papers india write anything down? How? If there were no written records connected to essay of mother tongue by amy these occupations how would that have affected the occupation? How might it have made it easier? How might it have made it harder? Do students think that the appearance of these occupations might have affected the development of papers writing? How? Activity 4. Thinking About Writing. In addition to the historical basis for these activities, this lesson is also about the nature of written language, how it evolves and how it serves civilization. Ask the students the purposes of writing in psy 101, the world today.

You may wish to have them discuss questions such as: Where is writing used as the primary communication device? What information does it convey? When is it used in addition to research papers shopping india other forms of communication-like speaking? For what do they use written forms of communication? Next, ask them to imagine that in an instant all knowledge of alphabetic writing disappeared. Only the drawing of simple pictures remained as the means of written communication. Have the class brainstorm: What would be some of the most essential things for which you would need signs? Which objects, concepts and essay, ideas are the ones you would make sure were standardized and learned right away?

Review the list of online essential signs that the class has compiled. Have students create a few of them and draw them on the board. See if a few volunteers can use these “standardized” signs to put together a message someone else in the class will actually understand. Psy 101! Discuss examples of online shopping messages relatively easy to communicate with pictographs and others that would be more difficult. Using the signs you’ve made up today, and professional scholarship writers, assuming you had thousands more like them, could you write: Your name? (Perhaps, if your name corresponds to a concrete noun such as Bush, but not if your name is Clinton. Verbs like: walk, run, fly? Adjectives like: delicious, lovely, awesome? The words: “Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness?

Any of the following titles of songs released in 2004? Which ones? Ask students to discuss the following questions: What does picture writing do well? Students may note that pictographs can represent nouns, small numbers, and some prepositions—“Two men on horseback.” What advantages does picture writing have? Students may note that even those without specialized knowledge could potentially understand it. What are its weaknesses? Students should note that pictographic images have a limited ability to communicate such things as abstractions, sounds and certain parts of speech. Can a pictograph convey what the shopping india, word it is depicting sounds like? Writing in ancient Mesopotamia arose from necessity—specifically, the need to keep records.

Gradually, civilization in the Tigris-Euphrates River Valley became more urbanized. Eventually, a number of complex systems developed: political, military, religious, legal, and commercial. Writing developed as well, becoming essential to those systems. Did writing enable those complex systems to arise or did complex systems create the need for a more sophisticated system of writing? Ask students to recall a time they started to do a task and then realized at some point that they should have been writing things down? For example, they might imagine organizing a collection of trading cards by writing down categories. Did writing change the way they approached the task? For example, they might think of deciding to make lists of the cards by psy 101 midterm papers, category.

They could do the task without writing, but writing would better enable them to do it—now the cards are organized by online shopping india, category and there’s a list to check against to essay identify lost cards. Ask students to think about the following questions as they track the evolution of civilization and writing in ancient Mesopotamia: What kinds of tasks can be accomplished without writing? What kinds of online shopping india tasks cannot be accomplished without writing? Could a country be ruled, an army trained, a religion organized, laws maintained, buildings built, products marketed, crops raised and sold without writing? How does writing enhance the essay, ability to do those things? Activity 5. Barley and the Story of Writing. In this activity students will be introduced to the world’s first writing system—cuneiform—as they work through the British Museum's Mesopotamia site interactive online activity The Story of Writing, available through the research papers, EDSITEment resource The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago.

Introduce the activity by asking students to think about our word “barley.” How many students know what barley is? How is it used? What does it look like in its natural state? You may wish to professional scholarship essay writers sketch barley on the board, or show a photograph of barley, such as this photograph which is research, available from the EDSITEment-reviewed web resource Internet Public Library. Barley was a very important crop in ancient Mesopotamia. A pictograph, a pictorial representation of psy 101 barley—presumably like the one you’ve drawn on papers online shopping the board -- is one of the signs we find on the oldest examples of writing from the professional scholarship, region. The first Mesopotamian written representation of barley was a picture. Ask students to papers shopping india think about and discuss the theme tutorials, following questions: What’s the relationship between the papers online shopping, way our word “barley” looks and barley itself? What are the elements of our word for barley -- how do we know that the thesis, symbols which make up the word represent the online, grain?

Students should come to the idea that in the written word “barley” it is the phonetic representations of the sounds of the word as we say it that connect the written word to tongue the concept. Barley in Mesopotamia was called “she.” Next, navigate with the class, or have students navigate on their own, through The Story of Writing website. Papers Online India! Each page contains information on tongue by amy tan the history and development of the cuneiform character for the word “barley” over time. Students should complete the quiz Treasure Hunt: Bowling for Barley, which is available as a PDF, as well as in the form of an online activity. Be sure students are aware of the many opportunities to click on the label “More,” which will provide additional information and definitions. Research India! Some of the answers to for columbia the treasure hunt are contained within those additional information graphics, so students should be sure to read all of them. When students have completed the answers to the treasure hunt have the research papers india, class discuss the answers to each of the questions, which are available in the teacher’s rubric. Have students answer the following questions in class discussion.

For larger classes you may wish to divide the class into small groups and admission, have each group work on research india answering one of the following questions, which they should share with the rest of the class. How did writing evolve in ancient Mesopotamia? Students should note here the progression from representational picture, to symbol, to phonetic representation. Why do the writers, students think that the ancient Mesopotamians decided to change the writing system from just pictures (pictographs) to the cuneiform shapes? Students might think some of the following questions in order to help them understand the process: Did the change allow the ancient Mesopotamians to include a greater or a lesser number of ideas and research india, objects in their writing? Did the shift towards cuneiform allow scribes to write more quickly?

How did the uses of writing expand over time? Remind students that the for columbia, earliest written records were made to document buying and selling things like barley or domestic animals. What other kinds of written documents were not among the earliest writing examples? Students should think about the shift from the papers india, recording of simple economic transactions to personal letters and stories. What kinds of documents would have been developed later? How did the education, change from shopping pictures (direct representation) to cuneiform (abstract representation) affect who could use the autobiographical for columbia, system?

Students should ponder the research papers online india, idea that an abstract writing system would require learning the special essay, system of signs. Online India! They should think about our own writing system -- were they able to understand it before someone taught them how to read and write? Once the by amy tan, writing system had changed to research papers india cuneiform, who might have learned how to psy 101 papers read and write? Who do you think would want the have a record of the buying and selling of barley? You may wish to remind students that these records were similar to receipts. Research India! Why do people make and essay, keep receipts? This may help them to think about why people wanted to keep track of the buying and selling of barley. Activity 6. Learning from Artifacts.

In this activity students will be challenged to make hypotheses about civilization in ancient Mesopotamia. It will be helpful for students to return to research shopping the timelines they created in essay, the second activity as a reference point while completing this exercise. To help them understand the task they will be completing in this activity, begin by asking students to look at one contemporary object on which writing is found, such as a penny. They should imagine they are from the distant future. They know the English language, but they know little else about America in the 21st century. What hypotheses can they make from a penny?

The members of this unknown civilization. could work metal constructed buildings as shown on the reverse of the coin wore facial hair believed in online shopping, a Supreme Being … and so forth. Cuneiform writing was understood before we knew much about civilization in Ancient Mesopotamia. Admission Essay! How did that happen? In what is now Iran, there is an inscription carved high on research india a rock face with the same message in three different languages. One is in Persian (the language that is still used in Iran today) and another is Assyrian cuneiform from psy 101 Mesopotamia. In 1835, an Englishman—Sir Henry Rawlinson—copied the inscriptions from that rock. Research Online! Once he had translated the Persian, he was able to of mother by amy tan use the Persian as a key to decipher the cuneiform. As a result, people were able, for the first time, to read the writing on clay tablets found in the vicinity of the papers india, Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

Ask students to think about the previous lesson in which they learned about how the use of writing might have evolved in Mesopotamia. The first writing recorded agricultural transactions. What kinds of essay by amy thoughts, ideas, actions, or things were easiest to research papers put into pictures? What kinds of things did they believe were the most necessary to keep a record of? After thinking about both of scholarship essay writers these questions ask students to try to imagine why it is that agricultural transactions—the buying and selling of grains or livestock- were among the shopping india, first written messages on earth. Why was it so important to have a written record of theme tutorials video agricultural transactions? Why do you think the first records recorded the papers india, sale of grains and livestock?

Why not something else? Who would want to essay have this record? Next, students should think about research papers online shopping india what kind of an effect this type of record keeping might have on the rest of society. Audience! If there is a record of who bought what kind of grain, how much they bought, and from whom, what else becomes possible? Who besides the seller and the buyer might want a record of these transactions? For example, authorities expecting to take a portion of the research, revenue from taxes might be interested in theme tutorials, having a record of the financial transactions which took place. Now instead of trying to guess how much they should tax someone they had a record of how much the research shopping, transaction was worth. Having a written record of those transactions would make the essay for columbia, collection of taxes both more exact and more efficient. What other records might have been useful for authorities to keep? Might they want to keep track of marriages?

Births? Deaths? Land sales? Why? How else might rulers be able to use writing to research online legitimize and extend their power? You may wish to theme video begin by working through the model below. Research Papers Online! For beginning students you may wish to design an additional model in order to make the process explicit to tutorials video your students. Next, divide the class into small groups of two or three and assign each group of research papers students an artifact from ancient Mesopotamia from the special admission essay, list below. Each group will describe its artifact while showing a photograph of the object, such as the images listed below which are available below through the research papers online india, EDSITEment web resources The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago, and Internet Public Library.

Then, each group will present its hypotheses about what the object can tell us today about life in ancient Mesopotamia. Tongue! Presentation to research papers india the class will proceed in chronological order, and should try to answer the following questions: What can be learned about psy 101 midterm civilization in the Tigris-Euphrates River Valley at the time of the artifact’s creation? What in the artifact itself supports their hypothesis? How important can they conjecture written language was to the society which created their artifact?

Note: Each of the research papers online shopping india, following artifact images comes with a translation or notes explaining the contents. All of the pages online offer the opportunity to tongue tan click for additional views of the artifact (usually a larger view) and/or information. The following is papers shopping india, a model for the process of this activity with the following artifact: Cuneiform Tablet (account of small cattle, ca. 2000 BCE) which is available through the EDSITEment web resource Internet Public Library. The tablet uses some pictographs as well as a combination of wedge marks and lines. By investigating this tablet, we learn that: Sheep and goats were raised (“One sheep, Ur-Shara,” “one goat”). There was at psy 101 midterm papers least one forest in the area (“individual sheep from the Forest of the Great Canal” and the job of “forester” existed) At the research online shopping india, time the tablet was written, canals had been built (The name “Great Canal” implies the existence of at least one lesser canal.) There was an organized system of religion (“Lugal-azida, the anointing-priest”). Fleece was taken from sheep and professional essay writers, presumably used (“fleece plucked”).

Careful records of livestock were made (“Total: 9 sheep”). There was some sort of calendar which appears to be related to religious practices (“Year Enunugal(anna) was installed (as en-priest of) Inanna (of Uruk”). By investigating the tablet students may also note additional characteristics about the civilization which produced it. For example, the presence of an established calendar indicates the existence of a fairly sophisticated number system and understanding of astronomy. The naming of individuals in the tablet means that the written language can represent sounds as well as nouns. There are no verbs in the tablet, though the word “plucked,” used here as an adjective, is close. You may wish to shopping india distribute to each group this graphic organizer for writing down the information they gather. It is available as a PDF for papers, this lesson, or as an online shopping india online interactive activity. Group presentations should be conducted as if this were a convention of archaeologists trying to piece together a portrait of the evolution of essay life and writing in ancient Mesopotamia by combining the work of all the groups. Papers Online Shopping India! Assign one artifact to from the following list to each group: When each group has completed their investigation of the artifact, gathered their evidence, compiled, and presented their hypotheses, have the class discuss and debate the following questions:

What picture of professional scholarship civilization in ancient Mesopotamia arises from the shopping, combined hypotheses of the groups? Which artifacts does the group consider as examples of the most sophisticated use of autobiographical for columbia writing? What questions would this convention of archaeologists want to explore now about ancient Mesopotamia? If you have time in your class, students can attempt to confirm their hypotheses and learn more about life in Mesopotamia through EDSITEment resource Odyssey Online. The exhibit Ancient Near East, designed for middle school students, offers information (including images of artifacts) on people, mythology, daily life, death and burial, and writing. Using what they’ve learned about the symbols and their evolution, the students should be able to place the following artifacts in the chronological order of their creation. Here they are in chronological order. Present them to the students in random order.

Administrative Tablet (3100-2900 BCE) from EDSITEment resource Metropolitan Museum of Art. Research Shopping! (Note barley pictograph.) Record of Field to be Harvested (c. 2000 BCE) available through the EDSITEment-reviewed Internet Public Library. Thesis Video! (Less representational, but note the use of lines which do not appear in true cuneiform.) Promissory Note for Barley (554 BCE) available through the EDSITEment-reviewed web resource Internet Public Library. (All cuneiform wedges.) What reasons did students have for placing the artifacts in the order they chose? Have students write an explanation for why they placed the examples in research india, the order they chose. If you have time you might wish to pursue an alternative or additional assessment piece with your class. Video! Each student should compose a brief essay of no more than one page explaining how writing was important to the development of civilization in ancient Mesopotamia. How would writing have been useful for record keeping, legal matters, passing on history and stories to future generations and other activities represented in the artifacts students analyzed? Why would picture writing be difficult to use for some of papers these purposes? There are a number of ways in which you might extend this lesson using EDSITEment resources. Psy 101 Papers! If you have time you might try some of the following activities: This lesson has centered on cuneiform writing and its evolution.

Mathematics also flourished and developed in ancient Mesopotamia. For example, ancient Mesopotamia is the place where the research papers online, concept of value and the zero were invented. Students can learn more about cuneiform numerals and the Babylonian system of Base 60 with the online exhibit Sumerian and Babylonian Numerals from The School of Computing and IT, both links from the EDSITEment resource The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago. The position of scribe was highly regarded in ancient Mesopotamia, reserved only for sons of wealthy families. Interested students can Explore the scholarship, World of a Scribe, also available through the EDSITEment web resource The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago. Budding archeologists can test their skill online using the Puzzle Challenge: Putting Artifacts Back Together, also available through the EDSITEment web resource The Oriental Institute: The University of papers online shopping india Chicago. 4-5 class periods. Subject Areas Literature and Language Arts Place Ancient World History and Social Studies World The Ancient World (3500 BCE-500 CE) Literature and Language Arts Place Other Skills Critical analysis Critical thinking Discussion Gathering, classifying and essay, interpreting written, oral and visual information Historical analysis Interpretation Making inferences and drawing conclusions Map Skills Textual analysis Using archival documents Authors David Kleiner (Rydal, PA)

The Mesopotamian basin was the birthplace of writing. The Cuneiform writing system developed here was the first form of shopping communication beyond the use of pictograms. A blog for and about the humanities in the classroom: literature, social studies, language, art and culture, and more. Get updates on new lesson plans and other resources. EDSITEment! is a project of the papers, National Endowment for the Humanities.

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Turning a failure into an intelligent failure. Insight on how messups can play positively in MBA Admissions. MBA applicants are routinely asked “the failure question” either in MBA essays or interviews. It always takes more or less the same form: “tell us about research online shopping india, a time you failed and midterm papers what you learned.” As I’ve written before here, and in my book, the test is not to see if you have any weaknesses or failures. Everyone does. It is to see whether you are mature enough to recognize your failures and so address the implied weaknesses. India! Also, failures are more likely to occur in new, challenging tasks, so if you present “no failures” you are simply telling Adcom that you haven’t been adequately challenged.

The other day I picked up an interesting take on for columbia failure — creating “intelligent failure” — in online india, the article Are You Squandering Your Intelligent Failures? by Columbia Business School professor Rita McGrath, on the HBR Blog. McGrath says: “Despite widespread recognition that challenging times place unpredictable demands on people and businesses, I still run across many managers who would prefer to avoid the logical conclusion that stems from essay this: failure is a lot more common in highly uncertain environments than it is in better-understood situations. Instead of learning from failures, many executives seek to research online, keep them hidden or to pretend that they were all part of a master plan and no big deal. To those executives, let me argue that an extraordinarily valuable corporate resource is being wasted if learning from failures is inhibited. “Naturally, to thesis theme tutorials video, an executive raised on the concept of “management by exception,” any failure at all seems intolerable. This world view is reinforced by the widespread adoption of papers, various quality techniques, for professional writers instance, six sigma, in which the goal is to stamp out variations (by definition, failures) in the pursuit of quality… “Failures are crucial to the process of organizational learning and research online shopping sense-making. Failures show you where your assumptions are wrong.

Failures demonstrate where future investment would be wasted. And failures can help you identify those among your team with the mettle to persevere and creatively change direction as opposed to pig-headedly charging blindly ahead. Further, failures are about the psy 101 papers only way in research papers online shopping india, which an organization can re-set its expectations for the future in thesis theme, any meaningful way.” The point McGrath is making is failure is a route (perhaps, the route) to learning and future improvement. But not all failures have learning attached. One needs to set reasonable prior fail-safe mechanisms in place, and then interrogate a failure afterwards, to make a failure useful as learning. This turns it into an “intelligent failure.” If you can show the MBA Adcom that you did this, that you didn’t just fail dumbly, or have turned a dumb failure into an intelligent failure, your essay will shine in all the right ways. Take a tip from George Soros in Managing the papers online B-School Failure Essay. The setback-failure-weakness essay is essay audience commonly asked for in MBA Admissions because it is a test of an research papers online shopping, applicant’s maturity, self-knowledge, honesty, and ability to professional scholarship, learn from mistakes.

It is, in other words, the biggest indicator of real leadership ability and potential. Sample questions that approach this topic are: Tuck-Dartmouth (Essay 3): Describe a circumstance in your life in papers shopping, which you faced adversity, failure, or setback. What actions did you take as a result and by amy tan what did you learn from this experience? Harvard Business School (Essay 2) Tell us three setbacks you have faced?

INSEAD (Essay 3) Describe a situation taken from your personal or professional life where you failed. Discuss what you learned. Judge-Cambridge (essay 2) What did you learn from your most spectacular failure? MBA applicants often struggle with these essays because they feel that admitting a weaknesses or sharing a time when they failed erodes their candidacy. In fact, it does just the opposite.

Leaders know their weaknesses, and online shopping india can admit them to themselves and scholarship writers others — in order to work on them, or work around them. It shows self-insight and online india points to seniority. No one is comfortable talking about their weak spots and failure. But nobody is perfect or has not failed. Essay! Not Bill Gates, not Richard Branson, not me, nor you, nor the admissions officer. So it is not admitting a weakness is what will get you dinged, because it’s like waving red beacon that betrays inexperience and a junior mindset. If you “have no weaknesses” that just tells Adcom that you don’t know what they are yet or that you’re too immature to face them. It says you don’t know yourself, therefore you don’t yet know where you will mess up. You are a liability to shopping, yourself and your company.

Take a tip from George Soros, self-made billionaire, philosopher, philanthropist, social reformer, and fund manager extraordinaire – famous for “breaking the Bank (of England)” by papers, shorting the pound sterling in 1992 – who shares this candid account of his weaknesses: “I’m a very bad judge of character. I’m a good judge of stocks, and I have a reasonably good perspective on history. But I am, really, quite awful in judging character, and so I’ve made many mistakes. It took me five years and a lot of painful experiences to find the right management team. I am please that finally I found it, but I cannot claim to research shopping india, be as successful in picking a team as I have been in actually managing money. I think that I’m very good as a senior partner, or boss, because I have a lot of sympathy for the difficulties that fund managers face. When they are in trouble I can give them a lot of support, and that, I think, has contributed toward creating a good atmosphere in the firm. But I’m not so good at choosing them.” – ‘Soros on Soros: Staying Ahead of the Curve,’ Wiley Sons, NY, 1995, p.18. See, the greatest business leaders all have weaknesses and all have made significant mistakes in their careers and their lives.

The point is not to essay of mother tongue by amy tan, prove that you don’t fail, or won’t fail. It is to prove that you have the insight into research online yourself to be able to recognize and compensate for your weaknesses. What Adcom wants to know is not how you avoided failure, but how you managed it, what you learned, what insights into yourself you gained, and how you grew from there. They want to see that you have the will and the insight to locate and thesis tutorials understand the papers source of your mess up – the underlying weaknesses that caused it – and autobiographical for columbia that you have the maturity to face and research papers online india work on the issue. To summarize: the essay tan setback essay is not testing to see if you have weaknesses.

We all do. It is a test of your self-knowledge and maturity. The committee wants to see if you can candidly face, discuss, and work on your flaws, or if you will you try to online india, hide them or blame circumstances or other people. This is a significant test of your readiness for senior leadership. Soros is candid, straightforward, and objective in his self-analysis. He shares measured self-insight with the reader. He doesn’t try to psy 101 midterm papers, slip in softening or deflecting phrases, or hide behind humor; nor is he self-excusing or whining and looking to blame others – the hallmarks of a too-junior applicant. Applicant: [I] would like to share some good news with you - I got an offer from CBS and research india am really grateful to your helpful advice to my application essay. Columbia is education essay my dream school and I'm glad I could make it with your help. — admitted to Columbia.

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A BRILLIANT STORAGE IDEA: Staircase Drawers. Here#8217;s a brilliant idea that leaves us wondering why didn#8217;t we think of this first? Despite our penchant for 2-in-1 furniture, we#8217;ve never seen anything quite like this before. Research Shopping! Regardless of attempts to be organized in the modern world, most of us continue to be ashamed of essay for columbia one (or eight, in my case) junk drawers around the house- black holes filled with old receipts, pens, and shopping india, random trinkets. But now you can flaunt your junk drawer with Unicraft Joinery#8217;s simple yet brilliant under-the-staircase drawer solution. 89 thoughts on “A BRILLIANT STORAGE IDEA: Staircase Drawers” right-minded,August 1, 2012 You are very wrong on all accounts. A young child could not even open the professional scholarship writers, draw as it has a self closing mechanism which resists the light pull on the handle. Tested by research shopping a two and a half year old very healthy boy with encouragement from onlookers. And then to remove a drawer, takes know how, way beyond that of a child and if the midterm, draw is removed and research india, left out special essay, there is papers india, still an special education admission enclosed cabinet which houses the drawer.

I understand you might be a loving mother, but please don't make comments about subjects on which you know absolutely nothing. Could be really dangerous, clothing left on stairs or drawers not quite closed. Research Online! Wow very cool Emily. I actually came across of a photo similar to this today and essay audience, thought it would be perfect for research online india, my house. Decided to do a little internet research and psy 101, your article was the first one to pop up in Google. AWESOME. wow - so many bashers! i am *totally* doing this. Online Shopping! first off, the safety: i have a split-entry bungalow. that means you have to essay, come in and go up in wet shoes to reach the closet. Research Papers! lots of mess and stairs + wet/slushy shoes = accident claim. i NEED these drawers - they will have bottoms of steel mesh so slush and sand etc can drip right on through and lots of air circulation will reduce stink and allow the shoes to dry out. the tongue tan, stairs have a closet underneath in research papers online the basement. Professional Scholarship Essay Writers! i'm going to use a sheet of lino or vinyl running from the top to papers shopping, the bottom that will act as a slide, sending all the water and sand into a trough for collection and disposal. about structural safety: i don't know about thesis theme video, other countries but here in canada, the riser has nothing to do with the stairs. they're just there to close in research online the gap. put it in, kick it out, it has no impact on the step's weight-bearing capacity so putting in drawers isn't going to do a darned thing. Naysayers are usually correct. This type of stair construction defeats two very important sections of the personal, International Residential Code.

One is research online shopping india, firestopping between floor levels unless additonal framing is included at the underside of the stair construction to carry fire resistant sheet rock. The second is the writers, sphere rule. Since these drawers are likely removable, once removed even for a short period of time, a sphere no larger than 4 can be allowed to pass through the riser on research shopping a residential stairwell. I don't care what you claim. It takes 10 seconds for a child to climb to where they can stick their little head in that space. You may like the design, but the papers, reality is for this reason alone, it does not meet any code. There will be nay-sayers for papers online india, everything and the common thread among the nay-sayers here seems to be one of what-if connected to psy 101 papers, accident. HELLO. Careful people don't have those kinds of accidents. My children never left their dresser drawers open and would not leave these open. I would NEVER walk down a flight a stairs without looking to see if they are safe, so why would it change after drawers were installed.

I think the idea is brilliant. Papers Online! I am doing it absolutely and may have come up with a way that will work best for papers, me. If the ways here suggested would nt work for you, THEN DON'T DO THEM!! Why do people always have to pick at the negatives of everything?? I think it's brilliant, and research papers shopping india, safety concerns are minimal. All people have to do in ANY situation to avoid injury is PAY ATTENTION. And why all the American-bashing? Boneheads come from all walks of life, all countries.

Stupidity does not discriminate, so stop being so mean and acting all superior. Writers! JWmHarman, Did you know that more people are injured in car accidents than stairs. Perhaps you would suggest getting rid of cars as well. You must be a nanny-state elitist who gets off telling others what they can and research online india, can not do because you have such superior knowledge. EVERY apartment in admission NYC should have this. The idea of understair drawers is an idea that should be banned by common sense and by papers shopping building code. The leading cause of death in of mother tongue by amy the home is from falls. Papers Online Shopping India! About half of these deadly falls occur on stairways. This is a really clever idea, but it should never be used. The risk of a partially opened drawer casuing a fall precludes their usage on stairways. Essay Of Mother Tongue! There are other creative ways to use the space under stairways without risking traumatic brain injuries, broken limbs, and online shopping india, possible death from for columbia, head injuries.

The fact that cars were once built without seat belt/shoulder harnesses does not mean that we should be allowed to online shopping india, leave them out now. The fact that some houses have been built with understair drawers does not mean that we should be allowed to build them now. The idea of under-stair storage, I think, makes a lot of essay sense for compact living (e.g. Papers Shopping! they way they do it in Japan, as someone mentioned). But the tutorials, ones I'd seen all had hinge-up treads which automatically fall closed - good idea in research papers online india case it's dark you can't see if it's open. I found a single-tread cover a bit small for essay tan, access, so made my hinge-up covers 2 stair treads in size, using a heavy bolt as a pin hinge on the hidden sides of the top tread. Claimed a lot of lost space - ALL the online, shoes them some - under those mid-level entry stairs that's otherwise inaccessible. Wonderful . I've received rolling eyes, declarations of my insanity and sheer disgust when I requested several professional bids on *my* idea. I simply have yet to connect with the right creative thinker. wooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooow its greeeeeeeeeeaaaaaaaaat i love it . xxxxxxxxxxxx. I love this idea, I'm surprised to learn that it is an old one.

I have a feeling that space-saving ideas like this one never really catch on because in autobiographical essay for columbia our society, at research papers online india, least here in the USA, excess has always been in autobiographical essay for columbia Vouge. We need more stuff, we build more storage, we need bigger houses, we need more stuff to fill bigger houses, ect. Research Papers Online India! Rather than living creativly in a smaller house, most people would rather just find a larger one. I love your stair drawer idea. Responsible people close drawers. In a basement you could put a finger hole in each drawer to pull it open. and who would care! Keep thinking up good ideas!

I would love to hear more! love this site. lets just hope i can afford some of the things iv already taken a shine too. hey im gurpreet i just want to know about the drawers under the stairs. Unfortunately, we live in a society that require warnings to tell people not to audience, use the hair dryer in the tub. Personally, I like the Darwin approach. survival of the research papers shopping, fittest. Don't coddle the inept, weed them out. I like the idea, and since I don't leave drawers open, I would definitely use these. I have seen tons of stairs that don't have a center support, and the space underneath goes begging for use. Admission! As a few others have said, if you don't want them, feel free not to use them, but show enough sense to recognize that these have been engineered to stand up to use.

Because having an extra few inches of storage is worth the inevitable accident. Sometimes a little bit of shopping perspective goes a long way. if this was such a great idea way back in the golden age of yesteryear, then how come drawers-in-floors didn't remain popular? Setting aside the fact that I couldn't care less about parasols and it is not relevant to the discussion. This really is a great idea. What everyone is personal essay, fussing about is research shopping, implementation, and people who are bashing the idea are not required to utilize it in their homes - after all, if you're going to trip and fall on it, you would know yourself better than anyone else would, right? And if you're so worried about of mother tongue tan, it sagging and breaking, then have it installed by a certified professional. Not only in online india high-cost living space areas such as NYC and Tokyo, but also for some individuals in less densely occupied areas but with lower income (less money = less space = more need for storage), it would also be a useful idea.

On the minus side, wouldn't there be a problem for those who want to midterm, hide their drawers with the flip-top lids? I can see repeated use leaving arced scuffs on the walls. I wonder if there's a way to prevent damage to the walls and paint, perhaps with ball bearings inset into the side of the treads when you lift it? If that issue could be fixed I would definitely use the flip-top method rather than the drawer, personally. Of course, because I'm an india apartment-dweller it's not a suitable method for me as of theme tutorials video now, but in the future it's a method I'm sure I will be using (unless the stair-side bookshelves take up too much space ._. Research Online India! Man do we need book space). Instead of pulling out, wouldn't a lift-top be more practical? You could easily get in and out and scholarship essay, be required to close it when done.

Blum makes a self-closing drawer slide that would hold one shut. Rev-a-lock is a magnetic lock that does not open without passing a magnet over the face of the drawer. these are used for child-proofing, and work great. I am a cabinet builder . I love this idea. I would probibly go with the research, lid idea instead of the papers, drawer, but this would work. I will definately have some sort of storage under my stairs when I build my house. Also, enough of bashing Americans, nationality has nothing to do with this at all. I am a designer, as well I hold a building inspectors liscense in Canada and papers online shopping india, the US and have found no in formation anywhere that says thar drawers in stairs don't pass the building codes. Essay Of Mother! As a matter of fact I have these stairs in papers india both of my residences and they work fine they are in dee an old idea but I for one think they work great. I have to thesis tutorials, agree pretty much with what Betty says. The truth is if you are so undisciplined with closing drawers they are probably not a good idea for you. As for the only house that they will not work in is probably a house that has no stairs. Papers Shopping India! good grief.

It never fails to dishearten me when I see the essay, comments from the fools trying desperately to find fault with a good idea, Fortunately they seem to be the minority here, nevertheless, I wish we cold find a design solution for them ;) WOW I cant believe this. I have been sketching designs to incorporate draws into steps. I hate wasted space. There are so many areas within a dwelling to locate draws, small / narrow closets. Just watch a home being built and see how many dead spaces there are between walls. Behind the back splash of a kitchen ( under cabinets) one can add a smal l in research papers shopping india set ledge and enclose it with sliding doors, or other. in the form of textured glass, stainless steel etc.. Special! My aunt reminded me that her 1800's Victorian style home had a piano hinged cedar draw in the steps,. which was designed for blankets. had an research shopping india inner lift out lid to keep things clean.

I thought umbrellas were actually originally used for the sun silk parasols for the ladies and then were used for rain protection later following introduction of water proof materials. Audience! The stairs are a good idea for many of papers india living in ever smaller spaces. Wow. What a crazy debate!! Finally Kent suggested what was painfully obvious: Steel Reinforced timber. As an australian discussing an australian design company I think I'm entitled to for columbia, inform you that we have sensible building regulations, and a permit system that can be approached with decent engineering to ensure a safe and research papers, functional result in tutorials a non-conventional structure. Research Papers Online Shopping! I would be quite confident that the timbers are rated for their job. possibly even pre-loaded to theme video, ensure no sag. I'd be willing to research online shopping india, bet the tan, draws have a gravity return system.

A slight fall on papers the runners ensures the draw will return. That's not rocket science. As a general recomendation to readers, don't assume that everyone else is as naive, simplistic, and incompetent as you are. Anyone who called this a bad idea, immediately gave a clear estimate of their own intelligence. Great design. Professional Scholarship Essay! I love using unused space. Great for research papers online shopping india, storing hiking gear! Plus it's more accessible than shoving it all in a crowded closet. In looking at essay tongue, the photo of the stairs, I'd say they are between 30 and 36 wide.

While thicker and harder woods may work for support of a larger span, most people won't want a 2 or 3 thick tread. My thought would be a few routed 'channels' on papers online the underside of the tread replaced by square pieces of carbon steel. This should give the treads more than enough strength to handle the special admission essay, weight with an extra wide span. Papers Online India! As for the tripping on an open drawer issue. I don't think that a self-closing mechanism is the way to go. Simply make sure that whatever method used to close the drawers keeps them closed securely. Papers! Many of the higher-end drawer 'rails' are built just for that purpose. While practical and online shopping, very cool, I don't think this is a necessary item needed in most single family homes. Essay Tongue By Amy Tan! However - in research online shopping india small townhomes, condos, or apartments where every inch of space is needed; this is a great space saver idea.

Geeezzz.. Good idea or not, Why so much bashing? If a designer wants to create something great!, but be willing to accept a bit of criticism. Tutorials! This forum is to express differences of online shopping india opinions for constructive value (I hope). Awesome idea but I'm seriously one of those people that's going to trip and fall because of essay a drawer left open. This is exactly what I expected to find out after reading the title o.us poetry. Thanks for informative article. By the way, those tabs sticking out are probably the research shopping, stupidest idea possible.

They're easy to catch your foot or pantleg on, or to catch the psy 101 midterm, cord of the vacuum cleaner as you're carrying it upstairs, trying to move furniture, etc. There are about a billion better ways to pull out the drawers that don't involve things sticking out into the stairway. These designers suck. Of course, the shopping, problem with any self-closing mechanism idea is that it's very unreliable. It's easy to get stuff jammed in the closing path and no self-closing apparatus will fix this. I just looked at thesis tutorials, 2 dressers in the house and of them, there were 3 drawers with stuff stuck in them so they couldn't close properly and research papers shopping india, weren't closed. One sock, one set of underwear, and a scarf. In a staircase drawer, this would leave the drawer edge sticking out in front of the midterm, edge of the tread, just ready for you to step on it, have it slide open, or catch your foot on the sock, whatver. Horrible idea. Old idea. Still dangerous after all these years.

And BTW, Marc is an idiot. ZOMG Wood is stronger in Britain because you are so superior in every way. 11. Online! under-stair drawers have been around for, oh, about 250 years. good grief. there's a project for them in education essay a wood magazine about twice a year. ..And *i'm* guessing the rest of you have never seen and research papers, old Japanese home; they've been using storage as steps and vice versa for centuries. Google tansu sometime if you'd like to see the ORIGINALS. I'm guessing the majority of you must be americans because here in audience Britain wood that thick would easily suport the weight of a person without a third brace. Why not try opening your minds to something new for research papers india, a change. Ah yes, the prefect place to store babies. Education Admission Essay! haha FTW you people are arguing on research online shopping STAIRS XD hihihihihi reminds me of the parody commericial warnings: STAIRS. the silent killer. haha. the internet. go figure :D.

This is a great idea! Instead of having shoes lying around at the bottom of the stairs they could be put away neatly inside a drawer. Personal Essay! All of research papers shopping india you that are so concerned with treads splitting or the step not able to audience, support weight should really take a look at most stair construction, especially open-tread stairs that do not have any support except at the edges. They make these out of research shopping india wood too, even only 2 or 3 inches or so thick for an average size residental stair (or even less than an essay of mother tongue by amy tan inch out of steel). A Material will warp or crack only if it is too thin. But stairs are constructed to support a lot of weight. Filling the gaps with someting will not make the material any weaker.

This is an irrational concern. Research Papers Online Shopping India! Ask any architect or designer. You could have one of these drawers as a secret compartment for valuables. It would obviously need to be lockable and look just like the other steps (no obviously visible handle to mark it out). It would make a good hiding place. Psy 101 Papers! some said it is shopping india, dangerous, some said it,s innovative, some said it is not new, i said it is another way to fill in the empty spaces, EFFECTIVELY. Hi , nothing new really ,My parents had a house with a similar system.but a whole lot safer than an open drawer.it was a hinged top and i have built one with a hinged riser instead, and one was done with a screened hinged front as well,so you can see if it is shoes or what not . Midterm Papers! thanks ,Bernard Miron, Orleans On.

Very nice, not new however as said before. My little rental studio appartment in research papers online shopping india Milan had a very clever stair up to the (bed) mezanine with storage space in every tread. Some with drawers, some with fold up lid and the some of the top treads approachable as cupboards from the essay, other side where the stairs went over the kitchen benchtop. Hi Folks. Speaks volumes about the state of shopping ingenuity/innovation in design generally that this simple and obvious idea is thesis tutorials video, seen as 'brilliant. This is a clever idea and the kind of thing that our design pros overlook continually in their frantic race to create design fashion. The DUMB BOX we live and research papers shopping, work in is the personal essay audience, result of such design myopia. Online Shopping! We need fresh eyes with a long view from essay, our design pros and papers online shopping, this clever idea is an example of that good vision. Midterm! Thanks for research papers shopping, listening. Michael.

Looks like an essay audience ingenious idea, I'll have to try and remember this if I ever build my own house! I also can't see what some of the people above are concerned about with regards to strenght and safety? They look like they are built from fairly thick pine which is by no means weak, and research papers online india, you could always use a stronger wood for the step! The handles can easily be replaced with something that doesn't stick out and education, a spring return mechanism would elimate the risk of them being left open! I'd also be tempted to put labels on the front face of each step's drawer - Tools, Shoes, Kids, Dog etc to help remember where things are and make them a conversation point for research shopping india, visitors :-P. Obviously the of mother tongue by amy tan, stairs are designed with drawers in mind, pointing out that you might not be able to retrofit your existing stairs to look exactly like this doesn't change that it's a good idea and that it can be done. i'm not a designer or a carpenter but when i need some space, i figure out a way to get it done because every inch counts. Research Online Shopping! this is psy 101 papers, brilliant!

As a designer, I think this is a really cool idea. Papers! I actually wasn't surprised to tutorials, discover that it's been done before, but it's nice to see old, but worthwhile ideas brought back. Papers Shopping India! Particularly as people are realizing that we gave up many such ideas for the sake of excess. This is a great idea - and safety concerns can be well-addressed using self-closing drawers and making sure the psy 101, inside of each drawer contrasts well with the stairs themselves. Papers Shopping! I love space-saving design.

Too bad my apartment doesn't have stairs! Good grief, I mentioned the of mother by amy, idea of spring loading mechanisms on the very first post, but as Erin and papers shopping, others have pointed out, people have still whinged about the tripping hazards. And to be honest Betty, I doubt all of the nay-sayers are designers - I assume most people that design for a living will see this as a good (if previously used) idea. Thank you Betty! That's exactly how I felt reading through these comments. ok, so they're only suited to certain situations, and maybe there's an idea (like spring-loaded closers) that could make them better. I can't think of any product that I couldn't say the same about. Love these. Theme! When I build myself a tiny house someday, my stairs will definitely have drawers under them. some of you people are ridiculous. structural support? use thicker wood!! (i bet you can even get it approved by the building inspector) worried about tripping? get a closing mechanism. it's really sad when so called 'designers' shoot down creative ideas for such stupid reasons. don't you people have anything better to papers, do than whine? if you don't like it, don't do it!! i think all of essay you nay-sayers are boring and paranoid, and would probably love to live in papers some ugly, piece of crap developer home. just because they are cheap and safe. btw, 'safety' and 'fear' are illusions.. they are something you create (or someone creates for essay tongue by amy, you) in your mind. Those treads will be split from no undersupport soon. I don't know how this got past the building inspector.

When my son was young, I built a loft bed in research papers shopping his bedroom that included three 12 high by 12 wide steps. In each step was a drawer for his toys. The bottom drawer was 3' long; the next was 2' long; and the last was 1' for the small toys. This was 20 years ago. Of Mother! thats a good idea! I saw a house once, in San Francisco, that the renovators had built in drawers that opened off the side, into the hallway alongside the stairs. They had also added rollout bookshelves and umbrella/cane storage beneath some of those drawers. They used press-latch catches, so there were no handles, so that you couldn't tell there was even anything there. Research Online India! Really neat! Who needs drawers?

At my grandparents house (built in 1900's) the bottom steps had a hinged tread - storage underneath, between the stringers. for all those who criticize this design for personal audience, its safety reason--chill out! that is papers online shopping india, a big reason why american design is so dowdy at times; too much focus on safety and autobiographical essay, practicality. and online shopping, yes safety is important, but this is psy 101 midterm papers, not unsafe if designed and used responsibly. i think it's a great idea. Online Shopping! and for those of you worried about structure. this website shows some great stairs without cabinets that could easily accomodate cabinets underneath http://www.trendir.com/archives/cat_stairs_balustrades.html. A big draw back, building code in essay cities like Chicago do not allow storage under the research papers online, stairs, period. Of course what you do after the inspector leaves is tongue by amy, up to you. An expensive redo. Good ideas are cyclical. This is an old concept finding a brand new audience.

Yarayara or should we call you , oh well its probably not your fault , blame the papers india, parents, American by any chance? this is ages old. yarayara. How is psy 101 midterm, this dumb? And your example makes even less sense. Are you aware that people do use umbrellas to shopping india, shield themselves from the sun? It's very common in tropical countries. I have a book somewhere around my house that has stairs with drawers. It's a pretty old book. I think it was about storage in small spaces. You have to get pretty creative in places like NYC. Where you basically live in a single room.

I. wow. I honestly dont know what to essay, say. Possibly the worst idea ever conceived. So you have grandpa over for dinner and he comes down the stairs after your kid leaves a drawer open after openeing half of the drawers looking for research papers, his transformer. Sorry gramps. Not to mention, who wants to go up and down each step looking for personal, your lost item one drawer at a time while coming down the research papers online shopping india, stairs half bent over? What's wrong with cabinets agian? Oh yes, too safe and essay for columbia, pratical? I thinnk I like the idea of having the drawers come out a the papers shopping india, sides.

The bottom drawer could be, say, the steps high and one deep, with a triangular front, Then you have the scholarship writers, rest of it be bookcases on wheels, that slide in and out, two or three steps deep, all the way to research papers online shopping, the back. This is professional scholarship essay writers, awesome the research online shopping, only hard part would be remembering which drawer held what. A very good idea. I'll be designing something like this for my bottom three stairs in my basement. Fantastic! I thought I'd reply to some of the rational concerns: The space under stairs is typically used as storage already, as a small misshapen room If you look closely, it's only the bottom three stairs that have the drawers. Under my basement staircase, that bottom set of drawers would be far more than the tight sliver of space under them as part of a misshapen room. Drawers aren't good for standing on The step is of mother tongue tan, primarily supported by the flat surface that you walk on and the online, diagonal boards that hold them.

While the vertical board does provide support, it wouldn't be enough that the essay by amy tan, removal of that board would affect the stability of the research india, step provided the right materials are used. I'd be concerned about warping possibly causing the drawer to stick, but I've seen plenty of steps in modern-style homes that have no vertical board (both wood and metal). Back-patio (deck) steps typically do not have vertical boards for support (admittedly, these are usually repaired/replaced every 5-10 years depending on climate). Hand Slot Actually, the positioning of the hand slot is ideal. It's so far off to the side and is set far enough back that it is very unlikely to cause tripping. I like the design because I prefer to have a metal tab to grab at, but either would work. Spring Loaded Drawers I think this would be my biggest concern. If you have elderly folks living in personal audience your home you'd certainly want to shopping india, ensure that the drawer is professional, never left open. Springs could ensure that carelessness doesn't result in broken bones.

You're still left with an unused triangle of space under the steps. Shopping India! why not build in drawers from the theme tutorials, side? AJ and others: I'm confused as to what is so dangerous about this? Like I said earlier, we've had these in our home for years. The step is papers online india, not weak, does not sag, and is not any more prone to causing accidents than a step that doesn't have a drawer. Theme Tutorials Video! Our drawers had a cut-in ledge you slid your fingers under to open, there were no projections. And what makes anyone think the drawer would open when you step on the tread above it? That doesn't make any sense. Nice idea! But I can't beleive these steps are sturdy without the center support for the steps? It can't be there with the full width drawer. Hope noone has to carry a piano up those steps.

On the other hand, I have an idea to piggy back on this, Instead of have a drawer where the riser goes, why not make the step itself a lid? You could lift it up and place things in the boxed in area below the step. This would eliminate the step on the drawer and slide down the stairs threat. If you stepped out into the raised tread, it would simply close and give you the normal tread to step on. This has to be the most dangerous thing I have ever seen – does anyone out research, there realize that stairs are the number one location for accidents in professional essay a home. Research Shopping! This is only “BRILLIANT” if that word now means “created by a world class moron”. Not to be a wet blanket, but I think the way a lot of stairs are built would prevent you from doing this. Our treads are supported by essay of mother by amy tan three stringers so you couldn't have a drawer the research papers online, whole width of the tread. Essay! By code any stairs wider than 30 inches need 3 stringers. In this case, you could have two narrower drawers, but not one wide one.

The other problem obviously is what's underneath the stairs. In our house, In the case of the stairs going to the second floor, what's underneath is the sloping ceiling of the research online shopping, stairs leading to the basement, - no room for essay tongue, drawers there. We have storage under our basement stairs, so they could theoretically hold drawers. sean: the usual construction of steps does not use the vertical pieces to research, bear the load of the individual walking etc. the two wooden pieces that support the planks look kind of like this: __| / __| / __| / / / / I hadn't seen this before. Very nifty! Perhaps the tops could open like a chest. This isn't anything new. My grandparents had drawers in their basement stairs, and their house was built at least as far back as the 40's. It was used for professional essay, the same thing as Lindsey said, tools and the like. Actually this is a quite old idea. The earlier poster was right there is a Japanesse tradition of Tansu chests that have drawers and serve as steps as well.

Here is a wkipedia page on it: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tansu. I'm certain that as this is a company, that they are well educated in research shopping the mechanics and personal essay audience, construction of stable stairs that can withstand the shopping, same forces as any others. And honestly the drawers would take a few inches at most from autobiographical for columbia, any misshapen room and they are inches from the top of the room that I recall never being used in my house. Research Papers India! These would be even less obtrusive in houses where there may be only a couple of special education essay steps from living room to dining room and the like. Use nice wood, add pretty knobs and keyholes.

It would be a conversation piece and a nice addition of character to a home. Sean, ever stop to online shopping, think about stairs that don't have anything under the step at all? Open-step stairs, usually in education admission basements. They have a crossbrace under the papers online shopping india, step that distributes the weight to the edge, and take the weight of people just fine. Throwing a drawer in there doesn't change a thing. Professional Scholarship Essay Writers! I would definitely agree with recessed handle instead of the pull-tab, kids are dumb (and so are most adults).

Spring-loaded is a good innovation also. I might just take the rugs off my steps, they are right in front of the door. Online! Good spot for umbrella, dog leash, etc. I thought people didn't have these for a couple reasons: 1) the space under stairs is typically used as storage already, as a small misshapen room. 2) Drawers aren't good for standing on. Personal! Is there some additional support given to each step to make up for the lack of support for direct downforce weight? what do you usually do with that space?? The kind of stuff people put in drawers. obviously My house has very limited storage space. i'd love to online, have these. Oops I left the drawer open.

Sure, what brilliant idea. DUMB! what do you usually do with that space?? its like hey, why dont we use the personal essay, umbrella to online, cover us from the sun during really hot days!! really stupid. And you could change the opening to a hand slot under the overhang to avoid a tripping hazard. Yay! A good while back I saw a picture of a Japanese chest of personal essay drawers that resembled a set of stairs. It made me think of putting drawers underneath stairs in research papers my house when I build it. And that's exactly what I'm going to do.

If someone selling these can make them cheaper than I, even better! my dad built some of these into essay of mother tongue by amy tan, our stairs at my mother's request when we built our house in '93. kept small tools in them for quick jobs around the house. very handy. have also seen drawers built into papers, the baseboard below the kitchen cabinets. Thesis! Ignoring the obvious possible tripping hazard - you could have spring loaded or sloped drawers that automatically pull themselves shut - this is such a simple but clever idea.

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disaster case study Disaster Diplomacy Case Studies. in association with. Case Studies Index. Based on Geographical Region or Specific Disaster. Based on Disaster Type or Issue. Aral and Caspian Seas (Environmental Disasters) (suggested by Michael Glantz)

Information on the history and nature of the severe human-induced environmental problems affecting these two inland seas can be found at: Ascher W. and online shopping india, M. Mirovitskaya (eds.). 2000. Essay! The Caspian Sea: A Quest for Environmental Security . Proceedings of NATO Advanced Research Workshop held 15-19 March 1999 in Venice, Italy. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands. Cullen, R. 1999. The Rise and Fall of the Caspian Sea. National Geographic May 1999.

Glantz, M. (ed.). 1999. Creeping Environmental Problems and Sustainable Development in the Aral Sea Basin . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. Glantz M. and I.S. Zonn (eds.). 1997. Scientific, Environmental and Political Issues in the Circum-Caspian Region . Online India! Proceedings of NATO Advanced Research Workshop 950549 held 13-16 May 1996 in Moscow, Russia. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands. Stone, R. 1999.

Coming to Grips With the Aral Sea's Grim Legacy. Science , vol. 284, no. Autobiographical Essay! 5411 (2 April 1999), pp. Papers Shopping India! 30-33. Although the Aral Sea and the Caspian Sea are two separate case studies, similarities exist and comparing them would be useful to thesis tutorials video establish patterns (or lack thereof) in disaster diplomacy for papers shopping long-term disasters.

Major obstacles to thesis immediate and effective change are the unstable political climate and state rivalries throughout central Asia. Some cooperation amongst the countries affected has been identified, likely because of the impending, detrimental economic and research shopping india, political impacts. Resolution is inhibited by lack of funding, lack of outside interest, and essay audience, lack of expertise in dealing with such complex, intertwined environmental and research papers online shopping, international political problems. Successes, either in small parts or over the entire scope of the environmental disasters, have the potential to yield further cooperation or to provide frameworks usable in the future for resolving regional challenges, including enmity. Armenia Earthquake (suggested by Nick Cater) (7 December 1988 earthquake) This earthquake influenced the glasnost and psy 101 papers, perestroika processes, started in 1986, because: (a) the Soviet Union admitted they could not cope, which set a precedent; (b) the Soviet Union let outsiders in to assist, which set a precedent; and.

(c) Gorbachev saw the inadequacies of the research online shopping india, Soviet system and the marked contrast with the much better abilities of thesis theme tutorials outsiders. Furthermore, few rebuilding promises achieved much. For example, heavy cranes were brought in to research papers online india rebuild houses, but more than a decade afterwards, the cranes were still there without houses having been rebuilt. Theme Video! As well, the Red Cross set up a specialised spinal injury institute for the Soviet Union, but when the Soviet Union collapsed, it turned out to be too big and costly for Armenia to operate. Despite continuing tensions regarding the Falklands, Argentina and the Falklands/U.K. collaborate regarding search-and-rescue activities.

For example, from online shopping 4-6 November 2004, as part of a series of joint exercises, Argentina and the U.K., with aircraft and vessels from the Falklands, collaborated for search and rescue practice held in the South Atlantic Ocean's international waters. Two Regional Rescue Co-ordination Centres exist in the region--Ushuaia, Argentina and Mount Pleasant--so they need to special education admission collaborate for online india emergencies in the area. On 30 January 2004, the Falklands government gave permission for an Argentine Air Ambulance to land in order to evacuate a sick crew member from a fishing boat. Permission was given on professional essay, humanitarian grounds in that the insurers preferred the cheaper Argentine aircraft over the usual Chilean medevac company. Research Online India! The sick crew member was flown directly to Buenos Aires. Bangladesh Regional Flood Warning System (suggested by John Twigg)

Ahmad, Q.K. and A.U. Ahmed. 2003. Regional Cooperation in psy 101 midterm papers, Flood Management in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Region: Bangladesh Perspective. Natural Hazards , vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 181–198. Workshop on Regional Cooperation on Flood Warning, May 4-6, 1995, Dhaka, text from workshop and online, outcomes (1,084 kb in PDF).

Bolivia Floods 2007 (suggested by Ben Wisner) (February-March 2007 floods) Download a compilation of media reports (37 kb in psy 101 midterm papers, PDF) on the flood's political implications from Ben Wisner. Commentary by Gregory Berger (12 March 2007): I wish to research papers point out two other interesting dynamics of Evo's disaster diplomacy: 1. There is strong regional division in Bolivia that has become more strained since Evo took office--although it is midterm, arguably not his fault, but that of the oligarchy that has launched a vigorous and racist anti-Evo campaign.

Trinidad is part of Beni Department, which, along with Santa Cruz, Tarija, and Pando comprise the Amazon basin Departments of Bolivia. Research Online India! The other Departments are mostly Andean and are comprised of a Quechua and autobiographical, Aymara indigenous majority, and are the base of Evo's support. The flooded lowland areas (including Trinidad) are where most of Bolivia's untapped gas reserves are located and are also home to much of the idle land that Evo is planning to partially redistribute to shopping landless Quechuas and Aymaras. Autobiographical! Thus, the papers online india, local lowland elite have been convincing the local non-indigenous campesino class (as well as the Guarai indigenous population who are non-Andean) that Evo will be stealing their gas and sending hordes of Andean Indians to steal their land. The floods have given Evo a chance to play the hero and undermine his enemy's propaganda.

2. There has been some controversy over the category of emergency that the flood in Trinidad has been classified. Due to a legal technicality in the constitution, if the special essay, Federal government calls it a natural disaster it will set back by a couple of years Evo's land reform program by temporarily suspending the ability for transfer of land title. So it has been called a natural emergency and Evo's enemies have been quick to accuse him of playing politics with disaster response. Evo's critics, even on the left, contend that he is constructing a spoils system for the constituency of his political party at the expense of other marginalized segments of the population. This current flood situation may make or break Evo's ability or perceived ability to construct a revolutionary movement that truly beneifts everyone. Some sources on the cross-border management of the research online shopping india, 1997 Red River floods are: Wachtendorf, T. 1999. A River Runs Through It: Cross Border Interaction During the 1997 Red River Flood . Thesis #11 (Master of Arts in admission, Sociology), Disaster Research Center, University of research papers Delaware, Newark, Delaware, U.S.A., full text (4,085 kb in PDF) posted here with the kind permission of Tricia Wachtendorf. Wachtendorf, T. 1999. Cross-border Issues in Disaster Response . Special Education Admission! Preliminary Paper #278, Disaster Research Center, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, U.S.A., full text (1,074 kb in PDF) posted here with the kind permission of Tricia Wachtendorf.

Wachtendorf, T. 2000. Interaction Between Canadian and American Governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations During the Red River Flood of 1997 . Historical Comparative Series #12, Disaster Research Center, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, U.S.A., full text (4,511 kb in PDF) posted here with the kind permission of Tricia Wachtendorf. Wachtendorf, T. 2000. When disasters defy borders: What we can learn from the Red River flood about transnational disasters. Australian Journal of Emergency Management , vol. 15, issue 3, pp.

36-41. Caribbean Disaster Risk Reduction. The Caribbean Region has complex political geography. The complexity arises from the four main languages, the differences in territorial status amongst the research papers india, European overseas territories, and the loose correlation between geographical position and political/linguistic affiliation. Olson, R.S. and J.P.S.

Prieto. 1995. Guns, Drugs, and Disaster: Cauca/Huila, Colombia, 1994. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters , vol. Tongue! 13, no. 2, pp. 147-160. UNDP. 2004. Reducing Disaster Risk: A Challenge for Development . Bureau for Crisis Prevention and research online shopping, Recovery, UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), New York, New York, USA.

From page 73: In Colombia, violently opposed local communities in the Department of Meta have worked together to mitigate the impact of floods as a means not only of protecting livelihoods, but also of building trust and reconciliation. Referenced to UNDP, Cooperation Framework with UNDP Colombia, 2003. Goma Volcano in 2002 (suggested by Ben Wisner) (eruptions started 17 January 2002) Ben Wisner has written a piece for Radix entitled Goma, Congo: City Air Makes Men Free? (57 kb in psy 101 papers, RTF). This discussion on shopping, Goma following the eruption of Mount Nyiragongo in January 2002 examines disaster diplomacy beyond the initial, narrow question by psy 101 querying the wider interactions amongst disaster events and international politics related to forced migrants. The questions raised indicate how vulnerabilities must be viewed as dynamic, interactive processes which influence each other and thus cannot be viewed or managed in isolation.

Rassemblement Congolais pour la Democratie (RCD) is the rebel movement which controlled the Goma area during the eruptions of Mount Nyiragongo. On 29 January 2002. Agence France-Presse (AFP) reported that South Africa was sending aid to Goma via Kigali. On the research online shopping, same day, UN OCHA Sitrep no. 11, 29 January 2002 reported that Kinshasa had sent aid to the Goma area via the UN even though RCD was refusing to accept aid directly from Kinshasa. RCD has suspended border fees for humanitarian organisations until the end of February. On 1 February 2002, the Organization for African Unity (OAU) (now the African Union (AU)) provided US$100,000 for aid. Thesis Theme Tutorials Video! Did any of that money come from states involved in the conflict?

As of 3 February 2002. it appears as if the countries involved in the conflict are assisting with relief operations through international organisations, but dealing with the disaster as effectively as possible appears to be hampered by the unwillingness of parties to work together. Whether or not the humanitarian imperative does forge linkages which later prove useful in solving the situation, i.e. disaster diplomacy, remains to be seen. Further analysis is required, particularly to determine whether or not providing aid or access for aid is being used in an attempt to further political aims in addition to, or instead of, assisting the affected population. One clear conclusion, as with the other case studies, is that the disaster itself has not immediately created diplomacy for conflict resolution--but it may yet provide an input for the long-term. On 6 February 2002.

Reliefweb reported that the anti-rebel Mai-Mai militia approached the UN offering a ceasefire and requesting to join the DRC peace process. Papers Shopping India! The reason for their sudden interest in peace was not given, but may be a result of regional politics. Illustrating whether or not the volcanic eruption made any direct or indirect difference, or was irrelevant to their decision, would be a useful analysis. 8 February 2002. Nick Cater writes for Alertnet Congo volcano casts a shadow over relief discussing aspects of the international interest in this disaster: While one volcano will not inspire the comprehensive political and developmental effort that the essay tongue tan, region desperately needs, any attention to central Africa and its challenges is welcome. 15 February 2002. Ben Wisner writes for Alertnet Eruption raises practical and philosophical issues with similar comments to his piece on papers online india, this site (see the introduction to this case study above). February to April 2002. The peace process known as the Inter-Congolese Dialogue started in Sun City, South Africa on 26 February 2002. The Mai-Mai, who offered peace on 6 February 2002 (see above), were part of the process.

The talks were soon hit by stalling tactics and walk-outs. They faltered against a backdrop of sporadic fighting in DRC. The negotiations then resumed and were extended beyond their original end date of 11 April 2002. Audience! The DRC government signed a peace deal with some rebel groups, but not with RCD-Goma who then formed an research online india alliance with civil opposition groups. By the end of April 2002, Mount Nyiragongo had quietened down and was no longer reported as being of concern regarding the tongue by amy tan, conflict. Subsequent events have not displayed any obvious disaster diplomacy connections. Why did disaster diplomacy apparently not work in india, the long-term for the Goma volcano? (22 October to 5 November 1998)

Hurricane Mitch led to devastating floods and landslides across several countries in of mother tongue by amy, Central America. The situation following Hurricane Mitch created an opportunity for disaster diplomacy to develop and research papers online india, warrants further investigation. As well, as part of Discrimination in International Disaster Aid (suggested by George Kent), Manuel Arguello Rodriguez pointed out that, rather the hurricane solving discrimination problems, statements were made that 'campesinos', 'indigenas' and 'negros' in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Honduras were marginalised during the relief and reconstruction processes. India and the 1966 to 1967 Bihar Famine (suggested by Thomas Myhrvold-Hanssen) Thomas Myhrvold-Hanssen has written a piece entitled Democracy, News Media, and Famine Prevention: Amartya Sen and The Bihar Famine of 1966-67 (83 kb in RTF).

This discussion explores the relationship between democracy and famine through a critique of Amartya Sen's suggestion that democracy is the best way of preventing famine. The Bihar famine in India from 1966 to 1967 is used as the professional scholarship, main case study, but the famine in Sudan from 1986 to 1989 is also examined. This paper provides insights into the relationship between government--particularly democracies--and disaster and research papers online india, indicates possibilities for the interaction not necessarily achieving what we would expect or hope. Other potential examples of a famine occurring in a democracy are: The USA dust bowl of the 1930s. Was it a famine? Ireland in autobiographical, the 1840s. Ireland was part of the papers online, U.K. which was a democracy, at least comparatively for thesis video that era, although perhaps Ireland at that time should be considered a colony rather than part of the democratic state. See also Rubin, O. 2009.

The Merits of Democracy in Famine Protection - Fact or Fallacy? European Journal of Development Research , vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 699-717. By George Kent (28 July 2003): Another study on research papers shopping, Sen's theory, centered not on essay for columbia, the democracy idea but on the entitlements idea is: Lin, J.Y. and D.T. Yang. 2000.

Food Availability, Entitlements and the Chinese Famine of 1959-61. Research Online India! Economic Journal , vol. 110, no. 460 (January), pp. Papers! 136-158. I'm not sure Sen said democracy is the BEST way of preventing famine, but he did say it helps, especially where there is a vigorous free press. The argument below is drawn from Chapter 8 of my forthcoming book The Human Right to Adequate Food . Sen observed there are far fewer famines in democracies: &nnbsp; nbsp;. the working of democracy and of political rights can even help to prevent famines and other economic disasters. Authoritarian rulers, who are themselves rarely affected by famines (or other such economic calamities), tend to lack the incentive to take timely preventive measures. Democratic governments, in contrast, have to win elections and research papers online, face public criticism, and have strong incentives to undertake measures to avert famines and other such catastrophes. It is not surprising that no famine has ever taken place in the history of the world in a functioning democracy--be it economically rich (as in midterm, contemporary Western Europe or North America) or relatively poor (as in postindependence India, or Botswana, or Zimbabwe). . no substantial famine has ever occurred in research india, a democratic country--no matter how poor.

This is because famines are extremely easy to prevent if the government tries to prevent them, and a government in psy 101, a multiparty democracy with elections and free media has strong political incentives to undertake famine prevention. nbsp; In democracies, the papers india, people hold the government accountable, not only through the press but also through their voting powers and, more generally, through their sustained and vigorous participation in public life. The observation apparently correlates with the theme tutorials, democratic peace hypothesis, that democracies do not make war on one another, and are much less violent internally than undemocratic nations. While Sen may be correct about democracies having few famines, the research shopping india, argument does not work so well in relation to chronic malnutrition, or as Sen's colleague Hussain calls it, endemic malnutrition: . Special! even an active press, as in India, can be less than effective in moving governments to act decisively against endemic undernutrition and deprivation--as opposed to dramatically visible famines. The quiet persistence of 'regular hunger' kills millions in a slow and non-dramatic way, and this phenomenon has not been much affected, it appears, by media critiques. There is need for an analysis here of what explains the difference. Many factors account for the tendency of the media to emphasize episodic famines rather than chronic malnutrition, including, for research papers shopping example, their tendency to emphasize sudden-onset events over continuing phenomena. However, the major factor undoubtedly is that democracies are not as democratic as we sometimes assume.

Sen has come to acknowledge that there is for columbia, chronic malnutrition in democracies, but it seems he does not associate that with any possible defects in the qualities of papers india their democracy. Societies can be democratic but at the same time highly unequal. Democratic governments are responsive to their people, but they are most responsive to the most powerful of professional them. These are the constituencies that keep their leaders in power. This pattern is clearly visible in major democracies such as the research, United States and India. Thus, while Sen is correct in midterm, observing that acute famines are virtually nonexistent in democracies, he overlooks the fact that they continue to research india have extensive chronic malnutrition among their poor. Democratic states may tend to be more equitable in the sense of personal essay audience having less extreme divisions between top and bottom, but all states have substantial inequalities in fact. Dreze and Sen speak of the importance of public accountability in making it hard for a government to allow a famine to develop.

The unfortunate fact is that in all societies, including democracies, governments tend to be more accountable--more responsive--to those who are more powerful. Those who are politically weak tend to be ignored, except when those who are relatively powerful speak out in their behalf. Democracies such as the United States and India do not have famines, but they do have widespread chronic undernutrition. Research Papers Online Shopping! We can explain this, and still save Sen’s concept, by acknowledging that these democracies-as-lived are imperfect. Professional Scholarship Writers! They are not fully egalitarian, but are more responsive to those of their people who are richer and more powerful. There is papers online india, government accountability to essay by amy the people, but not uniformly. Democracies have the same flaw as other political systems: they tend to be more responsive to research india those who are powerful than to those who are needy. We see this in their economic systems, their social systems, their educational systems—indeed, in every quarter of society.

Even programs designed for tongue by amy tan the poor tend to online shopping favor the tutorials video, more capable among the poor. Research Online India! This pattern of democracy-as-lived may be described as elite democracy, to psy 101 distinguish it from truly egalitarian ideal democracy. Thus we come to research online an explanation for chronic malnutrition. We can understand the persistent and widespread chronic malnutrition in psy 101 midterm, the world, within countries and internationally, as a concrete manifestation of the persistent and widespread disparities in power in the world. Weaker people have weaker entitlements, and thus will always have a disproportionately small share of the earth’s abundant produce. Some individuals will enjoy meals costing hundreds of shopping dollars, and thus command the labor of many others, and at the same time other individuals will squat before nearly empty rice bowls.

National governments are not very responsive to the weaker segments of psy 101 their populations. In much the papers india, same way, the international community is skewed against the weaker nations of the world. Explicitly stated human rights, affirmed in the law, accompanied by distinct mechanisms of implementation and of accountability, contribute to counterbalancing this bias in social systems. Thus, a well-developed human rights system is not an add-on luxury; it is an integral part of any social system that aspires to be truly egalitarian. It is essay, essential to good governance. 1997-1999 Israel's Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1,084 kb in research online, PDF) summarised Israeli humanitarian relief operations including work in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Jordan, and Russia.

On 15 November 1999, The Christian Science Monitor publishes an essay for columbia article by papers online shopping india Ilene R. Prusher on the quiet diplomacy consequences of Israeli search-and-rescue teams conducting emergency response operations around the world. 27 March 2007. A sewage flood inundates parts of essay of mother tongue Gaza City, killing several people. The Israeli army offers to help for search and rescue. Suggestions are made that, after Hamas won the January 2006 elections in Palestine and international aid funding was reduced, this sewage project--and other development projects--were neglected, leading to disaster risk reduction concerns which manifested in this disaster. BBC Reports. May 2010 to October 2011 Israel and Turkey have traditionally been on research shopping, friendly terms. On 31 May 2010 in international waters, Israel soldiers boarded a Turkey-linked ship aiming to break Israel's blockade of the Gaza Strip. In the resulting fight, several soldiers were wounded and the nine people, all with links to Turkey, on board the ship were killed.

The diplomatic fallout caused severe problems for Israel-Turkey relations. In November-December 2010, wildfires killed over education admission essay 40 people in shopping india, northern Israel. Turkey sent assistance, but relations did not improve. On 23 October 2011, hundreds died in an earthquake in tongue by amy tan, Eastern Turkey. Papers India! Turkey initially declined offers of international assistance and then relented, including accepting assistance from Israel on 25 October 2011. No change in Israel-Turkey relations was noticed as a result of essay either the fires in Israel or the earthquake in Turkey.

Bar-Dayan, Y., P. Beard, D. Mankuta, A. Finestone, Y. Wolf, C. Online Shopping India! Gruzman, Y. Levy, P. Benedek, M. Thesis! Van Rooyen, and G. Martonovits. 2000. An Earthquake Disaster in papers shopping india, Turkey: An Overview of the Experience of the Israeli Defence Forces Field Hospital in essay of mother, Adapazari. Disasters , vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 262-270. Beck, A.A.

2015. Building bridges: The role of disaster diplomacy. Papers Online Shopping India! Crisis Response Journal , vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 42-43. Karp, E., G. Professional Scholarship Essay Writers! Sebbag, J. Research! Peiser, O. Personal Essay! Dukhno, A. Ovnat, I. Levy, E. Hyam, A. Blumenfeld, Y. Kluger, D. Simon, and G. Shaked. 2007. Mass casualty incident after the Taba terrorist attack: an organisational and research online shopping, medical challenge. Psy 101 Midterm! Disasters , vol.

31, no. 1, pp. 104-112. Schalimtzek, A. and I. Fischhendler. Dividing the cost burden of environmental services: the Israeli-Palestinian wastewater regime. Environmental Politics , vol. 18, no. 4, 612-632. Mekong River (suggested by Bastien Affeltranger) Bastien Affeltranger has summarised his work on shopping, Floodproof diplomacy?

Data Exchange and personal, Flood Forecasting on the Mekong (112 kb in PDF). This work examines hydrological cooperation on the Mekong River basin, focusing on research papers online india, the production and circulation of hydrological and meteorological data for flood forecasting purposes. Data exchange is considered as a critical component of sound water-related decisions and sustainability of the Mekong River Commission as a basin institution. The research aims to identify the technical and political conditions and papers, constraints to circulating hydrological data in particular. A key consideration is that lack of research papers online shopping india data weakens the midterm, institutional capacity (technically and politically) of papers online environmental regimes such as basin organisations.

Research results are also expected to devise incentives likely to foster data exchange at both national and international levels. Greater Mekong Subregion Academic and Research Network (GMSARN) The text is from the GMSARN website (10 December 2011). Mekong River Commission (MRC) The text is from the MRC website (10 December 2011). By Ben Wisner (7 April 2004): Recent flash flooding in midterm, Rio Pedras, Mexico, across the border from research online shopping india Eagle Pass, Texas might be an instance of audience disaster diplomacy. Research Papers Shopping! Within 15 minutes, a tributary of the Rio Grande rose 8 meters. Audience! At least 37 people died, many of them elderly. Research Papers! U.S. Border Patrol helicopters were used for search and rescue.

I'm not sure if this was an ad hoc arrangement that was made with impressive speed, cutting through red tape, or whether, as in other, larger border towns, there are some standing arrangements. Psy 101 Papers! It's a small example, and also somewhat bittersweet given the research papers online india, number of illegals who die each year trying to cross the border to professional essay find work in the U.S. (probably at research shopping india, least 200-300 each year). On 24 April 2007, tornadoes killed seven people in Rosita Valley, Texas on essay, the Mexican border. The clean-up was significantly helped by the neighbouring town of Piedras Negras in Mexico which provided several trucks along with personnel, even though Piedras Negras was also hit by research online india the tornadoes and suffered three fatalities. Aside from the cross-border disaster, the essay of mother tongue by amy tan, disaster diplomacy dimension is poignant because this border area is watching the American federal government build a wall along the frontier in order to keep out immigrants, despite the locals' unhappiness with this policy and online shopping india, the strong cultural connections between both sides of the midterm, border. Research! The Mexican willingness to help their American neighbours, as after Hurricane Katrina, does not appear to have affected, or have been affected by, the policy of the wall. Similarly, the policy of the wall is proceeding despite these examples of post-disaster cross-border assistance. On 23 July 2008, Category 2 Hurricane Dolly made landfall in Texas near the Mexican border. Severe flooding resulted across the personal essay audience, region and one person was electrocuted in the border town of Matamoros, Mexico after stepping on a submerged power line while wading through flood waster. Including some questions from Ben Wisner, this case study would be an research papers india excellent opportunity not only to examine differences in all disaster-related activities across a border, but also the extent (or lack thereof) of cooperation across a border which one state, the USA, is trying to seal even further. Did authorities on essay tan, each side of the research papers online india, border communicate regarding the hurricane?

Were any long-term hurricane disaster risk reduction activities going on? With the thesis theme tutorials, numerous personal and family links across the USA-Mexico border in papers shopping, this region, what role did informal networks play? Did response authorities on one side of the for columbia, border assist on the other side? How has recent USA immigration policy influenced these ties or the papers india, locals' willingness and scholarship, ability to assist each other? Did border control efforts inhibit disaster risk reduction or disaster response in research papers, any way?

Given the overwhelming response to supporting research after Hurricane Katrina, it is a shame that similar attention is not accorded to this situation which would provide significant insights into thesis theme tutorials cross-border disaster risk reduction and online, disaster diplomacy at multiple levels. On 20 April 2010, a BP drilling rig in the Gulf of education admission essay Mexico exploded leading to shopping one of the worst unintentional oil spills in history, up to essay that time. The U.S.A.'s efforts to contain the spill and to repair the damage took several months, with Mexico amongst the countries offering assistance. Research Papers Shopping! Then, on special education admission, 30 June 2010, Hurricane Alex, which had interfered with the clean-up efforts, made its second landfall just south of the research papers india, Mexico-U.S.A. Special Education Admission Essay! border as a category 2 storm. Some border towns experienced major flooding. Clifford, R.A. Online! 1956. The Rio Grande flood; a comparative study of border communities in disaster . Publication No. 458, National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

Norman, L.M., H. Huth, L. Levick, I.S. Burns, D.P. Guertin, F. Lara-Valencia and thesis theme tutorials, D. Semmens. 2010. Flood hazard awareness and hydrologic modelling at papers, Ambos Nogales, United States-Mexico border. Journal of Flood Risk Management , vol.

3, no. 2, pp. 151-165. Olson, R.S. and V.T. Gawronski. 2003. Disasters as Critical Junctures? Managua, Nicaragua 1972 and Mexico City 1985. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters , vol. 21, no. 1, pp.

5-35. Middle East Seismicity. Middle East Regional Cooperation (MERC) The text is from MERC (10 January 2002): Earthquake Hazard Assessments for essay tongue by amy tan Building Codes.

The overall aim and specific objective is to produce maps and charts that will provide the necessary seismological data for research online shopping india the implementation of building codes and regulations in Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinian National Authority. In order to achieve this overall aim we shall conduct studies and surveys to obtain: 1. A unified catalogue of earthquakes. 2. Update regionalisation of seismogenic zones and assessment of their seismic capabilities. 3. Scaling laws of essay tongue dynamic source parameters of research online local and regional earthquakes and attenuation of seismic energy across the region. 4. Implement state of the art procedures for thesis video earthquake hazard assessments and shopping india, testing new approaches (e.g. a modification of the SEEH (SvE) method). 5. Seismo-engineering characterisation of buildings common in the region. Middle East Seismological Forum (MESF) The text is from MESF (4 December 2011): MESF is special essay, a Non-Profit Scientific Cyber Forum that provides a One-Stop Web Source for authoritative earthquake information on the Middle Eastern Region’s seismicity, seismologists and ongoing scientific activities for a better interaction and integration with the international seismological communities. Segalla, S.D.

2012. The 1959 Moroccan oil poisoning and US Cold War disaster diplomacy. The Journal of North African Studies , vol. 17, no. India! 2, pp. Professional Scholarship Essay Writers! 315-336. Segalla, S.D. 2016. Natural Disaster, Globalization, and Decolonization: the Case of the 1960 Agadir Earthquake.

Chapter 4, pp. 101-127 in P. Lorcin and T. Shepard (eds.), French Mediterraneans: Transnational and india, Imperial Histories , University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A. Bommer, J. 1985. The politics of disaster - Nicaragua. Disasters , vol. 9, no.

4, pp. 270-278. de Boer, J.Z. and D.T. Sanders. Personal! 2005. The 1972 Managua Earthquake: Catalyst for Revolution. Chapter 10, pp. 221-241 in J.Z. de Boer and papers shopping, D.T. Sanders, Earthquakes in Human History: The Far-Reaching Effects of Seismic Disruptions , Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A.

Olson, R.S. and V.T. Gawronski. 2003. Disasters as Critical Junctures? Managua, Nicaragua 1972 and Mexico City 1985. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters , vol. Personal! 21, no. 1, pp. 5-35. Southeast Asia Regional Haze. Brauer, M. and J. Hisham-Hashim.

1998. Fires in Indonesia: Crisis and reaction. Environmental Science and research shopping india, Technology , vol. Essay For Columbia! 32, no. 17, pp. 404A-407A. Islam, Md S., Y.H. Pei, and S. Mangharam. 2016. Trans-Boundary Haze Pollution in Southeast Asia: Sustainability through Plural Environmental Governance.

Sustainability , vol. 8, no. 499, pp. 1-13. Zhang, R., G. Li, J. Fan, D.L. Wu, and M.J. Molina. 2007. Intensification of research online Pacific storm track linked to Asian pollution. Proceedings of the personal essay, National Academy of research online Sciences , vol. 104, no.

13, pp. 5295-5299. 10 June 2002. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) signs a pact to jointly combat regional transborder haze. The ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution (272 kb in scholarship essay, PDF) was accompanied by the following Press Release: ASEAN Signs Agreement to Tackle Haze. Southern Africa and the 2002 to 2003 famine. 31 May 2002. Zimbabwe rejects American GMO food aid.

BBC Coverage. 17 August 2002. Zambia rejects American GMO food aid. BBC Coverage. 21 August 2002. Head of USAID accuses Mugabe of causing famine. BBC Coverage. 23 August 2002. WFP wants countries to accept GMO food aid. BBC Coverage.

3 September 2002. Papers! Zambia calls GMO food aid poison. BBC Coverage. 6 September 2002. Deal reached for Zimbabwe accepting GMO food aid. BBC Coverage. 8 September 2002. Claims that Zambia will permit GMO food aid to be used to admission feed Angolan and DRC refugees. BBC Coverage.

11 September 2002. Zambia denies claims that GMO food aid will be allowed for refugees. BBC Coverage. 29 October 2002. Zambia again rejects GMO food aid. Research Papers Shopping! BBC Coverage. 31 October 2002. USA criticises Zambia over GMO food aid stance. BBC Coverage.

6 November 2002. Video! Zambia asks why aid workers distributed GMO food aid in refugee camps. BBC Coverage. The refusal in papers india, August 2002 of Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Mozambique to accept food aid which contains or might contain genetically modified items raises poignant disaster and development questions. Is it a case of exacerbating the short-term/acute disaster of professional scholarship essay famine in order to avert the long-term/chronic disaster of GM crops contaminating local crops? Is it a radical solution to counter issues of poor environmental manipulation, misapplied technocratic solutions, and Monsanto globalisation, despite the short-term sacrifice required in starvation? Or is it yet another example of an excuse to play politics with food, food as a political weapon, and disaster undiplomacy? From the disaster diplomacy perspective, this disaster does not seem to have affected Mugabe's games. Useful insights might be gleaned from an papers india analysis of the current situation and comparison with Ailsa Holloway's analysis of drought diplomacy in southern Africa. Midterm Papers! Are there also comparisons with regional water management, including the papers online india, Mozambique floods, over education essay the past few years and decades?

Back to the current famine, to what extent is the conflict over GM aid dominated by donor countries' views that any aid is acceptable? USAID's Andrew Natsios seems to take the stance that Africa should accept all proffered aid, irrespective of other criteria. In interviews, he implied that no right to refuse aid exists and it is typical arrogance to assume that what is good for the USA is research papers online, good for personal audience everyone else in the world. I believe that the disaster management community has gone beyond this attitude. Aid and assistance must be socially and culturally acceptable and research papers india, must be sensitive to the needs of the beneficiary. During the Mt. Pinatubo crisis in 1991, the indigenous Aeta refused Western food and medicine because it was unfamiliar. Essay For Columbia! Many died in papers india, camps. Would we insist that meat products be accepted by forced migrants whose religion bans followers from eating them? Or do we still think that we can dump anything on personal audience, these poor, suffering people and that they should all be eternally grateful for papers shopping our benevolent generosity?

Perhaps the USA is playing politics with food? Would it be feasible that Monsanto has some influence in the White House? Zambia's response seems reasonable and straightforward: please give us money to buy the ordinary food that people in Zambia eat, or buy it for us on our behalf. Why is USAID not doing so?  nbsp; I am also disappointed by some of the reporting on this issue, such as claiming that southern Africa is facing severe food shortages caused by erratic rains and professional essay, floods. Statements that political influences also helped to cause the disaster are far more appropriate. Research Shopping! We must never forget the autobiographical essay, vulnerability contribution to disaster.

By George Kent (19 August 2002): Ilan raises some very important issues here about the research papers shopping india, use of genetically modified foods in humanitarian assistance. There is fault to professional scholarship essay writers be found on the part of both the donor government (USA) and the receiving governments (Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe). Both appear to be engaged in GMO politics while people go hungry. Since the debate over genetically modified foods is still raging, I think the operative principle ought to be informed choice on the part of the final consumer. That is, the people who are the end users should be free to online shopping india decide, but on the basis of the best available information. Of course they also should have meaningful choices: the professional writers, choice should not be between GMO food or nothing, but between GMO foods and non-GMO foods. It is true that there is an obligation to take account of the preferences and cultural norms of the papers, recipients.

This is clearly indicated in: United Nations Economic and thesis tutorials, Social Council, Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Substantive Issues Arising in the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: General Comment 12 (Twentieth Session, 1999) The Right to Adequate Food (art. 11) , (Geneva: ECOSOC E/C.12/1999/5). Paragraph 11 speaks of the need to consider acceptability: Cultural or consumer acceptability implies the need also to take into account, as far as possible, perceived non nutrient-based values attached to food and food consumption and informed consumer concerns regarding the nature of research papers online shopping accessible food supplies. However, we must also acknowledge that no single country is obligated to provide any international humanitarian assistance of essay tongue any kind. Research Papers Shopping! The USA could reasonably say we have genetically modified foods to offer, and if you think the needy should have something else, go ahead and special essay, give it. There is currently no right, no entitlement of the needy to international humanitarian assistance. Papers India! The Geneva Conventions do say that food should not be used for political purposes, but nothing says that any specific country must provide food. In an article on The human right to essay for columbia disaster mitigation and relief (2001, Environmental Hazards , vol. Papers Online! 3, pp.

137-138), I argue that we should come to recognise that under some conditions the needy have a right to humanitarian assistance. There have been many examples of questionable foods being provided in international assistance. For example, when wheat is supplied to rice-consuming peoples, there is the for columbia, suspicion that part of the papers shopping india, donor's purpose is to convert the recipients into bread eaters. Receiving countries generally would prefer to have cash assistance, but they are likely to get more food overall if they accept whatever the donors are interested in pressing on them. I think disaster specialists should focus on the broader question of when and how the needy should be viewed as having a right to assistance, and leave the specific debate over genetically modified foods to be resolved by others. Sri Lanka Floods. In May 2003, Sri Lanka was hit by devastating floods, reported as being the worst in 50 years. Several hundred people died and more than 150,000 people were displaced. Despite recent tensions between the admission essay, Tamil Tigers and the government of Sri Lanka over peace negotiations, the Tigers donated relief supplies. BBC Coverage.

The news story suggests that the significance of the gesture is far more important the impact of the india, actual donation--a classic case of disaster diplomacy. Sri Lanka presumably experienced disasters previously during the conflict. Essay Of Mother Tan! Did the Tigers assist in research, any way during such events or did they use disasters to their advantage? If the May 2003 floods are the first case of the Tigers actively assisting Sinhalese areas during a disaster, then further support is midterm, provided for the view that disaster can assist but not start diplomatic processes. Otherwise, Sri Lanka might be a good disaster diplomacy case study. Irrespective, the provision of aid is significant and is hopefully appreciated. The challenge is to use the gesture to move forward on the peace process rather than other cases where such acts have been quickly forgotten or overridden by other issues and events. By Rob Taylor (23 March 2008) posted on research papers online, Alertnet: Heavy rains in Sri Lanka have killed eight people and affected more than 340,000 others while restricting military gains over rebels in professional scholarship essay, the country's worsening civil war, the military said on Sunday. Unusually heavy torrential rains have caused widespread flooding and landslides in papers online, eastern agricultural and rice-growing areas, as well as in the north where the military has launched a fresh offensive against Tamil Tiger rebels. Military spokesman Brigadier Udaya Nanyakkara said the offensive against personal essay audience the Tigers was continuing, but flooding had caused supply bottlenecks.

Autesserre, Severine. 2002. United States 'Humanitarian Diplomacy' in South Sudan. Papers Online Shopping India! Journal of Humanitarian Assistance , March 2002, full text posted here with permission. Holcombe, A. 1987.

Reaching beyond famine relief: Planning a strategy for rehabilitation and development in Darfur Region, western Sudan. GeoJournal , vol. 14, no. 1, pp. Professional! 11-18. Myhrvold-Hanssen, T. discusses the 1986-1989 famine in research papers online shopping india, Sudan and psy 101 midterm papers, its relationship to democratic government in his paper posted at the case study of India and the 1966 to 1967 Bihar Famine. In December 1999, especially on 16 December, Vargas near Caracas experienced intense rainfall and devastating mudslides, killing approximately 30,000 people. Fassin, D. and P. Vasquez. 2005. Humanitarian exception as the rule: The political theology of the 1999 Tragedia in papers online india, Venezuela.

American Ethnologist , vol. 32, no. Autobiographical Essay For Columbia! 3, pp. 389-405. Along with more than $7 million in donations collected during the first five days of the disaster--which, according to the local press, bore witness to research papers online shopping india the Venezuelan people's generosity--international contributions were seen as so many 'gestures of friendship' ( El Nacional 1999). The governments of the United States and of mother, France were the first to provide aid, followed by the UN Development Programme, the Inter-American Development Bank, and nongovernmental organizations, led by Caritas.

This demonstration of international solidarity with the victims was hardly dented by research papers india Chavez's highly symbolic decision to deny U.S. ships berthing rights in Venezuelan waters, in the name of national sovereignty. (p. 397). El Nacional . 1999. Solidaridad total. El Nacional , December 21. Section: Editorial, Primera pagina.

In September 2005, Hurricane Katrina struck the USA. Venezuela offered aid which did not garner an official reaction from the USA. Disaster Casualty Identification. Karp, E., G. Sebbag, J. Peiser, O. Dukhno, A. Ovnat, I. Levy, E. Hyam, A. Blumenfeld, Y. Kluger, D. Midterm Papers! Simon, and G. Shaked. 2007.

Mass casualty incident after the online india, Taba terrorist attack: an organisational and medical challenge. Disasters , vol. 31, no. 1, pp. Papers! 104-112. McEntire, D., A.A. Sadiq, and K. Gupta. 2012. Unidentified Bodies and Mass-Fatality Management in Haiti: A Case Study of the January 2010 Earthquake with a Cross-Cultural Comparison.

International Journal of shopping Mass Emergencies and Disasters , vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 301-327. Merli, C. and T. Buck. 2015. Forensic identification and tan, identity politics in 2004 post-tsunami Thailand: Negotiating dissolving boundaries. Human Remains and Violence , vol. 1, no. 1, pp.

3-22. Scanlon, J. 2006. Papers! Dealing with the Tsunami Dead: Unprecedented International Co-operation. Australian Journal of personal Emergency Management , vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 57-61. Solheim, T. and A. van den Bos. 1982.

International Disaster Identification Report. Investigative and research, Dental Aspects. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology , vol. 3, no. Special! 1, pp. 63-67. van den Bos A. 1980.

Mass identification: A multidisciplinary operation. Online! The Dutch experience. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and tongue by amy, Pathology , vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 265-270. van den Bos, A. 1981. International Cooperation in Disaster Victim Identification. Journal of the Forensic Science Society , vol. 21, no.

2, pp. 88 (abstract only). Discrimination in Disaster Aid (suggested by research papers shopping india George Kent) Could potential disaster diplomacy outcomes, and their ultimate success or failure, be influenced by the culture, race, ethnicity, or religion of the parties (e.g. countries or political groups) involved? Would successful disaster diplomacy be more likely when the admission essay, parties are from similar groups, due to empathy? Or could larger differences suggest a more powerful impetus towards overcoming enmity in order to demonstrate a humanitarian imperative in the face of disparity?

One aspect of this issue which could be explored are case studies where racism, sexism, and other biases were evident in the disaster assistance proffered to papers shopping survivors. India. Following the 26 January 2001 earthquake as part of the India/Pakistan case study, allegations were made that aid was withheld from lower castes at the local level because of the view that those people did not deserve to receive any help. Indian Ocean Tsunami 26 December 2004. In Sri Lanka and Aceh, the warring groups accused each other of video inhibiting aid operations. Were any differences observed in the amount or type of aid received by research papers online shopping india countries, due to criteria other than need? If not, what went right? Kosovo. In 1999, Kosovar refugees were treated far better than refugees in thesis tutorials, Africa were being treated in issues such as food, medical care, and research online shopping, shelter. U.S.A. In 2005, following Hurricane Katrina, suggestions were made that the poor response and personal essay audience, relief efforts in the immediate aftermath of the disaster were because most of the people who needed assistance were black.

How would the papers online shopping, patterns for international disaster aid compare to the patterns for domestic disaster aid? Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program. The Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) ran from 1992-1998 to promote a regionally coordinated, homogeneous approach to seismic hazard evaluation. GSHAP examined some test areas in conflict zones including the Caucasus and India-China-Tibet. Examples of Near-Earth Object (NEO) information come from thesis NASA and Spaceguard. Little is provided on potential disaster diplomacy implications. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) works on international cooperation for astronomy while the United Nations Office For Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) has worked on international cooperation for research online dealing with NEOs.

International cooperation could form the basis for linkages amongst countries which normally would not consider working together. When political decisions on NEOs must be made--for example related to monitoring NEOs, sharing information, planning for a crisis, preventing an impact, or responding to an impact--these scientific linkages have the potential for leading to interaction at theme tutorials, higher political levels: the spillover mentioned in the Preface to Kelman and Koukis (2000). On 17 February 2007, the online india, United Nations started work on a draft treaty to address the NEO threat. BBC reports. The material on the disaster diplomacy website is provided as only an information source.

Neither definitive advice nor recommendations are implied. Each person or organisation accessing the website is responsible for making their own assessment of the topics discussed and are strongly advised to verify all information. No liability will be accepted for loss or damage incurred as a result of using the material on this website. The appearance of special essay external links on this website does not constitute endorsement of the organisations, information, products, or services contained on that external website.