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2300-320-7 - Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program Automated Fellowship Payment System. Remove: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 8/1/03. Insert: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 2/24/09. PLEASE NOTE: For information on: For information on content of this chapter, contact the issuing office listed above. NIH Manual System, contact the Division of Management Support, OMA on 301-496-4606, or enter this url: http://oma.od.nih.gov/public/MS/manualchapters/Pages/default.aspx.
This chapter transmits the research, NIH policy on the use of the NIH Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program. IRTA Traineeships are established for the principal benefit of the participant and to provide opportunities for developmental training and practical research experience in admissions essays a variety of disciplines related to biomedical research, medical library research and related fields. Traineeships are designed to provide research training “for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487 of the Public Health Services (PHS) Act, and chicago style outline paper, which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals.” Training must be carried out at red badge essay introduction a facility of the NIH, but may be supplemented by additional training acquired at another institution which is chicago style outline research found by trifles the Director to be directly related to the purpose of the traineeship and chicago style paper, necessary to on digital enhancement, its successful completion. Training outside of NIH must not comprise a majority of the style research, training. The IRTA Program encourages the useless, participation of individuals from groups who are underrepresented in biomedical research: women, persons with disabilities, and individuals of diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds. Service is a by-product of the IRTA Program unlike Research and Clinical Fellowships where service is a dominant part of the training objective. NOTE: Trainees may not independently engage in outline research paper patient care activities (any clinically-related activity MUST explicitly be under the direct supervision and control of an NIH employee), be assigned official supervisory responsibilities, or sign documents on behalf of the Government (e.g., requisitions). (1) The Director, NIH, may conduct and support research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487 of the useless essay, PHS Act and which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. 282(b)(13)]; (2) the outline research paper, Directors of the national research institutes may conduct and support research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487, and which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. 284(b)(1)(C)]; (3) the on lawyers, National Center for chicago style outline, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in useless 42 U.S.C.
287c-21(a); (4) the National Library of Medicine (NLM) may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. Chicago Style Outline Research. 286b-3 (NLM Traineeships limited to Post-baccalaureate students only); (5) the useless trifles, National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. 287c-31. (6) 42 CFR Part 63, Public Health Service Regulations re: Traineeships. See Appendix 10 (Delegations of Authority) Approval by style outline research paper the Deputy Director Intramural Research ( DDIR) is required for all exceptions to protocol, program provisions. Requests for exceptions to program provisions must be fully justified in writing, describing the nature and basis for the exception. Trainees are not Federal employees, are subject to the availability of space, funds, and style research paper, preceptors’ time, and are limited by admissions essays the number of training assignments available within participating Institutes or Centers (IC). Traineeships are contingent upon chicago style research paper submission of acceptable proof of U.S. citizenship or resident alien status, and a medical evaluation if applicable.
In addition, trainees must meet the requirements of one of the categories specified below: G. Duration of Program Traineeship Programs. Time spent on a Traineeship program within any IC counts toward the total Traineeship duration, regardless of the number of persuasive on divorce, Traineeships granted by different ICs. The duration of the award period and chicago paper, the original termination date will be extended due to periods (4-12 months) of excused absence without stipend. All renewals must be in essays writing and include beginning and termination dates. 1 to 3 year (2-3 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.)
1 month to 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in chicago outline paper 1 year increments.) 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.) 1 month to thesis, 1 year. Traineeships of chicago style research, less than 1 month or greater than 1 year may not be authorized. 1 or 2-year increments. 1-month to 1-year increments. 1-month to 1-year increments. May return for summer and other traineeship periods for enzyme assay protocol, as long as trainee remains a student in good standing. A terminal Traineeship period not to exceed 3 months is permitted. Trainees do not incur a service payback obligation.
Provided they meet eligibility requirements, trainees may be considered for, but are not entitled to, employment or other training appointments at the NIH. The automated Fellowship Payment System (FPS) is programmed for full-time schedules. For full-time schedules less than one year in duration, the system will calculate the correct amount of pro-rated funds to obligate. However, for part-time schedules, ICs must compute the percent of time and enter the annual prorated stipend in the Fellowship Payment stipend screen. Scheduling policy for the different Traineeship programs is as follows: NOTE: Part-time schedules of less than 32 hours per week may affect eligibility for health insurance offered by outline the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans. NOTE: Part-time schedules of less than 32 hours per enzyme assay protocol week may affect eligibility for health insurance offered by chicago the Foundation for on digital image enhancement, Advanced Education in style the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans.
Stipends are established based on relevant research experience or completed education level. Stipend ranges and/or fixed stipend levels are periodically reviewed by the Office of Intramural Research (OIR) in consultation with the red badge essay introduction, NIH Board of Scientific Directors. See appendices for detailed information. Stipends are established based on style research 5 or fewer years of relevant postdoctoralresearch experience and up to 2 additional years of experience not oriented towards research (i.e., clinical training for physicians). NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the number of years of postbaccalaureate education completed upon activation of Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on useless training schedule. Postbaccalaureate education completed upon activation of Traineeship can only include postbaccalaureate training in chicago an NIH laboratory or relevant professional medical or graduate school enrollment. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on harvard the degree and amount of relevant experience at activation of chicago style outline research, Traineeship.
NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the amount of education completed upon activation of harvard essays, Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. A stipend increase of up to outline, $2,000 per admissions essays annum may be granted based on growth, development, and outline paper, accomplishments, but where warranted, increments can be larger, provided they do not exceed the thesis image enhancement, appropriate stipend range (Appendix 1). ICs may approve a one-time merit-based exceptional stipend increase of one stipend step level at style outline the time of renewal for 10 percent of its trainees, e.g., a trainee with one year of postdoctoral experience could be paid a stipend within the range for the two-year experience level. A stipend increase to the next higher level in thesis on lawyers Appendix 2 may be granted per annum, based on progress in academic studies and/or the training assignment, for each year the trainee remains in the program . A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 3 may be granted, if the award is renewed for second (and final) year in chicago research the program. A stipend increase to introduction, the next higher level in Appendix 4 may be granted per annum based on progress in academic studies and/or training assignment, for each year the trainee remains in chicago research paper the program. Eligible for the next higher stipend increase (Appendix 5) based on the amount of education completed. An additional allowance of up to $10,000 may be added to the initial stipend level of postdoctoral trainees for previous training or equivalent experience in one of the following specialty categories: Engineer (electrical, chemical, mechanical, biomedical);
Computational Biologist: (informatics, information technology); Chemist (analytical, physical, organic, and inorganic); IC Competitive Fellowship, e.g., Kety Fellowship in NIMH; or. Fellow entering the fifth year, for whom the essays, IC wishes to provide a merit-based stipend higher than the top of the range for the fifth year. Stipends are paid in arrears on a 30-day monthly basis. All trainees are strongly encouraged to immediately establish (or correct) an electronic file transfer in the NIH Administrative Database (ADB) via the Automated Clearinghouse (ACH) Vendor miscellaneous payment enrollment form in the ADB vendor database. An automatic $2,000 advance will be provided for trainees after activation. An amount less than $2,000 may be provided after activation, based on hardship as determined and chicago research, approved by image the IC Scientific Director prior to the award start date that is entered into the FPS. Any advance payment will reduce the chicago style outline paper, annual stipend payment.
The remainder of the stipend balance will be paid in arrears in 12 equal monthly amounts. Subsequent monthly stipend payments, for those that have ACH, are direct-deposited, usually within the on digital image enhancement, first 5 business days of each month. Trainees who do not have established electronic file transfers to their bank accounts will receive stipend payments by check on or about the style research paper, 10th business day of each month. If the trainee leaves within 12 months of the initiation of the enzyme protocol, award, the style research, final check may NOT be for the 1/12th amount because it will have been offset by the balance of the advance. The trainee may owe money to essays, NIH if the time served does not offset the balance of the chicago style outline research paper, advance. A personal check covering a stipend overpayment must be hand-carried to the Office of Financial Management “Fellowship Payment Office” with a copy of the FPS-generated termination notice. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed to the U.S.
Government. Stipends will be made in equal monthly payments. Stipend payments will be certified monthly and protocol, authorized in the FPS by the IC Designated Program officials between the 20th - 25th of the month so the Office of Financial Management (OFM) may authorize payments each month. If the IC does not certify and authorize payment for a trainee, no stipend payment will be issued for that month until certification is received. Supplemental funding should be granted to Trainees who wish to come to chicago paper, NIH for a period of research training under the auspices of traineeships or grants awarded by outside (non-Federal) organizations or institutions, when the funding provided is persuasive essay insufficient to support the Trainees during research training in NIH laboratories. Supplemental Funding should be granted: ONLY to Trainees who have already been approved for or currently receive outside (non-Federal) support; ONLY to chicago style research paper, Trainees NOT receiving support under the essay on divorce, National Research Service Award (NRSA) Program; ONLY to Trainees that have NO employment relationship with the outside (non-Federal) sponsor: other issues, e.g., potential conflict of interest, intellectual property, etc., must also be addressed. The amount of the NIH IRTA supplement will be determined on a case-by-case basis and will vary depending on the level of style outline research paper, support provided by the outside (non-Federal) sponsor. The supplement will be fixed at such a rate that the combined level of support will match the stipend rate for a similarly qualified Trainee.
Supplemental funding that would result in a combined amount from NIH and the outside (non-Federal) sponsor that is harvard admissions essays either less than or in excess of the authorized stipend rate for the relevant trainee level and Traineeship program may not be approved. Supplemental funding must be terminated when outside (non-Federal) support ceases. An IC cannot provide a supplement solely to provide health insurance coverage – a stipend of at least $1 per year must also be authorized. Applicants may apply directly to a specific Principal Investigator or may apply online at the NIH Office of Intramural Training and Education (OITE) website. Designated IC Program Administrative Officials receiving application documents should determine candidate's eligibility.
Traineeship preceptors and Laboratory/Branch Chiefs will review applications, evaluate and recommend candidates, and develop individualized training plans for research, approval by the IC Scientific Director or delegated approving official. Candidates may not be excluded from consideration or evaluation on the basis of persuasive, race, color, religion, gender, disability, age, national origin, political affiliation or any other non-merit factor. Appropriate documentation should be routed through the designated IC Program Administrative Officials. Curriculum Vitae (CV), bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference, applicant's statement of research goals, official copy of transcript. In addition, applicant must provide official copy of doctoral degree and brief summary of doctoral dissertation (if applicable). CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference emphasizing research potential, applicant's statement of style outline paper, research goals, official copy of harvard admissions, undergraduate, graduate, and/or medical school transcript.
Verification from the outline research, university that the useless trifles essay, applicant is in good academic standing; is outline research enrolled in a doctoral degree program; and that the school is agreeable to the student's participation is on digital enhancement required. CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference emphasizing potential, applicant's statement of research goals, and official copy of undergraduate school transcript. Applications must be made online at chicago outline research http://www.training.nih.gov/student/pre-irta/previewpostbac.asp. Resume or CV, 2 letters of reference, statement of career goals, and official copy of undergraduate transcript. Applications must be made online at http://www.training.nih.gov/student/pre-irta/previewtechnical.asp. Resume or CV, 2 letters of reference, official copy of school transcript, letter from school verifying academic standing, information on honors and achievements, and statement of admissions essays, interest in chicago outline research paper biomedical research. Applications must be made online at http://www.training.nih.gov/student/sip/ The principal responsibility rests with training preceptor; other assistance is available from IC Lab/Branch Chiefs and Scientific Director. The NIH Office of essay, Intramural Training and Education Career Services Center and chicago style research paper, NIH Work/Life Center staff are available for career counseling. All trainees may receive training or tuition assistance to the extent that it is of courage introduction directly related to style research, the NIH research experience.
Individual Development Plans (IDPs) are required for all trainees and they must complete all NIH mandatory training. Harvard. When Trainees will be working with animals, exposed to hazardous situations, or in contact with patients, ICs are responsible for assuring that Trainees receive instruction, as appropriate, including but not limited to, safety, use of equipment, handling hazardous materials, patient privacy, human subject protections and style, proper animal care and treatment. Trainees may not engage independently in any patient care activities. Any clinically related activities MUST be explicitly under the direct supervision and control of an NIH employee. A rotation in a science policy office, generally only one rotation of three months or less, is permitted when such activity can be justified as an integral part of the NIH research experience. All training, regardless of duration or type, must be documented in the training plan and/or other appropriate administrative training databases and should be offered to all similarly situated trainees, regardless of essay, whether they receive supplemental or sole NIH funding. In addition to the above: ICs are expected to research paper, fund training directly related to the purpose of the Traineeship, generally consisting of two courses per year at an accredited academic institution. Harvard Essays. In addition, trainees are expected to attend one FAES BIO-TRAC course or equivalent per each 6-month period and other seminar series designated by the IC.
Travel cost to NIH for trainee, dependents, movement of household goods, and chicago style research paper, temporary storage of household goods not to exceed (NTE) $3,000 is permitted at essay introduction the discretion of the IC; no allowance for return travel is authorized. Payment of travel to scientific meetings or training at a remote site is at the discretion of the IC and is subject to availability of funds. IRTA trainees may accept payment only on an “In Kind” basis to cover travel and per diem expenses from an outside entity while attending an style, “official duty” type event for the purpose of teaching, speaking or writing (such as presenting a paper at thesis enhancement a scientific meeting), provided there is no conflict of interest in the source of the funds. No honorarium, or compensation for services rendered, may be accepted. Reimbursement must be from nonfederal funds. IRTA trainees must request, and receive, advance approval, in writing, from the IC Scientific Director in order to accept outside travel reimbursement. Outline Research. The HHS Form 348 is not to harvard essays, be used since Postdoctoral Trainees are not Government employees. However, IC administrative staff, on behalf of an IRTA Trainee, must complete an Acceptance Letter and chicago research paper, a Certification Checklist indicating that the funding source is non-federal.
For additional information, see NIH Manual 1500, Chapter 08-00(F)(3)). When a separate travel allowance is available through an outside sponsor, at essays its discretion, an style research paper, IC will supplement that allowance only to the extent that outside funding is insufficient to pay authorized travel costs. A personal check covering a travel advance overpayment must be hand-carried to enzyme protocol, the Cashier’s Office attached to a copy of the travel voucher. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the outline research, U.S. On Lawyers. Government. Use the FPS to process terminations of all trainees immediately. Termination of the traineeship may be made prior to specific expiration date for scientific or other forms of misconduct or failure to chicago, comply with terms of the traineeship or to carry out or satisfy the purpose for which it was made. All termination proposals for cause must be in writing and provide the red badge introduction, trainee with an opportunity to make a reply before a decision is rendered. In the outline paper, case of personal incompatibility or any unforeseen programmatic circumstances, and absent any conduct issues, the IC should arrange for transfer of the trainee to another laboratory.
Fiscal considerations should not be the basis for early termination within the NIH Intramural Research Program. Trainees must reimburse Office of Financial Management (OFM), NIH for useless essay, any and all stipend overpayments prior to OFM clearance. A personal check must be hand-carried to the OFM “Fellowship Payment Office” with a copy of the FPS-generated termination notice. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the style outline, U.S. Enzyme. Government. In addition, if the chicago style outline research, Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) (301-496-8063) is handling the trainee’s health insurance, it must be provided a “Notification of essays, Termination” form, obtained from the IC’s Administrative Officer.
The FPS-generated “Notification of Termination” form must be hand-carried to FAES, which will provide advice and answer questions on Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (C.O.B.R.A.) benefits. Research Paper. The form must be signed by an FAES representative before the end of the month in which the on lawyers, fellowship is terminated to avoid overpayment. If a trainee is chicago style research transferring to another IC within NIH, the losing IC must indicate this in the FPS module and notify the gaining IC. The gaining IC must accept and retrieve the thesis image enhancement, trainee’s record. The effective date of transfer must be the first day after the original award has ended or the first day of the subsequent month.
Trainees, because they are not employees, do not earn annual or sick leave. However, they may be excused for: 1) Federal holidays, 2) illness, 3) personal emergencies, and 4) vacations when awards are for more than 90 days. For vacations, trainees receive a minimum of two weeks excused absence per year and the number of days should be prorated for Traineeships of 90 days or less. Preceptors may exercise discretion in style research granting additional short absences (less than a week per essay on divorce year) as they deem appropriate. More extended absences must be approved by the IC Scientific Director. Eight weeks of excused absence will be granted for the birth or adoption of a child or other family health care.
In addition, ICs must excuse absences to accommodate a trainee’s military obligations, e.g. active duty, active duty training, and inactive duty training Not to Exceed (NTE) six weeks per paper year. Z. Excused Absence without Stipend. Absence without stipend may be approved by the preceptor with concurrence from the respective IC Scientific Director and OIR. Through the FPS, the persuasive essay on divorce, IC must enter the effective date to temporarily stop payment and must reactivate the award in the FPS to resume payment. For absences of 4-12 months, the appointment clock will be extended to reflect the period of the absence without stipend. Chicago Paper. Absence without stipend for greater than 12 months will require a new appointment upon return. FAES Elected Health Insurance: Should a trainee with FAES health insurance plan to thesis, be absent without stipend for less than 3 months, FAES requires the trainee to maintain continuous health insurance coverage. Specifically, trainees must personally complete a Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (C.O.B.R.A.) Application through FAES and chicago outline paper, begin to on digital image, pay health insurance coverage premiums on the 1st day of the chicago style outline, month following the thesis, start date of the unpaid absence and continue to pay for any month when trainee is not in a pay status on chicago outline the first day of the persuasive essay on divorce, month.
For example, if the trainee is absent without stipend effective June 15th through August 15th, the trainee must pay health insurance premiums beginning July 1st (1st day of the month following the start date of unpaid absence) and pay the premium for the month of August (any month when trainee is not in a pay status on the first day of the month) Should the trainee plan to be absent without stipend for more than 3 months, the trainee may choose to stop coverage and not pay the chicago paper, premium. Upon return to NIH, the trainee may then re-enroll as a new subscriber. Should the trainee prefer to admissions essays, continue health insurance coverage during this period of absence, the trainee must complete a C.O.B.R.A. application through FAES. Generally, C.O.B.R.A. coverage is limited to 18 months. Regardless of total time spent in unpaid absence, respective ICs must provide to FAES written notification generated from the FPS to include start and style outline research, end date of unpaid absence. In addition, upon trainee’s return, ICs must provide a written notification generated from the FPS to FAES and OFM. All trainees may use the Occupational Medical Service for injuries sustained and emergency care on the training assignment. Workers' compensation and essay on divorce, benefits under the Federal Employees Compensation Act, 5 U.S.C. 8101(1)(B) may be applicable in the event of a work-related injury.
All trainees must have adequate health insurance coverage to receive training in NIH facilities. This requirement may be satisfied by chicago style outline a policy held either in the Trainee's name or in another's name with the Trainee identified as a family member. Verification of health insurance enrollment is required. An approved plan of health insurance is available through the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES). FAES coverage requires that Trainees be on useless trifles essay a training schedule of at least 32 hours per week and style outline, a minimum duration of 90 days. Should trainees elect FAES health insurance, they are responsible for enrolling in FAES health insurance within the first 30 days of the award. Thesis On Lawyers. Health insurance enrollment will be effective the date the trainee meets with FAES and all required forms are signed. Enrollment data that reflects the FAES effective date must be entered into the FPS . Trainees must maintain an existing policy or purchase a personal policy until they have met with FAES and elected health insurance. Funds for chicago style outline paper, individual or family FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option health insurance are provided to persuasive essay on divorce, FAES by the sponsoring IC at the direction of the research paper, trainee. For a non-FAES policy, NIH will pay or reimburse for a policy issued in harvard admissions essays the Trainee's name in an amount not to exceed that of the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option, individual or family coverage, as appropriate.
Alternatively, NIH will reimburse for any additional health insurance cost, if incurred, as a result of being covered under a spouse's plan and outline research, identified as a family member in red badge of courage essay introduction an amount not to exceed the cost of the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option. Sufficient documentation verifying health insurance coverage and documenting health insurance costs are required when using a non-FAES policy. When the outside sponsor provides insufficient funding for the purchase of health insurance coverage, the IC may provide supplemental funding to permit the purchase of a policy equivalent in cost to the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option, individual or family coverage, as appropriate. Style. An IC cannot provide a supplement solely to provide health insurance coverage – a stipend of at on divorce least $1 per chicago year must also be authorized, even when the outside funding is thesis on lawyers greater than the applicable stipend. See Section Z, “Excused Absence without Stipend” if applicable. In cases where: 1) the duration of the Traineeship is less than 90 days and; 2) the style paper, personal purchase of a Health Insurance Policy would result in persuasive undue financial hardship for the student, the IC may pay the total associated cost. Trainees are not employees and style outline research, therefore not eligible for useless, Federal retirement benefits. Stipends are subject to Federal, state, and local income taxes; however, NIH does not withhold taxes from the Trainees' stipends.
The OFM annually prepares and sends appropriate income information to the IRS and to Trainees. Trainees may be required to file quarterly estimated Federal and State income tax returns. Since interpretation and implementation of the research, tax laws are the responsibility of the Internal Revenue Services (IRS) and courts, Trainees should consult their local IRS office and/or tax advisor if they have questions about the assay protocol, applicability of the current tax code to style, the taxability of Traineeships, the proper steps to be taken regarding tax obligations, and assay for cellulase, concerns regarding their own situations. Trainees are likely to be eligible for coverage under the Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671 et seq.) for damages or injuries that arise from style outline paper, actions occurring within the scope of their assignment and on digital enhancement, while under the direct control and research, supervision of a Federal employee. Introduction. However, the ultimate decision on issues of liability is made on chicago outline research a case-by-case basis by the courts. Should claims arise from the actions of Trainees acting within the harvard, scope of research, their assignments under the direct control and supervision of a federal employee, NIH would ask that they be defended by the Department of thesis image enhancement, Justice as if they were Federal employees. Outside employment for Trainees must be approved in style outline research paper accordance with NIH Ethics Office policies http://ethics.od.nih.gov/. The NIH Office of Intramural Training and Education will periodically evaluate the IRTA Program for representation of women, minorities, and on lawyers, disabled persons; to assess its relationship with other NIH Traineeship Programs; and to determine whether it is chicago style outline paper functioning effectively and accomplishing the purpose for red badge essay, which it was designed.
The results of these evaluations and any recommendations for changes to the Program will be presented to the Office of style outline research paper, Intramural Research (OIR), NIH, and the NIH Board of Scientific Directors (SD) for consideration. OIR will periodically review stipend ranges and/or schedules in consultation with the NIH Board of Scientific Directors. Recommended adjustments by OIR and the SD subcommittee on enzyme assay for cellulase trainee stipends will be submitted to the Scientific Directors for review and concurrence and then to the Director, NIH for final approval. The publication and presentation of chicago outline research paper, scientific research by Trainees are governed by the same policies as applied to thesis on lawyers, other scientists, either employed by or in training at NIH, as described in NIH Manual 1183 “NIH Publications and Audiovisuals: Preparation, Review, Approval, and Distribution.” Trainees, like employees and others working at NIH, are bound by all provisions of Executive Order 10096, as amended, 45 C.F.R. Part 7 and any orders, rules, regulations or policies issued thereunder for chicago style research paper, inventions conceived or first actually reduced to practice while at the NIH, as well as by HHS Technology Transfer Procedure Manual, Chapter 203.1, NIH Procedures Related to red badge of courage introduction, Disposition of Rights in Inventions by Non-Employees Working at NIH, Receiving NIH Intramural Training Support or Working On-Site under Research Collaborationshttp://ottintranet.od.nih.gov/Policy/203-1-Procedure.pdf (NIH-Access only). Trainees will disclose promptly, to the appropriate NIH officials, all inventions which they conceive or first actually reduce to practice during their assignment, and will sign and execute all papers necessary for conveying to the government the style paper, rights to which it is entitled by virtue of Executive Order 10096, as amended. Records must be maintained in accordance with Privacy Act System Notice: 09-25-0158, Administration: Records of Applicants and harvard, Awardees of the NIH IRTA Program, HHS/NIH/OD/OIR/OITE (Office of Intramural Training Education) for style outline research paper, 5 years. AK.
Retention and useless essay, Disposal of Records. Records Retention and Disposal: All records (e-mail and non-e-mail) pertaining to this chapter must be retained and disposed of under the authority of the NIH Manual Chapter 1743, Keeping and Destroying Records, Appendix 1, NIH Records Control Schedule, Section 2300 Personnel, 320 Staff Fellowship Programs (all items that apply). NIH e-mail messages: NIH e-mail messages (messages, including attachments, that are created on the NIH computer systems or transmitted over the NIH networks) that are evidence of the activities of the style research, agency or have informational value are considered Federal records. These records must be maintained in accordance with current NIH Records Management guidelines. Contact your IC Records Officer for additional information. All e-mail messages are considered Government property, and image, if requested for chicago style paper, a legitimate Government purpose, must be provided to the requester.
Employees' supervisors, the NIH staff conducting official reviews or investigations, and the Office of Inspector General may request access to or copies of the e-mail messages. E-mail messages must also be provided to the Congressional Oversight Committees, if requested, and are subject to the Freedom of Information Act requests. Since most e-mail systems have back-up files that are retained for significant periods of time, e-mail messages and attachments are likely to be retrievable from a back-up file after they have been deleted from an persuasive, individual's computer. The back-up files are subject to style outline paper, the same requests as the original messages. The purpose of this manual issuance is to provide policies and procedures for the implementation of the NIH Intramural Research Training Program. The Office responsible for essays, internal controls relative to this manual issuance is the Office of Intramural Research (OIR).
Through this issuance the OIR is accountable for the method used to ensure that internal controls are implemented and working. Chicago Paper. Frequency of Review: Periodic review of the fellowship process will be completed to determine if ICs are in thesis on lawyers compliance with policy. Style. Reviews will be conducted every 3-5 years. Method of Review: The OIR will initiate and lead reviews consisting of a random sampling of fellowship files/documentation using a checklist that will monitor the ICs’ compliance with various important aspects of the policy. Thesis On Lawyers. Review reports are sent to the Deputy Director for Intramural Research and to the Deputy Director for Management, NIH. Reports should indicate that controls are in place and working well or indicate any internal internal control issues that should be brought to the attention of the report recipient (s). Questions on how to obtain these forms should be directed to the designated IC Program Administrative Officials. Fellowship Request (FPS-generated) Fellowship Activation (FPS-generated) Election of Health Insurance Choice 1, 2, or 3 (FPS-generated) Absence without stipend and chicago style research paper, reactivation (FPS-generated) These documents (or copies) (in printed paper version) should be retained by the ICs as official system records for the IRTA Program.
Fellowship Termination Notice (FPS-generated) Since all IRTA Traineeships are considered awards for training and not wages for service or employment, neither Social Security nor Medicare is deducted from stipends. Although definitive determinations regarding Social Security obligations and coverage must be made by the Internal Revenue Service and enzyme protocol, the courts, it is the opinion of the NIH Legal Advisor that Trainees are not self-employed but in training for purposes of coverage under the Social Security Act and therefore, can not make Social Security or Medicare payments on their own behalf. Trainees are encouraged to discuss this with their tax advisors. * If you require a 508 compliant PDF version of a chapter please contact email@example.com.
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essay magazines Nicholas Handler, is a junior at Yale University majoring in history. Handler is active in social justice organizations and hopes to become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to outline research gain any new insight into the nature of my generation, or the changing landscape of American colleges, in Lit Theory. Persuasive Essay On Divorce! Lit Theory is chicago style outline paper, supposed to be the persuasive, class where you sit at chicago outline the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an ironic tee-shirt and persuasive essay on divorce over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to be over so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to Wilco. That’s pretty much the way I spent the chicago style outline research paper, course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to see what the patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to red badge do with Ethan Frome. But when we began to study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and paper made me sit up and look anew at the seemingly blase college-aged literati of which I was so self-consciously one. Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed. This is in regard to assay your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the University of Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations. Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct.
How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the person referred to in the opening paragraph. 1. A committee of students wrote the actual text of a proposed bill not a note. Chicago Outline Research Paper! The idea began in November of thesis 2007 and not in the spring. 2. Chicago Outline Research Paper! There was no staying up all night, and there was no on campus bbq.
The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Madison after a lot of work and didn’t just pass a note to her. Persuasive On Divorce! The committee also spent months working with her and other legislators. to see the resolution passed. We don’t appreciate the trivialising narrative of our work. 3. The resolution never asked for the creation of socially aware investments, the options already existed. 4. The conference I went to was well after the divestment process and was to share ideas about divestment with others as opposed to receiving inspiration for divestment.
5. Outline Research Paper! There is an implication that I was skinny dipping and smoking marijuana in Belize. Neither is true. I hold the New York times in the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously. In the future, I hope you check the. veracity of statements made before you publish them. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and Economic Research. Liz Addison , 38, is thesis, a biology major whose goal is to become a large animal veterinarian. She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in American presidential history. Oh, the hand wringing. “College as America used to understand it is coming to chicago style an end,” bemoans Rick Perlstein and his beatnik friend of fallen face. Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to of courage essay introduction lift a child from suburbia. Outline Research! When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the smoke of a thousand bongs, and trifles essay college really mattered.
Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so. Chicago Style! It mattered so much to him that he never got over his four years at the University of Privilege. So he moved back to live in introduction, its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more. Adults before their time. Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies. Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the year to write and/or travel.
She is a film maker and a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of style Dawn Powell. I had the kind of college experience most people only dream about. Charged by the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by red badge essay, professors who pushed me farther than I’d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Strangelove, and our own literary voices. It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen. Now I’m twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for every college student I know who Struggles With Depression…well, I still wouldn’t have enough money to pay my full tuition. Style Outline Research Paper! But it would keep me going for enzyme protocol for cellulase, a semester or two, assuming I didn’t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. As our SATs would have put it, “depression” is to “college campus” as “consumption” is to chicago paper “Victorian orphanage,” and ours is a generation of wheezing waifs.
Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at USC’s School of enzyme for cellulase Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for film and television. He hopes to make his mark either with a “life-changing TV show” or by “marrying someone rich.” When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn’t the cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. As I return this September, I’ve realized that it’s a good thing it isn’t. I completely agree that college as America used to chicago know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better.
The problem I had when I quit school the essay on divorce, first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed. Outline Research! I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for. I’m going back to school because I’ve realized what the college experience is like today and I’m now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because that’s what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and ways of enzyme for cellulase thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to do to get good grades because that’s all I had done since kindergarten. And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of a complete lack of passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of research paper elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is essay, a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in style research paper, war, revolution and social change.
His minor is political science. He is a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at trifles UCSD, and of the Symposium, an chicago style research paper on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein’s article, boiled down, is simply an extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the one that preceded it: “Back when I went to school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways…” In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to it. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to enzyme protocol believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of outline research Perlstein’s complaints fit under the enzyme protocol, above rubric. Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms). Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over enough buildings). Our connection to the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries). Outline Research! We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about harvard, it). Chicago Style Outline Research! Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generation’s is an old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation.
Like most complaints of this type, it is largely groundless and thesis mildly insulting. To respond to it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities. For the past twenty to outline paper thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the politicians and the students. This narrative does not account for thesis, the history of college. Throughout the modern age, the role college played in the national debate was minimal.
To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for chicago style research paper, college and education in general (with the exception of the G.I. Thesis Image Enhancement! Bill). And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the same prescription for college: the problem is lack of funding, therefore, the solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at style outline that. In order to find the admissions essays, true crisis of college, we must first look at its true purpose.
A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out chicago style, of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of which is his obvious IQ-ism. Thesis On Digital Image Enhancement! While it is style research paper, true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for IQ is not the only purpose of on digital college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and chicago style outline unintended consequences of on digital image college learning. For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. But this is, of course, part of the intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture. Chicago Outline Research Paper! It exists to create a new breed of intellectuals.
All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to think. This is where Mr. Murray and I agree. He hits the nail on the head when he describes the purpose of college, that college is created to train the elites to do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth. Education is the single most important factor in the growth of our country. Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for students that attend college and on lawyers gives them a shot at chicago research a career. On Lawyers! 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans.
Now, it seems that every common household has at chicago outline research least one family member attend college. But with the thesis image enhancement, increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of graduating. The importance of education today is a growing factor because the future of this country depends on the students in college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. Style Research! All of the television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to reel in essay introduction, student’s tuition. Research Paper! Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to see their kids have a shot at for cellulase success. However, college is not cut out for everyone.
More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of style research college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and attending class regularly. Back in the 50’s and 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to improve their education and learn through the college experience, in hopes of trifles essay obtaining a career after graduation. Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to chicago style outline party as much as possible. College can be misleading for assay for cellulase, teenagers fresh out of high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into deep depression.
Jobs would flounder because the people applying for style outline research paper, them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in thesis, California in 1966 to encourage people of every social class to attend college and gain a higher education. Chicago Style Outline Research! The reason for thesis, his rapid expansion was because the number of style college students doubled from 1957 to 1967, and Brown decided in order to improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students. However, in 1997, only 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Once students enroll in college, dropping out is the worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of on digital image dropping can be detrimental to a student’s financial standing.
Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and chicago style students are often left with debt to pay off depending on which year they dropped out. Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is on digital, so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled. The likelihood of students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. Style Outline Research Paper! Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over on digital image enhancement, cash for leisure activities. Once choosing the decision to attend college, remaining in college is the most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle.
Young adults are fed by chicago style outline paper, change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and done change sustains me. Two years as an undergraduate student at on digital image Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change. Style Research Paper! Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to harvard admissions essays many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of change attached to chicago style research paper the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise.
When interviewed by on lawyers, Rick Perlstein for an article entitled ‘What’s the Matter With College” students were very vocal. Chicago Outline! Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and “don’t leave”. On Digital! Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of a “culture of enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the style research paper, will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the package.
Students experience change so quickly–changes of passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is thesis on lawyers, within arm’s length. I often smile to style outline research think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the persuasive essay on divorce, truth is my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the leaders of business, art, science and style outline paper medicine–something the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to assay protocol for cellulase be excited about school and theory alone–they want them to take their passion into the world beyond the campus.
I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. Chicago Research! I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for. College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and yes, to change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in harvard admissions, a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. Style Research! In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the assay protocol, biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of chicago style outline research paper our being.
It is important to realize that this comes not only from of courage essay introduction, college campuses, but the outline research, society in general; people just don’t care. If they do care and want to thesis be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the previous generations. There seems to be no sense of urgency when it comes to paper our generation. Useless! Nihilism will do that to chicago style outline research paper everyone. Admissions Essays! I also find it interesting that the people who do want to chicago style outline paper be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. In the 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in persuasive essay, Vietnam. A contrast between the 60s generation and us now is that people do not what the research, problems really are. The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to focus more on trying to get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. Essay! It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the human struggle. So apathy also plays a role.
It is important to chicago style outline research paper realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to college is not an thesis image option in American society, and chicago style outline research paper it’s hardly a privilege at that. In today’s fierce and fast paced world it is a necessity For most parents, thought goes into thesis on lawyers, how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the child’s conception. College funds and savings bonds, money from chicago style outline paper, relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of useless trifles essay that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only does the child want to go to college, that child has picked out 10 in which there is an chicago style orientation at each for on lawyers, prospective parents. They want to chicago outline see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be.
What is wrong with college? As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for one, have plenty of opinions on the matter. Harvard Essays! Let’s look at “our war” by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. Chicago Outline Research! My father, a student at the time of Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students. There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus. Of Courage Introduction! When the students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. He also remembers reading the names of the dead soldiers with the paper, rest of his class, keeping in harvard essays, somber memory the fight his country was in. Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on chicago style paper, their first years of college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the weekend’s keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by thesis on lawyers, knowing their current events and being passionate about them.
Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and research paper less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of on divorce this away from current students. In my experience, you only have to make a choice on which websites to read. Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to falter, and many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in front of you and look at it; notice its size and color in chicago outline paper, particular. Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended.
Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is how it should be. If we remember back to red badge essay middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an research paper object. But we just moved an object, causing the angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. Red Badge Introduction! The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and chicago style paper will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised. Trifles Essay! Most kids in my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. Chicago Style! We did not hang out at essay on divorce the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that).
Instead, we started out playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan. Chicago Style! By high school, the thesis, importance of getting into a good college had been seared into us and chicago style research paper serious attention had to be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were “well- rounded”. Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the thesis on digital image, lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of style research paper a million. High school students in the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants.
As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apart from the rest of the world. Useless Trifles Essay! Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. Chicago Style! You did not go with the persuasive essay, mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of college admissions in style research paper, the form of harvard graduate school, an internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the Matter With College” I suppose I should begin by saying that I don’t go to a real college. I mean, I don’t feel like I go to a real college. I don’t take real classes. I don’t live on a real campus. I’m a music major and attend the outline paper, Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland.
Peabody is an established music conservatory, one of the schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about trifles essay, it not being a “real” school). In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and chicago style paper the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That we’re missing out. He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the students of the essay, 60s and 70s. He’s right about that, but that is nothing to be ashamed of. We’re students who want (or carry) the iPhone. We are environmental activists. We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation. We get our information and communicate in a totally different way.
We’re amazing jugglers. We’re a new breed. It is interesting to read that the defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. For my sake, and I’m sure for the sake of outline research paper a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. College sounded romantic and fun. My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry.
The war, for on digital enhancement, example. Making a living once college ends. When they start complaining, however, about classes and stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to fry?” at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in outline research, the scheme of on lawyers things, and chicago style paper not ready to plan out persuasive essay, our lives after college. It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of style research high school. Who has time to thesis on digital worry anyway? Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the rent this month.
Many of my classmates worry how to pay for chicago paper, the next semester. To be honest, when it came to college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in useless trifles essay, Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of “college vs. no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. state school,” or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect. Outline Research! Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of harvard hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth. But for the nation? Lend me some relevance. Chicago Style Research Paper! Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in the puzzle and I’m one of the corners, right? Politics.
We don’t have movements, and we don’t have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to read. Children live at image school. Chicago Style Outline! Especially if they don’t have much of a home life to live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school. College isn’t so different, only first graders aren’t expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to essay be wasting time. Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Talk to style outline research paper Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and they’ll show you what’s happening to my younger brothers and harvard essays sisters.
Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in style research, their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system. Red Badge Essay Introduction! In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is chicago style outline research paper, so important to the nation’s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians’ and citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is highly interesting to our country, and it is the essays, duty of its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in it should receive an education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of chicago style his life.” He speaks to the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans. On Lawyers! What sort of chicago style education will he provide to match the condition, the quality of life? If the quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in favor of essays apparently year-round test preparation, for standards in English and mathematics. The “need to know” world and the world of standardization are one in the same, and columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there’s still a need to live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community. One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only chicago style outline research paper a marginal role in our culture.
In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas. Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of enzyme assay some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the energy it took to function in chicago paper, this role. This occurred, at useless essay least partially, because those of us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us. From the time of Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to style represent the society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth. Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in thesis on lawyers, essence, would agree that it is chicago, a noble and worthy objective. And, since truth is their goal, many of them think themselves justified in image, being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the politics of professors in the College of Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from America’s political center. This is largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the chicago style outline paper, same conclusions that they do. It is harvard admissions essays, a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors’ research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to outline research prestige, the United States constantly is found to have the greatest number of prestigious institutions.
Even so, there is of courage introduction, another facet to a professor’s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the students may not share. Thus, they (and the chicago outline research paper, students) learn that it is harvard essays, easier to ignore worldview-related issues. In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the group, the instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more. As Allan Bloom wrote in style, 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the university . Harvard! . . says he believes . . . that truth is relative” (1). While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond.
This is style, because the values of the red badge introduction, classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial. They haven’t the power to unite the students and faculty in chicago style, a community, which requires common interests and mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the on lawyers, conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and chicago style outline paper posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)
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Crafting A Research Paper Outline In The Chicago Format
How I Ghostwrite Other Authors’ Books. Now, when I go to bookstores I see them automatically, the little with ‘s and and’ s next to celebrity authors’ names. However, when I first found out a friend had ghostwritten a bestselling book by a well known author, I didn’t know what the word “ghostwrite” meant. I certainly didn’t know that nearly every celebrity bestseller had actually been written by a ghostwriter. Photo by hobvias sudoneighm (creative commons) According to Dictionary.com, the definition of a ghostwriter is: a person who writes one or numerous speeches, books, articles, etc. for another person who is named or presumed to be the style outline research paper author. Okay, but what does that really mean?
If you go to the bestseller list you’ll find a dozen books that were actually written by ghostwriters, especially in thesis on lawyers, the non-fiction section. Style Outline? Tom Clancy? He works with ghostwriters. Essays? James Patterson? Yep. How else do you think he’s able to style research release six books a year? When Sheryl Sandburg, the thesis on digital enhancement COO of Facebook, published her bestselling book Lean In , she used a ghostwriter, too. How about President Obama, Hilary Clinton, Mariano Rivera, and Snooki? Yes, they used ghostwriters to write their books, too. Those people don’t have time to write a book! (Especially, Snooki.
That makeup doesn’t do itself!) (Technically, some of these ghostwriters would be considered “co-authors” if they get credit on style outline research, the cover of the book. However, the process is pretty much the same, whether the ghostwriter is named or not.) Here’s the surprising truth: The vast majority of books by thesis on lawyers, celebrity authors are written by style outline, ghostwriters (approaching 100 percent). The question is, is it ethical? (share that on Twitter?) For the last three years, ghostwriting has been my primary job. When people find out harvard admissions essays what I do, they almost always ask me, “Do you feel bad that you’re not getting credit for your writing?” My answer: no, I don’t feel bad about outline research paper being a ghostwriter at all, for enzyme assay, two reasons: First, it’s not my idea.
When I ghostwrite a book, I’m sharing someone else’s original thought, not mine. They came up with the style outline research content. Also, most of my clients are fantastic public speakers, people who have been talking about their ideas for ten years or more. My job is just to thesis take their life message and put it into chicago outline research paper, book form. Honestly, it’s a great job, because for each book I write, I feel like I get to assay protocol for cellulase sit at the feet of outline a world class expert and soak up their knowledge. Second, ghostwriting allows me to get paid for my writing.
Few writers can say they can provide for themselves and their families through their writing. Would I prefer to live off my own books? Sure, which is why I still do my own writing at the same time. Assay Protocol For Cellulase? However, ghostwriting has been a great way to apprentice myself to the craft, not to mention learn from some pretty amazing people. Of course, there are certain situations where I don’t think ghostwriting is chicago style outline paper ethical. For example, when an “author” doesn’t give any input in the book past the original idea, is useless trifles essay that ethical? When they don’t even read the book, let alone give feedback about it’s content, is that okay? In my opinion, that’s not an ethical way to approach ghostwriting.
Personally, I only work with people who want to chicago outline be involved in the process, who will work with me to make sure it’s their book , that I’ve correctly captured their ideas, that the voice is still theirs, not just some imitation. How do you become a ghostwriter? That’s a tricky question. All the ghostwriters I know got into it accidentally, and my story is thesis on digital image no different. I was helping a mentor edit his book. Chicago Style Outline? As I read through the draft, it became clear that the book needed a full rewrite. However, while the thesis image enhancement author had written books before, he was too busy leading a large company to chicago style outline research paper take on the writing process.
And so I offered to do it for thesis on digital enhancement, him. How can you become a ghostwriter, though? First, ghostwriting is a referral business, and most of style outline research paper your projects will come through people you’ve already written for. The real question is how do you get your first job. Trifles Essay? Here are a few ideas: Network . Most projects come from chicago style research, busy leaders, including business owners, doctors, public speakers, pastors, and politicians. If you tell enough of these sorts of people you’re a writer, a few of them may tell you they’re working on a book. If they’re not open to having you ghostwrite their book at first, you can offer to help edit or even just critique their book. Who knows? It might turn into your first project. Write in multiple different genres.
If you just write fiction, write a few good non-fiction pieces. Reach out to harvard your local newspaper and ask if there’s a chance you could work on some freelance project on outline research, spec (meaning you’d only get paid if they printed the piece). Start a blog. Showcase your best writing in public. Your blog is your resume. Enzyme Protocol? Don’t write for free, but don’t overcharge either.
You can research how much ghostwriters charge online. Outline? For your first project, choose whatever number that you think your client will accept, even if that’s on the low side. Remember, you’ll be able to charge much more for your second book. Consider charging hourly . Most ghostwriters charge on a per project basis, but for your first book, if your client is open to it, consider charging hourly. You don’t know how much time it will take and it’s likely your client won’t know either. Ask agents . Agents are often approached by people looking for red badge of courage introduction, ghostwriters.
If you know any agents, why not ask them if they have any advice about chicago how to on lawyers get into ghostwriting. Perhaps they’ll give you an assignment, or even a chance to write a proposal for a new book, which, if accepted, you could be hired to write. If you’re thinking about ghostwriting a non-fiction book, I’ve included a general plan below. Note that this plan is chicago research best when you’re working with an author who already has a message, especially with authors who do public speaking. If you’re helping them create the harvard admissions essays content, you’re acting more as a co-author, and so this plan may not be as helpful.
Before you can start writing, you need to know what the style paper book you’re writing is about. The first step, then, is to collaborate with the author to useless create an outline of style his or her book. You should also ask the author to essays recommend several similar titles which you can read as research. (And if they say there are no books like the outline one they want to write, they probably aren’t reading enough. In this case, find similar titles on your own.) 2. Collect Written and harvard essays Recorded Materials. Many authors will already have recordings of speeches, lectures, sermons, or other talks. Collect as many of these recordings as you can, especially recordings that apply to chicago style your topic. The author will likely also have notes or even entire articles about the topic. Enzyme For Cellulase? Make sure to chicago style paper collect these as well. Interviewing your author is a ghostwriter’s most important task.
An hourlong interview can make up an entire chapter in a non-fiction book. Enzyme Assay Protocol? The better your questions and the more you can draw out of your client about the content of chicago paper their book during the interview process, the easier the actual writing will be. Since this is such a crucial step, make sure you have a good recorder for the job. And don’t forget to admissions have a backup recorder as well. Chicago Outline Research Paper? I usually record both on my phone and my laptop (even then, I’ve still lost recordings before). If you’re interviewing your client over phone, you can call them using skype and record it using Call Recorder. Next, transcribe the recorded interviews from audio to text. On Digital Image Enhancement? Transcribing is a time consuming process. It generally takes four to five hours to chicago outline transcribe one hour of persuasive essay recording. I used to transcribe interviews on my own, but now I hire someone to transcribe the interviews for me. The transcriptions of style outline paper your interviews will become the backbone of your book, which is why it’s so important to get a good interview.
You will likely have to image enhancement do a lot of re-writing and editing to chicago style outline make it fit into on digital image, a book format, but as you rewrite, make sure to maintain the author’s voice. Your job isn’t to write a perfect book. Style Outline Paper? Your job is to thesis write your client’s book. Once the outline initial draft is written, give it to the author for feedback. Work with the thesis on lawyers author to make sure the chicago outline paper book sounds like them. If you come to thesis any disagreements about content or phrasings, remember, they always win . It’s their book, not yours. 7. Copyediting, Proofreading, and Beta Reading. As with any book, it will require a lot of editing to make it ready for publication. Here’s a good guide on how to chicago style outline research paper edit until your book is finished. There’s something powerful about helping someone share their message with the world. Ghostwriting is a bit like being a surrogate mother.
You have to harvard do the hard work of bearing the message and bringing the research paper book into the world. Then, when it’s finally finished, you have to say goodbye. On Lawyers? Still, even then, there’s this lingering feeling that it’s your baby. Ghostwriting requires sacrifice. You may have to chicago outline paper sacrifice your creative freedom and enzyme protocol for cellulase right to credit. However, for each of the books I’ve worked on, that sacrifice has been worth it.
I love helping someone share their life message, especially when they probably couldn’t have done it without me. Besides, when people ask me what I do for outline, work at parties, I never get tired of explaining the strange, secret world of useless trifles ghostwriting! Ghostwriting is just writing someone else’s story and capturing their life message, someone who might not be able to write it for themselves. But you don’t need to outline paper be a ghostwriter to do that. For today’s practice, choose someone you admire, whether it’s a friend, family member, or well known celebrity. Then, write a short story about their life from their perspective.
Afterward, you may even want to share it with them! Write for enzyme assay protocol, fifteen minutes.When you’re finished, post your practice in the comments section. And if you share, be sure to leave feedback for your fellow writers. This is an excellent post, Joe! On a subject I’ve never read about before. Thanks for generously sharing your experience.
I’m at work on a ghostwriting project that really excites me. Nice to have you back in the U.S.A.! Exciting to hear about your ghostwriting project, Eva! Thanks. Yes, it’s great to be back. #128578; Great stuff Joe. Chicago Style Outline Paper? From a fellow ghostwriter. Thanks for writing about this. I’ve been interested in ghostwriting since I read Robert Harris’ The Ghost, which is about a ghostwriter working on the memoirs of a former British prime minister. (It’s a really good book and I’d highly recommend it.)
Interesting! I’ll check it out. Thanks Natalie! This was fascinating! I’d actually been meaning to ask you about how you get into image, ghostwriting, so perfect timing. #128521; I love perfect timing. #128578; Thanks for sharing, Joe. This is a topic I’ve wondered about a ton the last few years! You bet, Emily. I hope this helped explain a few things. I wrote a letter for someone once.
She was a Missionary of Charity who hailed from chicago style outline research, Africa, and while she spoke English well enough for me to understand her, she wasn’t confident of her ability to red badge essay introduction communicate in written English. She wanted to chicago style outline paper write a letter to her spiritual director, expressing her frustration and protocol for cellulase doubt as to chicago outline her assignment to Mother Teresa’s House for the Dying in Vatican City. I went there when I was in Rome on thesis on lawyers, a pilgrimage and had time to explore on my own. I was determined to go there, but I had no idea what I would accomplish by doing so, other than quietly exploring a place where the abandoned dying were tended with love and chicago style outline paper tenderness in their last days. I wanted to be close to that, and I wanted to help, somehow, with something. As I was about to leave, the woman at for cellulase, the front desk, who had allowed me to quietly look around, asked if I wouldn’t mind writing a letter for her. I have no idea what her daily life was like, and chicago research all I could do was help her write one letter. We also talked a while after the letter was written. It was, I think, my first and, so far, only experience ghost-writing anything.
There is thesis on lawyers power in it, and I will always be grateful for that experience. God gave me a way to help, after all, though it was such a little thing. Mmm… what a cool experience, Sarah. This could be the subject for a short story, I think. A moment of connection with another person from a different world. Thanks, Joe. Outline Paper? #128578; I made it a subject for a recent blog post (writeitanyway.com), but I honestly hadn’t thought of it as a subject for thesis image enhancement, a short story — though now you’ve got me thinking about it. I have a question I hope you can answer. I’ve tried researching this to no avail. I’ve been doing ghost writing for almost two years now, through online sites such as oDesk and Elance. In the beginning I just did non-fiction articles and reviews. Recently I’ve branched off into fiction, something that began by my writing fan-fiction, and it turns out that I’m pretty damn good at it.
Now to my question. If I ghost write a book, mainly for peanuts, what does the client own? The idea was mine, the characters and world are mine. So does the client, who will be publishing this book under a fictitious name, own only this book, or do they own my characters and world as well? Basically, I want to chicago know if I would be allowed to write a sequel under my own name? How does one find answers to such questions? Any insight would be greatly appreciated. I have been a publication designer for a number of years, but recently have thought about branching out into micro publishing.
I told a friend I would help her self-publish her book and introduction she asked me to do some editing with it. BOY! I started editing, and I couldn’t understand most of the sentences. She had written the entire book (which is a self-help religious book) in two months and hadn’t even reread her own work before passing it off to me as complete. She was determined to chicago outline have it published by thesis, June, but based off the first draft I knew she wouldn’t be able to do it.
So, I’m rewriting her book for her, which gave me the idea to get into ghost writing. Style Paper? Writing has always been a passion of mine, and it never occurred to protocol me until now to give ghostwriting a try. hi there – very helpful read for my recent questions about being new to the business. i was wondering if you had advice on the proposal stage. is style research paper that also the essay ghostwriters job? is that included in the per style outline research, project fee? should it be charged in a separate way? This was a great help. I’m considering having my story ghostwritten, simply because I’m very inexperienced and want people to enjoy it.
Link for those who want to thesis on lawyers work from home as transcriber or editor: https://gotranscript.com/we-are-hiring-transcribers. My Dad asked me to style outline research paper help him write his memoir, and this is the first resource I found on ghostwriting. Thesis On Lawyers? Thank you – it has been very valuable in my attempt to communicate to him on what will be required if this goes ahead.